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COP 11 Decision XI/28

XI/28.Invasive alien species

The Conference of the Parties

Ways and means to address gaps in international standards regarding invasive alien species introduced as pets, as aquarium and terrarium species, and as live bait and live food

1.Takes note of the report of the meeting of the Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group on addressing the risks associated with the introduction of alien species as pets, aquarium and terrarium species, and as live bait and live food (UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA/15/INF/1);
2.Expresses its gratitude to the co-chairs and members of the Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group for their work and to the Governments of Spain and Japan for their financial support;
3.Recognizing the multi-sectoral nature of issues associated with invasive alien species, reiterates that the Guiding Principles adopted in decision VI/23 * continue to provide relevant guidance for addressing the risks associated with the introduction of alien species as pets, aquarium and terrarium species, and as live bait and live food;
4.Encourages Parties and other Governments: (i) to ensure at national level, effective collaboration among national authorities and focal points that deal with the Convention on Biological Diversity, the International Plant Protection Convention, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, (ii) to address threats from invasive alien species, and, (iii) as appropriate, to make full use of existing standards in addressing the risks associated with the introduction of alien species as pets, aquarium and terrarium species, and as live bait and live food;
5.Requests the Executive Secretary, with further input from Parties and members of the Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group and other experts, as required, and in collaboration with the members of the Inter-agency Liaison Group on Invasive Alien Species, with the full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities, and drawing upon the collaborative work of national authorities and industry groups, to prepare proposals for more detailed guidance for Parties on devising and implementing national measures on the introduction of alien species as pets, aquarium and terrarium species, and as live bait and live food, in order to complete the tasks set out in the annex to decision X/38, and to submit it for consideration by the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice before the twelfth meeting of the Conference of the Parties;
6.Recognizing trade and the changes in present-day trade patterns, especially the rapid growth in international web-based market places, including for the sale and purchase of live animal species, as one of the increasingly significant pathways for the introduction of invasive alien species, requests the Executive Secretary:
(a)To compile and disseminate methodologies and instruments in use by law-enforcement, customs and inspection agencies to monitor and control related trade and cross-border movements of alien species introduced as pets, aquarium and terrarium species, and as live bait and live food; and
(b)To collect information on best practices in order to raise public awareness and disseminate guidance to web-based traders;
7.Recognizing the potential risks of the introduction and spread of invasive alien animal species from commercial zoos and safari parks, and breeding and trade centres, resulting from escapes of the animals or the release or escape of animals used as live food, welcomes the development of voluntary codes of conduct on these separate pathways, such as the "Code of conduct on zoological gardens and aquaria and invasive species" developed by the Bern Convention, the IUCN Invasive Species Specialist Group and the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria, and requests the Executive Secretary to compile information and to work with experts to avoid and/or minimize the risks particular to these separate pathways;
8.Concerned about the potential risks associated with the intentional and unintentional release or escape of individuals of captive-bred alien populations and genotypes of pets, aquarium and terrarium species, or species used as live bait and live food, which may have an impact on native genetic diversity, and noting the need to document these and develop guidance on how to deal with them, requests the Executive Secretary to collect case studies and to explore measures, in collaboration with relevant international organizations, on how to deal with such risks;

Ways and means to address gaps in international standards regarding invasive alien species

Recalling paragraphs 2 to 6 of its decision IX/4 A,
9.Encourages Members of the Committee on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures of the World Trade Organization, members of the International Plant Protection Convention and relevant regional plant protection organizations operating within the framework of that Convention, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission, to further address, including by developing and improving international standards, guidelines and recommendations, the risks associated with the introduction of alien species that are a potential threat to biodiversity but are not considered pests to plants, pathogens or parasites that affect domestic animals, or are harmful to human health, taking note that the risks associated with the introduction of alien species may include impacts on ecosystem functioning and biodiversity at the ecosystem, species and gene levels. The Convention on Biological Diversity could offer to collaborate with the Committee on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures on this matter;
10.Welcomes the publication by the International Plant Protection Convention of "Aquatic Plants Their Uses and Risks", which provides information on the protection of plants, including bryophyte and algal species, in marine and aquatic environments;
11.Welcomes with appreciation the Guidelines for Assessing the Risk of Non-native Animals Becoming Invasive, published by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), and encourages Parties and other Governments to make use of these guidelines in addressing the risks of invasive alien animal species;
12.Recognizes the important contribution made by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and encourages the Organisation to pursue its efforts to consider the impact of invasive alien species on ecosystems and animal health, and to provide advice and guidance on the assessment of the risk of invasion of alien species on ecosystems;
13.Further requests the Executive Secretary to continue to pursue the tasks set out in paragraphs 11, 12 and 13 of decision IX/4 A and paragraph 13 of decision X/38, especially regarding progress in its relationship with standard-setting bodies recognized by the World Trade Organization (the International Plant Protection Convention, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), and Codex Alimentarius Commission), and other relevant organizations;
14.Recognizing the relevance, importance and applicability of existing international standards, guidelines and recommendations to addressing the risks associated with the introduction of alien species, and to managing pathways to prevent their introduction and spread, in order to achieve Aichi Biodiversity Target 9 of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, requests the Executive Secretary, in line with paragraph 3 (c) of decision X/38 and in collaboration with the relevant international organizations that set international standards, guidelines and recommendations, to develop, subject to the availability of financial resources, a practical, non-prescriptive toolkit for Parties on applying existing international standards, guidelines and recommendations, and to disseminate it, inter alia, through the clearing-house mechanism of the Convention, no later than the twelfth meeting of the Conference of the Parties. The toolkit should include:
(a)Practical, non-prescriptive advice on how the components of the international regulatory framework can be used by Parties in addressing threats from invasive alien species;
(b)Information on the application of Articles 9.2 and 10 of the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures of the World Trade Organization related to invasive alien species;
(c)Tools and information on relevant risk analysis;
(d)Information on how Parties have developed, integrated and strengthened national strategies on invasive alien species within their national policies;
(e)Lessons learned from countries" experience in risk assessment and the management of alien species by all stakeholders, including border-control officials, traders and consumers, to regulate whether or not a particular species may be imported, kept, bred, or traded; and information on the relative strengths and limitations of listing systems;
(f)Examples of voluntary measures to deal with specific circumstances;
(g)Information on capacity development for the identification of potentially invasive alien species and assessment of relevant pathways;
(h)Information on how national authorities and industry can develop close collaboration to ensure compliance with national regulations on the import of alien species; and
(i)Information on how regional cooperation could harmonize policy on the introduction of alien species as pets, as aquarium and terrarium species, and as live bait and live food;
15.Invites the Committee on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures of the World Trade Organization to consider the application made by the Convention on Biological Diversity for observer status in the Committee and requests the Executive Secretary to actively pursue the application with a view to enhancing the exchange of information on deliberations and recent developments in bodies relevant to invasive alien species, in light of the increasing importance of the ecosystem level when establishing adequate standards;
16.Takes note of Articles 9.2 and 10 of the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures;
17.Recalling Resolution Conf. 13.10 (Rev. CoP14) of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, on trade in alien invasive species, paragraph (a) of which recommends that Parties "consider the problems of invasive species when developing national legislation and regulations that deal with the trade in live animals or plants", and paragraph (b) of which recommends that Parties "consult with the Management Authority of a proposed country of import, when possible and when applicable, when considering exports of potentially invasive species, to determine whether there are domestic measures regulating such imports", acknowledges that implementation of this Resolution by Parties to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species will contribute to the implementation of Article 8(h) of the Convention on Biological Diversity;

Other matters

18.Requests the Executive Secretary to explore methodologies for fostering awareness, promoting education and generating information on invasive alien species for a broad audience, including indigenous and local communities, the public and other stakeholders;
19.Encourages Parties, other Governments and relevant organizations, including local taxonomic institutions, to develop capacity, inter alia in line with the Capacity-Building Strategy for the Global Taxonomy Initiative, so that Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity can meet Aichi Biodiversity Target 9. Emphasis should be placed on developing tools to strengthen the capacity of border control authorities and other competent authorities to identify invasive alien species or potentially invasive alien species, to assess risks and take steps to manage or minimize those risks and to control and eradicate prioritized invasive alien species;
20.Recalling paragraph 7 of decision X/38, welcomes the work of the Global Biodiversity Information Facility to improve the interoperability of online databases and networks and facilitate the use of information necessary to conduct risk and/or impact assessments, and encourages Parties, Governments and relevant institutions and organizations to participate in developing interoperable information systems that can be used in developing early-detection and rapid-response systems;
21.Recognizing the vital importance of access to accurate information on invasive alien species in developing indicators to monitor the progress of achieving Aichi Biodiversity Target 9 and the need to maximize synergies among existing information services, welcomes the development of the Global Invasive Alien Species Information Partnership to further the joint work programme to strengthen information services on invasive alien species, as a contribution towards Aichi Biodiversity Target 9 (UNEP/CBD/COP/11/INF/34);
22.Recognizing also the progress made in developing the Global Invasive Alien Species Information Partnership and its importance in addressing invasive alien species at national, regional and global levels, invites relevant organizations and experts in biological invasion and information science to participate in the Partnership, encourages Parties, other Governments and donors to provide financial support to implement the plan of work, and requests the Executive Secretary to facilitate its implementation;
23.Recognizing further the negative impacts of invasive alien species, and underlining the urgent capacity-development needs of developing countries, invites Parties, other Governments and relevant organizations to continue to provide training opportunities and support for conducting risk analyses and devising appropriate measures in order to achieve Aichi Biodiversity Target 9, and encourages them to coordinate their efforts to maximize effectiveness;
24.Requests the Global Environment Facility, in accordance with its mandate, and invites other donors, to provide adequate and timely financial support to developing countries, in particular the least developed countries and small island developing States among them, as well as countries with economies in transition, including countries that are centres of origin or diversity of genetic resources;

Considerations for future work

25.Recognizing that invasive alien species are one of the main drivers of biodiversity loss, and that their increasing impact on biodiversity and economic sectors has a negative effect on human well-being, emphasizes the need to continue to work on this issue, in order to achieve Aichi Biodiversity Target 9;
26.Requests the Executive Secretary, in collaboration with relevant partners, to:
(a)Assess progress in implementing decisions of the Conference of the Parties on invasive alien species, including decisions that address gaps and inconsistencies in the international regulatory framework as identified in decision VIII/27;
(b)Prepare a preliminary list of the most common pathways for the introduction of invasive alien species, propose criteria for use at regional and subregional levels or other ways by which they may be prioritized, and identify a range of tools that may be used to manage or minimize the risks associated with these pathways; and to report thereon to a meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice before the twelfth meeting of the Conference of the Parties, in order to inform consideration of the need for future work.

* One representative entered a formal objection during the process leading to the adoption of this decision and underlined that he did not believe that the Conference of the Parties could legitimately adopt a motion or a text with a formal objection in place. A few representatives expressed reservations regarding the procedure leading to the adoption of this decision (see UNEP/CBD/COP/6/20, paras. 294-324).
XI/27 XI/29

  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme