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COP 4 Decision IV/5
Retired sections: paragraph I(1), I(2), II(1) to II(3) and annex.

Conservation and sustainable use of marine and coastal biological diversity, including a programme of work

The Conference of the Parties,

I. PROGRAMME OF WORK ARISING FROM DECISION II/10 (JAKARTA MANDATE ON MARINE AND COASTAL BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY)

Reaffirming its decision II/10 on the conservation and sustainable use of marine and coastal biological diversity,

Having considered recommendation III/2 of its Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice,

1. Adopts the programme of work on marine and coastal biological diversity, as contained in the annex to the present decision;

2. Urges Parties, countries, relevant organizations and donor agencies to contribute to the implementation of specific elements of the programme of work;

3. Urges Parties, when requesting for assistance through the financial mechanism of the Convention, to propose projects which, while being fully consistent with previous guidance of the Conferences of the Parties, promote the implementation of the programme of work;

4. Urges the Executive Secretary to cooperate with the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat, where appropriate, in relation to the implementation of the joint work plan having regard to linkages with the programme of work on inland water biological diversity adopted by decision IV/4;

II. CORAL REEFS

Being deeply concerned at the recent extensive and severe coral bleaching, such as that reported by the African countries, caused by abnormally high water temperatures experienced since January 1998,

Recognizing the potentially severe loss of biological diversity and consequent socio-economic impacts, and

Noting this occurrence as a possible consequence of global warming and in light of the precautionary approach,

1. Requests the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice to make an analysis of this phenomenon and provide relevant information to the fifth meeting of the Conference of the Parties for its consideration;

2. Instructs the Executive Secretary to express its concern to the Executive Secretary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Secretary-General of the Convention on Wetlands and convey it to the conferences of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Convention on Wetlands at their next meetings;

3. Invites the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to urgently address this issue in its deliberations; and

4. Urges Parties, with reference to programme element 1.3 (c) of the programme of work, to take appropriate actions to mitigate impacts upon marine and coastal biological diversity and consequent socio-economic effects;


III. SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES

Recognizing the uniqueness and extreme fragility of marine and coastal biological diversity of small island developing States (SIDS), the disproportionate responsibility facing small island developing States in the conservation of these biological resources, and the limited capacity of small island developing States to implement the Jakarta Mandate on Marine and Coastal Biological Diversity,

Strongly recommends to Parties, countries, relevant organizations and donor agencies that the special needs and considerations of small island developing States be a focus for implementing each of the elements of the programme of work, as appropriate.


Annex

PROGRAMME OF WORK ON MARINE AND COASTAL BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY

A. Introduction

1. The aim of this programme of work is to assist the implementation of the Jakarta Mandate on Marine and Coastal Biological Diversity at the national, regional and global levels. It identifies key operational objectives and priority activities within the five key programme elements: integrated marine and coastal area management, marine and coastal living resources, marine and coastal protected areas, mariculture and alien species and genotypes. It also provides a general programme element to encompass the coordination role of the Secretariat, the collaborative linkages required and the effective use of experts.

B. Basic principles

1. Ecosystem approach

2. The ecosystem approach should be promoted at global, regional, national and local levels taking into account the report of the Malawi workshop (document UNEP/CBD/COP/4/Inf.9) and in accordance with decision IV/1 B.

3. Protected areas should be integrated into wider strategies for preventing adverse effects to marine and coastal ecosystems from external activities and take into consideration, inter alia, the provisions of Article 8 of the Convention.

2. Precautionary approach

4. The precautionary approach, as set out in decision II/10, annex II, paragraph 3 (a), should be used as a guidance for all activities affecting marine and coastal biological diversity, being also relevant to many other international agreements, inter alia, the United Nations Agreement on Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks and the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the Washington Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities and regional agreements such as OSPAR.

3. The importance of science

5. Science should, inter alia, provide knowledge on key processes and influences in the marine and coastal ecosystems which are critical for structure, function and productivity of biological diversity. Research should focus on understanding the natural factors outside human influence, including intrinsic factors influencing ecosystems themselves, as well as on human interference with ecosystems.

6. Special efforts should be undertaken to support the Global Taxonomy Initiative in the marine and coastal environment in view of the importance of basic taxonomic work for the implementation of the objectives of the work programme, in accordance with decision IV/1 D.

7. It is important to draw upon regional scientific organizations, such as the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES). The creation and strengthening of regional scientific centres of excellence on the marine and coastal ecosystems, that provide guidance to regional and national managers, should be given priority.

4. Roster of experts

8. The Executive Secretary should make full use of the roster of experts on marine and coastal biological diversity. The use and administration of the roster by the Executive Secretary should be efficient, effective and transparent. Upon request of the Executive Secretary, Parties or other countries and relevant bodies, the experts on the roster are invited to make available their specific expertise in order to contribute to the further development of the scientific, technical, technological and socio-economic issues. Such requests could entail, inter alia, peer reviews, questionnaires, clarifications or examinations of scientific, technical, technological and socio-economic issues, specific contributions to the compilation of documents, participation in the global and regional workshops, and assisting in connecting the Jakarta Mandate and the present programme of work to international, regional, national and local scientific, technical and technological processes.

5. Local and indigenous communities

9. The programme of work will use and draw upon scientific, technical and technological knowledge of local and indigenous communities in keeping with the contents of Article 8(j) of the Convention as well as community and user-based approaches; in the execution of the programme of work, the involvement of relevant stakeholders including indigenous and local people should be promoted.

6. Levels of implementation

10. National and local. The primary basis for this programme of work is action at national and local levels. The Parties should, in accordance with Article 6 of the Convention, develop national strategies, plans and programmes in order to promote the conservation and sustainable use of marine and coastal biological diversity.

11. Regional. At the regional level, organizations, arrangements and bodies should be invited to coordinate activities of and/or relevant to the programme of work. These organizations should as appropriate and according to their own rules of procedure report to the Convention on their activities. Where regional organizations have not been established, the Parties and other institutions should examine the need for new regional organizations or other mechanisms for regional integration. Cooperation and information flow between the economic sectors involved should be promoted. Regional scientific and technical centres of excellence should be promoted.

12. Global. At the global level, UNEP (including the Global International Water Assessment), FAO, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the International Maritime Organization, the United Nations and other relevant bodies should be encouraged to implement the programme of work. These organizations should be invited to inform the Convention on their efforts to implement the Convention.

13. Implementation modalities. This programme of work is the programme of work of the Parties and of the Secretariat. The main function of the Secretariat is to promote the implementation of specific activities and to perform an overall coordination role.

14. Activities associated with the programme of work should be cost-effective and efficient. Duplication of efforts will be avoided, and harmonization of respective programmes of work will be pursued through strong coordination between the Convention and other relevant bodies, with a particular view to the list of partner organizations mentioned in decision II/10, paragraph 13, and the Convention on Wetlands.

C. Programme elements

Programme element 1. Implementation of integrated marine and coastal area management (IMCAM)

Operational objective 1.1: To review the existing instruments relevant to IMCAM and their implication for the implementation of the Convention.

Activities:

    (a) To identify existing mechanisms and instruments relevant to IMCAM;
    (b) To identify focal points for the implementation of IMCAM at different levels (national, regional and global);
    (c) Secretariat to gather, compare and analyse information provided by the focal points;
    (d) To convene meetings involving representatives of stakeholders at different levels.

Time schedule: 1998-2000 (minimum three-year period)

Ways and means: The activities will be carried out by the Executive Secretary, with the collaboration of an informal inter-agency task force.

Budgetary implications: Costs related to communications and staff travel to inter-agency meetings and to service meetings. Costs related to convening of meeting of stakeholders on the integration of marine and coastal biological diversity into sectoral policies.

Operational objective 1.2: To promote the development and implementation of IMCAM at the local, national and regional level.

Activities:

(a) To promote, within the framework of IMCAM, the integration of biological diversity concerns in all socio-economic sectors adversely impacting the marine and coastal environment;

(b) To promote the identification or establishment of subregional, regional or global processes for developing advice on the application of IMCAM and issues identified under the operational objective;

(c) To promote adequate protection of areas important for reproduction such as spawning and nursery areas and restoration of such areas and other important habitats for marine living resources;

(d) To promote action to reduce and control sea-based sources of pollution;

(e) To assist the development of national and regional capacity-building;

(f) To provide information on relevant legal and institutional issues, having regard to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and other related international and regional agreements;

(g) To assist the development of appropriate education and public awareness programmes at all levels;

(h) To provide guidance on maintenance and wider application of local and traditional knowledge.

Time schedule: 1998-2000 (minimum three-year period)

Ways and means: The activities should be carried out by the Executive Secretary in collaboration with relevant organizations.

Budgetary implications: No significant budgetary implications.

Operational objective 1.3: To develop guidelines for ecosystem evaluation and assessment, paying attention to the need to identify and select indicators, including social and abiotic indicators, that distinguish between natural and human-induced effects.

Activities:

(a) To promote the development of sets of indicators on which to base decision-making; and convene regional workshops to help select key indicators;

(b) To identify existing organizations and initiatives;

(c) To promote the identification of key habitats for marine living resources on a regional basis, with a view to further develop policies for action to prevent physical alteration and destruction of these habitats, and pursue restoration of degraded habitats, including, inter alia, coral reef systems;

(d) To promote the establishment or strengthening of mechanisms for research, monitoring and assessment of marine and coastal ecosystems and their living resources;

(e) To promote exchange of information and experience using the clearing-house mechanism and other appropriate mechanisms;

(f) To collaborate with relevant organizations in the preparation of guidelines;

Time schedule: 1998-2000 (minimum three-year programme)

Ways and means: The activities should be carried out by the Executive Secretary and the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice, as part of the work programme on indicators, monitoring and assessment and in collaboration with relevant organizations.

Budgetary implications: Budgetary implications will be covered under the programmes of work on indicators, monitoring and assessment and public education, training and awareness. Voluntary contributions for regional workshops on indicators and public education, training and awareness activities are needed.

Programme element 2. Marine and coastal living resources

Operational objective 2.1: To promote ecosystem approaches to the sustainable use of marine and coastal living resources, including the identification of key variables or interactions, for the purpose of assessing and monitoring, first, components of biological diversity; second, the sustainable use of such components; and, third, ecosystem effects.

Activities:

(a) To develop collaborative links with relevant organizations and institutions;

(b) To promote the exchange of information and experience using appropriate mechanisms;

(c) To promote the identification and development of ecosystem approaches compatible with the sustainable use of marine and coastal living resources;

(d) To promote the identification both of components of the ecosystems which are critical to the functioning of the ecosystem and of key threats;

(e) To promote capacity-building at local, national and regional levels, including local and traditional knowledge;

(f) To carry out a study on the effects of stock enhancement on marine and coastal biological diversity at the species and genetic levels.

Time schedule: 1998-2000 (minimum three-year period)

Ways and means: The Executive Secretary shall promote the undertaking of the activities by relevant organizations and institutions. The information dissemination aspects should be included in the work plan of the clearing-house mechanism unit. The Executive Secretary shall attempt to establish an informal inter-agency task force for this work.

Budgetary implications: Costs related to communications and travel to inter-agency meetings. Relevant organizations are invited to conduct the study, within the framework of existing cooperative arrangements. Additional contributions from Parties, countries and organizations in the organization of capacity building activities are expected.

Operational objective 2.2: To make available to the Parties information on marine and coastal genetic resources, including bioprospecting.

Activity

To explore ways to expand the knowledge base on which to make informed and appropriate decisions about how this area might be managed in accordance with the objectives of the Convention.

Time schedule:1998/ongoing

Ways and means: The activity should be implemented by the Executive Secretary, making full use of the roster of experts.

Budgetary implications: No significant budgetary implications.


Programme element 3. Marine and coastal protected areas

Operational objective 3.1: To facilitate research and monitoring activities related to the value and the effects of marine and coastal protected areas or similarly restricted management areas on sustainable use of marine and coastal living resources.

Activities:

(a) To collaborate with relevant organizations in the preparation of project proposals;

(b) To work with relevant organizations to identify pilot projects;

(c) To conduct a desk study to gather and assimilate information;

(d) To identify the linkages between conservation and sustainable use;

(e) To facilitate Parties, countries or international/regional organizations in conducting research on the effects of marine and coastal protected or closed areas on population size and dynamics, subject to national legislation.

Time schedule: 1998-onwards (three to five-year period)

Ways and means: The Executive Secretary, in collaboration with relevant organizations and agencies, involving also funding agencies or donor countries, will facilitate and assist in the preparation of project documents and identify pilot projects for research and monitoring, as well as conduct the desk study. The projects should be undertaken by Parties and countries or competent organizations. The Executive Secretary, starting from the roster of experts, will select the names of an ad hoc technical expert group and elaborate the terms of reference for it, both to be endorsed by the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice. The expert group will carry out its activities under the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice and will work through electronic correspondence and teleconferences.

Budgetary implications: Costs related to communications. Additional voluntary contributions are needed from Parties or donor countries or funding agencies to fund the projects, the amount depending on the number, nature and scale of the projects.

Operational objective 3.2: To develop criteria for the establishment of, and for management aspects of, marine and coastal protected areas.

Activities:

(a) To compile research findings on aspects of marine and coastal protected areas relevant to their selection, design, establishment and management;

(b) To assist in developing criteria for selection of marine and coastal protected areas, where critical habitats for marine living resources should be one important criterion;

(c) Using the clearing-house mechanism, to assist the exchange of information on research, management issues and problems (including incentive measures) between marine protected area managers, to facilitate continuous improvement in management effectiveness across the global network of marine protected areas;

(d) To implement activities as in subparagraphs (e) to (h) under operational objective 1.2.

Time schedule: 1998-2000 (minimum three-year programme)

Ways and means: The basis for undertaking these activities should be collaboration between the Executive Secretary, under the guidance of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice, and relevant international, national and non-governmental organizations. The creation of an informal task force may be an appropriate mechanism, conducting its work through regular communication and through periodic meetings as required.

Budgetary implications: Costs related to communications and to staff travel to inter-agency meetings and to service meetings.

Programme element 4. Mariculture

Operational objectives: To assess the consequences of mariculture for marine and coastal biological diversity and promote techniques which minimize adverse impact.

Activities:

(a) To provide guidance on criteria, methods and techniques which avoid the adverse effects of mariculture and also subsequent stock enhancement on marine and coastal biological diversity and enhance the positive effects of mariculture on marine and coastal productivity;

(b) To collect and disseminate information, data, literature and bibliography relevant to the operational objective and best practice of successful sustainable mariculture, including the use of local species where appropriate;

(c) To evaluate the current state of scientific and technological knowledge on the effects of mariculture on marine and coastal biological diversity.

Time schedule: 1999-onwards (minimum three-year period)

Ways and means: Coordination of this programme of activities within the Secretariat creates the need for a professional with specific high-level expertise. This need could probably best be met through the secondment by a Party or specialized institution of an appropriate professional. To be successful and cost-effective, the work would need to draw upon specialist scientific knowledge world-wide. It would thus need to be supported by the establishment of an ad hoc technical expert group under the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice, taking into consideration the roster of experts. Operational aspects thus suggest that this work be undertaken from 1999 onwards.

Budgetary implications: Voluntary contribution by a Party or institution to cover the costs of the secondee. Costs for communications and travel to service meetings. Costs related to the convening of expert meeting(s).

Programme element 5. Alien species and genotypes

Operational objective 5.1: To achieve better understanding of the causes of the introduction of alien species and genotypes and the impact of such introductions on biological diversity.

Activities:

(a) To analyse and disseminate information, data and case-studies on the subject;

(b) To develop collaboration with relevant organizations;

(c) To ensure exchange of information and experience, using appropriate mechanisms.

Time schedule: 1998-2000 (minimum three-year period)

Ways and means: The Executive Secretary, under the guidance of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice, will seek the assistance of relevant organizations through an informal inter­agency task force. In particular, the options will be investigated for collaboration with UNEP, the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE), the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) and the World Conservation Union (IUCN) Invasive Species Specialist Group and the Global Invasive Species Programme in the development of a global strategy and action plan. In carrying out this work, it is expected that Parties or specialized institutions will second a specialist.

Budgetary implications: Voluntary contribution by a Party or institution to cover the costs of the secondee. Costs for communications.

Operational objective 5.2: To identify gaps in existing or proposed legal instruments, guidelines and procedures to counteract the introduction of and the adverse effects exerted by alien species and genotypes which threaten ecosystems, habitats or species, paying particular attention to transboundary effects; and to collect information on national and international actions to address these problems, with a view to prepare for the development of a scientifically-based global strategy for dealing with the prevention, control and eradication of those alien species which threaten marine and coastal ecosystems, habitats and species.

Activities:

(a) To request views and information from Parties, countries and other bodies;

(b) To analyse the information for the purpose of identifying gaps in legal instruments, guidelines and procedures;

(c) To evaluate the information on the effectiveness of efforts to prevent the introduction of, and to control or eradicate, those alien species which may threaten ecosystems, habitats or species;

(d) To identify means to support capacity-building in developing countries to strengthen their ability to conduct work related to alien species.

Time schedule: 1998-2000 (minimum three-year period)

Ways and means: The activities will be carried out by the Executive Secretary, in collaboration with Parties, countries and other relevant bodies and in cooperation with UNEP, IOC and IMO. It is proposed that a conference with global participation be held and that a Party or specialized institution will be able to host the conference. It is anticipated that the peer review process will be followed for the output of this programme activity.

Budgetary implications: Costs related to communications and staff travel servicing the conference. Voluntary contributions for holding the conference are needed.

Operational objective 5.3: To establish an "incident list" on introductions of alien species and genotypes through the national reporting process or any other appropriate means.

Activities:

(a) To distil references of incidents from the national reports and other appropriate sources;

(b) To make the information available through the clearing-house mechanism or other appropriate mechanisms.

Time schedule: Such information gathering can begin immediately and be informed by national reports as they are provided.

Ways and means: Secretariat

Budgetary implications: Costs related to additional staff time within the national reports unit and the clearing-house mechanism unit.

Programme element 6. General

Operational objective 6.1: To assemble a database of initiatives on programme elements through a cooperative approach with relevant organizations and bodies, with special emphasis on integrated marine and coastal areas management.

Activities:

(a) To identify sources of relevant information and to make this readily available;

(b) To request inputs from Parties, countries and relevant organizations and bodies;

(c) To carry out desk evaluations with the assistance of the roster of experts of available information and to disseminate the findings through the clearing-house mechanism.

Time schedule: 1998-2000 (minimum three-year programme)

Ways and means: Secretariat.

Budgetary implications: Costs related to additional staff time within the clearing-house mechanism unit associated with the design of appropriate databases and posting information.

Operational objective 6.2: To develop a database of experts from the roster and other sources, to be available for the development and implementation of specific elements of national policies on marine and coastal biological diversity, giving full recognition to the importance of taxonomy and following closely the development of the Global Taxonomy Initiative and in accordance with decision IV/1 D. Special consideration should be given to regional perspectives and the setting up of regional centres of taxonomic expertise, as well as to the taxonomy efforts of other intergovernmental programmes, agencies and relevant institutions.

Activities:

(a) To maintain and update regularly a database of experts on marine and coastal biological diversity;

(b) To make the information available through the clearing-house mechanism;

(c) To promote the strengthening of taxonomic expertise at regional and national levels.

Time schedule: Ongoing

Ways and means: Secretariat, also through relevant organizations, in particular those that deal with taxonomic issues.

Budgetary implications: Costs related to additional staff time within the clearing-house mechanism unit associated with the design of the database and of the Jakarta Mandate on Marine and Coastal Biological Diversity home page.

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