العربية  |  English  |  Español  |  Français  |  Русский

SBSTTA 10 Recommendations

SBSTTA 10 Recommendation X/5

Indicators for assessing progress towards, and communicating, the 2010 target at the global level

    The Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice,

    Recalling the guidance provided in decision VII/30 on the identification, development and use of indicators and ways of communicating progress towards the 2010 biodiversity target,

    Emphasizing the value of indicators to evaluate achievements and progress in the implementation of the three objectives of the Convention and the achievement by 2010 of a significant reduction in the current rate of loss of biological diversity,

    Aware of the need for strengthening national capacities, especially in developing countries, in particular the least developed and small island developing States among them, and countries with economies in transition, to enable them to contribute to the indicators used for assessing progress towards the 2010 target and, where so desired by Parties, to use the same indicators at the regional, subregional, national and local levels as tools for the implementation of the Convention and of national biodiversity strategies and action plans,

    1.       Welcomes the report of the Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group on Indicators for Assessing Progress Towards the 2010 Biodiversity Target (UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA/10/INF/7);

    2.       Expresses its appreciation to:

    (a)      The Governments of the Netherlands, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America for their financial support of the meeting;

    (b)      Other Governments and organizations for the participation of their representatives;

    (c)      The Co-Chairs and all the members of the Group for their contributions;

    3.      Confirms the suitability of those indicators considered by the Conference of the Parties as ready for immediate testing and use;

    4.      Considers the following indicators ready for immediate testing, while recognizing that data availability and/or indicator methodology may require improvement prior to 2010:

    (a)      Change in status of threatened species;

    (b)      Trends in genetic diversity of domesticated animals, cultivated plants, and fish species of major socio-economic importance;

    (c)      Area of forest, agricultural and aquaculture ecosystems under sustainable management;

    (d)      Trends in invasive alien species; [9]/

    (e)      Connectivity/fragmentation of ecosystems;

    5.      In respect to the indicators mentioned in paragraph 4 above, given the broad nature of these indicators, recommends that various sources of data could be used, including, but not limited to, the following:

    (a)      The application of the Red List Index approach, developed by the Red List Consortium (IUCN, BirdLife International, Conservation International and NatureServe), to selected taxonomic and ecological/functional groups for which data exist, as an indicator of Change in status of threatened species;

    (b)      The use of suitable data on both in situ and ex situ conservation, including genetic diversity of tree species of socio-economic importance, as an indicator of Trends in genetic diversity of domesticated animals, cultivated plants, and fish species of major socio-economic importance;

    (c)      The use of a range of parameters, including, where appropriate, but not limited to, the area under certified production systems, biological corridors, and areas under community management, as an indicator of Area of forest, agricultural and aquaculture ecosystems under sustainable management;

    (d)      Recognizing the limited global data on invasive alien species and the lack of a consistent approach towards calculating cost of alien invasions, to draw on the information available at the national level and data available through the Global Invasive Species Information Network (GISIN);

    (e)      The initial application of the indicator on Connectivity/fragmentation of ecosystems to forest and inland water ecosystems;

    6.      Further recommends the urgent development of the indicators identified by the Conference of the Parties and the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice at its tenth meeting as requiring further work;

    7.      Reaffirms the importance for the relevant open-ended working groups to develop global headline indicators on the Status of traditional knowledge, innovations and practices and on the Status of access and benefit-sharing;

    8.      Invites the organizations listed in annex I to this recommendation to contribute the data and analysis required for the delivery of the indicators, and the Parties and other Governments to facilitate this task, including by collecting and sharing information relevant to each indicator, inter alia by contributing such information to relevant databases;

    9.      Invites Parties, other Governments, and national, regional and international organizations that have data sets relevant to assessing progress towards the 2010 target to contribute pro-actively through the provision of relevant information to the realization of the second edition of the Global Biodiversity Outlook;

    10. Notes that the indicators can be used to assess progress towards the goals and sub-targets adopted in decision VII/30 as set out in annex II to this recommendation;

    11.      Calls for urgent increased capacity-building efforts and financial support to developing countries, in particular the least developed and small island developing States among them, and countries with economies in transition, to the organizations listed in annex I to the present recommendation to facilitate their contributions to the use, testing and further development of the indicators relevant to the 2010 target.

    12.       Requests the Executive Secretary to:

    (a)      Develop an overall delivery plan for the indicators, data and analyses, taking into account the timetable for developing the Global Biodiversity Outlook, clarifying the arrangements and responsibilities for development and delivery of the indicators, setting out the roles of the Secretariat, the World Conservation Monitoring Centre of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP-WCMC), and other relevant international organizations, taking into account information provided through national reports, voluntary reports, indicators in use by Parties, other Governments and relevant organizations;

    (b     ) Prepare a full characterization of the methods, technical limitations and the availability of data sources for the calculation of the indicators, and the validity of making global estimates;

    (c)      Report on progress made in the development of the indicators listed in annex I to this recommendation at the eleventh meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice, and, if necessary, and subject to the availability of resources, convene another meeting of an ad hoc technical expert group to facilitate this task and provide additional scientific advice to the Subsidiary Body;

    (d)      Develop and submit, for consideration by the Conference of the Parties at its eighth meeting, an information strategy to ensure that the indicators, data and analyses are periodically available over the coming years to support policy intervention and communication with respect to the 2010 target;

    (e)      Explore options for reporting on the impact of climate change on biological diversity, using the framework of indicators relevant to the 2010 target and report thereon to the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice at its eleventh meeting;

    (f)      Explore options for the identification of process indicators for the four global goals for the Strategic Plan of the Convention, and report thereon to the Open-ended Working Group on the Review of Implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity and to the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice at its eleventh meeting.

    13.      Invites the Open-ended Working Group on the Review of Implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity to consider the linkages between the process for assessing progress towards the 2010 target, including the use of indicators, and national reporting, with a view to streamlining future national reporting.


Annex I

Summary of indicator status and work that needs to be carried out

Headline Indicator [10]/

Status[11]/

Potential Measures

Data available now?

Method-ology available now?

Possible sources of data

Organizations to coordinate delivery of indicator

Trends in extent of selected biomes, ecosystems, and habitats [12]/

B

Forests, and forest types (e.g. mangroves)

Yes

Yes

FRA (FAO); EU-JRC, NASA Modland; Corine land cover (see appendix 2 to the AHTEG report)

UNEP-WCMC (with FAO, NASA-NGO Conservation Working Group and other relevant partners)

Peatlands

Yes

Yes

Various national datasets and remote-sensing (see appendix 2 to the AHTEG report)

Coral reefs

Yes

Yes

GCRMN/Reefcheck

Croplands

Yes

Yes

National regional datasets and remote-sensing (see appendix 2 to the AHTEG report), MA

(Natural) grasslands

Yes

Yes

Remote-sensing (see appendix 2 to the AHTEG report), MA

Polar/ice

Yes

Yes

Remote-sensing( see appendix 2 to the AHTEG report), MA

Inland wetlands

No

No

Remote-sensing (see appendix 2 to the AHTEG report), MA

Tidal flats/estuaries

No

No

Remote-sensing (see appendix 2 to the AHTEG report), MA

Seagrasses

No

No

Seagrass Atlas, MA

Dry and sub-humid lands

No

No

LADA, Remote-sensing (see appendix 2), MA

Urban

No

No

Remote-sensing (see appendix 2), MA

Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species

B

Living Planet Index

Yes

Yes

WWF

UNEP-WCMC (WWF, Birdlife International and others, encouraged to review and refine methodology for calculation of index; These groups and IUCN encouraged to compare and share data with that used for the Red List Index.) Indices could be developed from data disaggregated (e.g.: migratory species, wetland species))

Various species assemblage-trends indices

Yes

Yes

Birdlife International and partners, others

Coverage of protected areas

B

Coverage according to World List of Protected areas.

Yes

Yes

WCMC/WCPA

UNEP-WCMC/IUCN-WCPA

Ecological networks and corridors

Yes

Could be developed

MBC, PEEN etc.

Overlays with areas of key importance to biodiversity

Yes

Yes

WCMC, WCPA, BirdLife International

Inclusion on community and private protected areas

No

No

 

Management effectiveness

No

No

 

Change in status of threatened species

B

Red List Index (IUCN-SSC)

Yes

Yes

Red List Consortium

Red List Consortium (Methodological refinements requested)

Trends in genetic diversity of domesticated animals, cultivated plants, and fish species of major socioeconomic importance B Ex situ crop collections Yes Could be develop FAO (SOW, WIEWS); IPGRI (CGIAR-SINGER); Fishbase FAO with IPGRI on behalf of CGIAR
Livestock genetic resources Yes Could be developed FAO (DADIS)
Fish genetic resources Yes Could be developed FAO; Fishbase
Tree genetic resources Some Could be developed REFORGEN database of FAO; OECD
Varieties on-farm Some Could be developed FAO, IPGRI, OECD
Area of forest, agricultural and aquaculture ecosystems under sustainable management

B

 

Existing data sets for measuring sustainability of agriculture, aquaculture and forestry, including FAO reports, Certification, and Ecological corridors and community-based management areas, and wildlife sustainable management schemes

Yes

Yes

FAO reports;

Certification bodies (e.g., FSC, MSC, ISO, PEFC, CSA, SFI, LEI); MBC; Parties

 

UNEP-WCMC with FAO

Proportion of products derived from sustainable sources

C

 

No

No

Equilibrium/WWF/World Bank/TNC intend to propose some indicators

SCBD

Ecological footprint and related concepts

C [13]/

Ecological footprint

Yes

Yes,

FAO, IAE, IPCC, UNEP-WCMC

Ecological  Footprint network

Other measures of the area of land and sea needed to support production of goods and deliver services

Some

Some

 

SCBD and UNEP-WCMC

Nitrogen deposition

B

 

Yes

Yes

Available (INI)

models for 2010 could be developed with additional effort

INI with UNEP-WCMC

Trends in invasive alien species [14]/

B

Numbers and cost of alien invasive species

Yes - some areas

Yes

Various, particularly national data sets

GISP

Other measures to be identified and developed

Some

No

 

Marine Trophic Index

B

 

Yes

Yes

Available (UBC)

UBC

Water quality of freshwater ecosystems

B

Indicator of biological oxygen demand (BOD), nitrates and sediments/ turbidity

Yes

Yes

UNEP-GEMS/Water Programme

UNEP-GEMS/Water Programme

Trophic integrity of other ecosystems

C

 

No

No

 

SCBD to assemble available information

Connectivity / fragmentation of ecosystems

B

Patch size distribution of terrestrial habitats (forests and possibly other habitat types)

Yes

Yes

NASA Consortium; CI; WWF-US based on remote sensing data

UNEP-WCMC (with FAO, CI, NASA-NGO Conservation Working Group and USDA-FS)

 

Fragmentation of river systems

Yes

Yes

WRI

Incidence of human-induced ecosystem failure

C

(see notes)

Some

No

SCBD to assemble available information for later consideration

SCBD/UNEP-WCMC

Health and well-being of communities who depend directly on local ecosystem goods and services [15]/

C

 

No

No

To be identified

SCBD

Biodiversity for food and medicine

C

 

Some

No

FAO, IPGRI, WHO and others

SCBD

Status and trends of linguistic diversity and numbers of speakers of indigenous languages

B

 

Yes

Under review

UNESCO World Atlas of Endangered Languages; Ethnologue: Languages of the World - Fifteenth Edition

UNESCO with UNEP-WCMC

(Smithsonian Institution requested to explore possible application of Red List methodology)

Other indicator of the status of indigenous and traditional knowledge

C

 

No

No

To be considered by the Working Group on Article 8(j) (possibly including land-tenure of indigenous and local communities)

SCBD

Indicator of access and benefit-sharing

C

 

No

No

To be considered by the Working Group on Access and Benefit-sharing

SCBD

Official development assistance provided in support of the Convention

B

Official development assistance as marked

Some

Yes

Donor countries encouraged to mark data

OECD (OECD is working on this for a trial period)

Indicator of technology transfer

C

 

No

No

Countries invited to submit information. The Expert Group on Technology Transfer may wish to consider this matter.

SCBD


Annex II

INDICATORS RELEVANT TO THE 2010 GOALS AND SUB-TARGETS

Goals and targets

Relevant headline indicators

Protect the components of biodiversity

Goal 1. Promote the conservation of the biological diversity of ecosystems, habitats and biomes

Target 1.1: At least 10% of each of the world's ecological regions effectively conserved.

Most relevant indicator:

  • Coverage of protected areas

Other relevant indicators:

  • Trends in extent of selected biomes, ecosystems and habitats

  • Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species

Target 1.2: Areas of particular importance to biodiversity protected

Relevant indicators:

  • Trends in extent of selected biomes, ecosystems and habitats

  • Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species

  • Coverage of protected areas

Goal 2. Promote the conservation of species diversity

Target 2.1: Restore, maintain, or reduce the decline of populations of species of selected taxonomic groups.

Most relevant indicator:

  • Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species

Other relevant indicator:

  • Change in status of threatened species

Target 2.2: Status of threatened species improved. 

Most relevant indicator:

  • Change in status of threatened species

Other relevant indicators:

  • Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species

  • Coverage of protected areas

Goal 3. Promote the conservation of genetic diversity

Target 3.1: Genetic diversity of crops, livestock, and of harvested species of trees, fish and wildlife and other valuable species conserved, and associated indigenous and local knowledge maintained.

Most relevant indicator:

  • Trends in genetic diversity of domesticated animals, cultivated plants, and fish species of major socio-economic importance

Other relevant indicators:

  • Biodiversity used in food and medicine (indicator under development)

  • Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species

Promote sustainable use.

Goal 4. Promote sustainable use and consumption

Target 4.1: Biodiversity-based products derived from sources that are sustainably managed, and Production areas managed consistent with the conservation of biodiversity.

Most relevant indicators:

  • Area of forest, agricultural and aquaculture ecosystems under sustainable management

  • Proportion of products derived from sustainable sources (indicator under development)

Other relevant indicators:

  • Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species

  • Marine trophic index

  • Nitrogen deposition

  • Water quality in aquatic ecosystems

Target 4.2 Unsustainable consumption, of biological resources, or that impacts upon biodiversity, reduced.

Relevant indicator:

  • Ecological footprint and related concepts (indicator under development)

Target 4.3: No species of wild flora or fauna endangered by international trade.

Most relevant indicator:

  • Change in status of threatened species

Address threats to biodiversity.

Goal 5. Pressures from habitat loss, land use change and degradation, and unsustainable water use, reduced.

Target 5.1: Rate of loss and degradation of natural habitats decreased.

Most relevant indicator:

  • Trends in extent of selected biomes, ecosystems and habitats

Other relevant indicators:

  • Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species

  • Marine trophic index

Goal 6. Control threats from invasive alien species

Target 6.1: Pathways for major potential alien invasive species controlled.

Relevant indicator:

  • Trends in invasive alien species

Target 6. 2: Management plans in place for major alien species that threaten ecosystems, habitats or species.

Relevant indicator:

  • Trends in invasive alien species

Goal 7. Address challenges to biodiversity from climate change, and pollution

Target 7.1: Maintain and enhance resilience of the components of biodiversity to adapt to climate change.

Relevant indicator:

  • Connectivity/fragmentation of ecosystems

Target 7.2: Reduce pollution and its impacts on biodiversity.

Nitrogen deposition

Water quality in aquatic ecosystems

Maintain goods and services from biodiversity to support human well-being

Goal 8. Maintain capacity of ecosystems to deliver goods and services and support livelihoods

Target 8.1: Capacity of ecosystems to deliver goods and services maintained.

Relevant indicators:

  • Biodiversity used in food and medicine (indicator under development)

  • Water quality in aquatic ecosystems

  • Marine trophic index

Target 8.2: biological resources that support sustainable livelihoods, local food security and health care, especially of poor people maintained.

Most relevant indicator:

  • Health and well-being of communities who depend directly on local ecosystem goods and services

Other relevant indicator:

  • Biodiversity used in food and medicine

Protect traditional knowledge, innovations and practices

Goal 9 Maintain socio-cultural diversity of indigenous and local communities

Target 9.1 Protect traditional knowledge, innovations and practices.

Most relevant indicator:

  • Status and trends of linguistic diversity and numbers of speakers of indigenous languages

Other relevant indicator:

  • Additional indicators to be developed

Target 9.2: Protect the rights of indigenous and local communities over their traditional knowledge, innovations and practices, including their rights to benefit-sharing.

Indicator to be developed

Ensure the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the use of genetic resources

Goal 10. Ensure the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the use of genetic resources

Target 10.1: All transfers of genetic resources are in line with the Convention on Biological Diversity, the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and other applicable agreements.

Indicator to be developed

Target 10.2: Benefits arising from the commercial and other utilization of genetic resources shared with the countries providing such resources.

Indicator to be developed

Ensure provision of adequate resources

Goal 11: Parties have improved financial, human, scientific, technical and technological capacity to implement the Convention

Target 11.1: New and additional financial resources are transferred to developing country Parties, to allow for the effective implementation of their commitments under the Convention, in accordance with Article 20.

Most relevant indicator:

  • Official development assistance provided in support of the Convention

Target 11.2: Technology is transferred to developing country Parties, to allow for the effective implementation of their commitments under the Convention, in accordance with its Article 20, paragraph.

Indicator to be developed


Annex III

LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

AHTEG Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group

BOD Biochemical oxygen demand

CBD Convention on Biological Diversity

CGIAR Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research

CI Conservation International

COP Conference of the Parties

CSA Canadian Standards Association

DADIS Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of FAO

EGTT Expert Group on Technology Transfer

EU-JRC Joint Research Centre of the European Union

FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

FRA Forest Resources Assessment of FAO

FSC Forest Stewardship Council

GBO Global Biodiversity Outlook

GCRMN Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network

GEMS Global Environment Monitoring System of UNEP

GISIN Global Invasive Species Information Network

GISP Global Invasive Species Programme

ICSU International Council for Science

IGBP International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme

INI International Nitrogen Initiative: a Joint Programme of SCOPE and IGBP

IPGRI International Plant Genetic Resources Institute

ISO International Organization for Standardization

IUCN The World Conservation Union

LADA Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands, a project of FAO

LEI Lembaga Ekolabeling Institute

LPI Living Planet Index

MA Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

MBC Meso-American Biological Corridor

MSC Marine Stewardship Council

NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NGO non-governmental organization

ODA official development assistance

OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

PEEN Pan-European Ecological Network

PEFC Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes

PGRFA plant genetic resources for food and agriculture

REFORGEN The FAO Global Information System on Forest Genetic Resources

RLI Red List Index

SBSTTA Subsidiary Body on Scientific Technical and Technological Advice

SCBD Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity

SCOPE ICSU Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment

SFI Sustainable Forestry Initiative

SINGER System-wide Information Network for Genetic Resources (for CGIAR)

SOW1 first report on the State of the World's Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. FAO, Rome 1997.

SSC Species Survival Commission of IUCN

TNC The Nature Conservancy

UBC University of British Columbia

UNEP United Nations Environment Programme

UNEP-WCMC World Conservation Monitoring Centre of UNEP

UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

USDA United States Department of Agriculture

WCPA World Commission on Protected Areas of IUCN

WHO World Health Organization

WIEWS World Information and Early Warning System on PGRFA

WRI World Resources Institute

WWF World Wide Fund for Nature

WWF-US World Wildlife Fund United States







[9]/ SBSTTA recommends a rewording of the title of this indicator from that contained in decision VII/30 (Numbers and cost of alien invasions).

[10]/ Bold = Indicator considered ready for immediate testing and use (column B in decision VII/30); Bold italic = Indicator considered ready for immediate testing and use and therefore recommended for upgrading from column C to column B; Regular = Indicator confirmed as requiring more work (to remain in column C)

[11]/ B = Indicator is considered ready for immediate testing and use; C = Indicator requires further work

[12]/ Based on current and short-term future availability of trend information, the following major ecosystem types are recommended for immediate indicator implementation: (i) forests (including different forest types, notably mangroves), (ii) peatlands (probably for certain geographic areas only by 2010), (iii) coral reefs, (iv) croplands, (v) grasslands/savannahs, (vi) polar/ice. Efforts should also be made to apply the indicator to the following ecosystem types, for which suitable global datasets need to be gathered, to ensure coverage of all thematic areas recognized by the Convention: (i) inland wetlands, (ii) tidal flats/estuaries, (iii) seagrass beds, (iv) dry and sub-humid lands, and (v) urban.

[13]/ New indicator recommended by SBSTTA at its tenth meeting.

[14]/ SBSTTA recommends a rewording of the title of this indicator from that contained in decision VII/30 (Numbers and cost of alien invasions).

[15]/ The indicator from decision VII/30 (Health and well-being of people living in biodiversity-based-resource dependent communities) was reworded to clarify the focus on local dependency. 

  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme