The Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice
Welcomes the report of the Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group on Protected Areas (UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA/9/INF/3);
Express its appreciation to:
(a) The Government of Sweden for its financial support of the Expert Group meeting;
(b) Other Governments and organizations for the participation of their representatives;
(c) The co-chairs and all the members of the Expert Group for their contributions;
Welcomes the outcomes of the Fifth IUCN World Parks Congress and, in particular, the Congress Message to the Convention on Biological Diversity;
4. Welcomes the pledge made by the consortium of international non-governmental organizations 1/ on the occasion of the ninth meeting of SBSTTA to provide and mobilize financial, technical and other support for the implementation of the programme of work on protected areas under the Convention and thus contribute to the achievement of the 2010 target pursuant to decision VI/26; and invites other donor agencies, intergovernmental organizations, private sector, and others to make similar pledges.
5. Also welcomes the proposal made by the same consortium for the establishment of a cooperative partnership on protected areas of public agencies and non-governmental organizations that could contribute to the operationalization of the programme of work with focused and coordinated support for capacity building, mobilization of additional funding, technical and other assistance.
6. Recommends that the Conference of the Parties:
(a) Confirms that efforts to establish and maintain systems of protected areas and areas where special measures need to be taken to conserve biological diversity in line with Article 8 on in situ conservation and other relevant articles of the Convention, are essential for achieving, in implementing the ecosystem approach, the three objectives of the Convention and thus contributing to achieving the 2010 target contained in the Strategic Plan of the Convention and in the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, and to achieve sustainable development and the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals;
(b) [Considers options on how to stipulate the commitments of Parties to targets and timetables in the present programme of work concerning protected areas in a comprehensive regime]; 2/
(c) [Recognizes that Parties should implement the programme of work on protected areas in the context of their national priorities and needs. Activities implemented domestically by Parties will be prioritized based on country and regionally specific needs, national determination, legislation, circumstances and priorities concerning protected areas issues, and their national protected areas and biodiversity strategies. Inclusion of an activity does not mean relevance of that activity to all Parties];
(d) [Emphasizes that the targets should be viewed as a flexible framework within which national and/or regional targets may be developed, according to national priorities and capacities, and taking into account differences in protected areas between countries;
(e) Invites Parties and Governments to develop national and/or regional targets, and, as appropriate, to incorporate them into relevant plans, programmes and initiatives, including national biodiversity strategies and action plans;
(f) Emphasizes the need for capacity-building, particularly in developing countries, small island developing States, and countries with economies in transition, in order to enable them to implement the programme of work;
(g) Invites Parties, other Governments, the financial mechanism, and funding organizations to provide adequate and timely support to the implementation of the programme of work, especially by developing country Parties, in particular the least developed countries and small island developing States among them, and Parties with economies in transition;]
(h) [Underlines the importance of conservation of biological diversity not only within but also outside protected areas by ensuring sustainable use of all natural resources in order to achieve a significant reduction of the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010 and therefore also calls for increased efforts to integrate biodiversity conservation and restoration aspects into sectoral policies and programmes.]
(i) Considers options to further develop the concept of ecological networks, and other related concepts in order to follow up the WSSD Plan of Implementation and the conclusions of Inter-Sessional Meeting on the Multi-Year Programme of Work of the Conference of the Parties up to 2010;
Status and trends of, and threats to, protected areas
(j) Welcomes the documents on status and trends of, and threats to, protected areas prepared by the Executive Secretary (UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA/9/5);
(k) Agrees that the indicative list of categories set out in Annex I of the Convention should guide the selection of protected areas and areas where special measures need to be taken to conserve biological diversity;
(l) Recognizes that at the global level the number and extent of protected areas has been increasing in the past decades, so that around 11 per cent of the world's land surface is currently in protected status. However, existing systems of protected areas are not representative of the world's ecosystems, habitat types and biomes, species and marine areas, of which less than 1 per cent are protected, are particularly under-represented; and agrees [on] actions [need] to be taken to fill these gaps.
(m) Recognizes that the lack of knowledge and awareness of the threat to, and the role and value, of biodiversity, insufficient financial support, poor governance, ineffective management and insufficient participation, pose fundamental barriers to achieving the protected areas objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity;
(n) Adopts the objective of establishment and maintenance by 2010 3/ of comprehensive, effectively managed, and ecologically representative national and regional systems of protected areas integrated into a global \network of protected areas and areas where special measures need to be taken to conserve biological diversity.
Programme of work
(o) Adopts the elements, goals and targets of the programme of work on protected areas included in the present document and develops and adopts specific activities taking as basis the activities contained in the report of the Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group and submissions made at the ninth meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice;
(p) Affirms that any decisions adopted on the basis of recommendation VIII/3 B of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice, on marine and coastal protected areas, be considered an integral part of the Convention's work on protected areas;
(q) Urges Parties, other Governments and organizations to implement the programme of work, and further urges Parties to incorporate the elements of the programme of work into their national biodiversity strategies and action plans;
(r) Recognizes that effective implementation of the programme of work to meet the 2010 target will require new and additional financial and technical resources, particularly for the developing countries and countries with economies in transition and small island developing States, and recognizes in this context the recent substantial replenishment of the Global Environment Facility;
(s) Recalls the obligations of Parties towards indigenous and local communities in accordance with Article 8(j) of the Convention and [national legislation] and notes that the establishment and management of protected areas requires particular attention. [Respect for land tenure, prior informed consent and indigenous territorial rights, where applicable, are critical in this regard];
(t) Urges Parties to elaborate outcome-oriented targets for the extent, representativeness and effectiveness of their national systems of protected areas, taking into account the Strategic Plan of the Convention, the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation, the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development and the Millennium Development Goals, as well as any targets adopted by the Conference of the Parties to facilitate monitoring of the progress towards achievement of the 2010 target;
(u) Requests the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice to develop scientific and technical advice on measures required to achieve a truly representative national and regional systems of protected areas, integrated into a global network, in order to contribute to the 2010 target and longer-term purpose of the Strategic Plan. This work should draw upon the input of Parties and other Governments, the work of relevant United Nations organizations and conventions, the work of the World Commission on Protected Areas, the outcomes of the Fifth IUCN World Congress on Protected Areas, and the work of relevant local and indigenous communities, and non-governmental organizations;
(v) Decides to establish [an ad hoc technical expert group] [an ad hoc open ended working group] on protected areas to support and review implementation of the programme of work and report to the Conference of the Parties; 4/
(w) Decides to assess at [the eighth and tenth meetings of the Conference of the Parties] [at each meeting of the Conference of the Parties until 2010], the results of the above review, and to determine the need for possible stricter measures [and additional financial and technical support];
(x) Suggests the following tasks need to be explored:
[(i) To explore options for cooperation for the establishment of protected areas on areas beyond national jurisdiction, consistent with international law including the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, [with the consent and cooperation of all coastal States;]]
(ii) To explore options of technical, financial and other support including self financing, in accordance with Article 8(m) of the Convention, for the establishment of a national and regional systems of protected areas, and their integration into global network including identification and removal of barriers to the creation of protected areas, and the removal of perverse incentives for unsustainable activities, pursuant to decision VI/15, on incentive measures;
(iii) To develop a "tool kit" with criteria, guidelines, and definitions to provide assistance to Parties for the identification, designation, management, notification, monitoring and evaluation of protected areas, including ecological networks with special regard to stakeholder involvement and benefit sharing mechanisms;
(iv) To review reports from the Parties, academic and scientific organizations, civil society and others on progress in the implementation of the programme of work on protected areas, compiled by the Executive Secretary.
(y) Urges Parties and invites other Governments, and relevant organizations to report to the Executive Secretary on implementation of this decision and the programme of work prior to [the eigth and tenth meetings of the Conference of the Parties] [each meeting of the Conference of the Parties until 2010];
(z) Recognizes the value of a single international classification system for protected areas and the benefit of providing information that is comparable across countries and regions and therefore welcomes the ongoing efforts of the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas to refine the IUCN system of categories and encourages Parties, other Governments and relevant organizations to assign protected-area management categories to their protected areas, providing information consistent with the refined IUCN categories for reporting purposes;
(aa) Invites the World Conservation Monitoring Centre of the United Nations Environment Programme and the new consortium of international organizations to further develop the World Database on Protected Areas in order to assist the monitoring of progress towards the overall objective of this decision, and urges Parties, other Governments and relevant organizations to provide up-to-date information for the Database;
(bb) Invites the consortium referred to in paragraphs 4 and 5 above to report to the Conference of the Parties on the progress in supporting the programme of work on protected areas;
Suggested supporting activities of the Executive Secretary
(cc) Requests the Executive Secretary to update information on status and trends of, and threats to, protected areas as part of the reviews of the implementation of the thematic programmes of work, in collaboration with Parties and relevant organizations, in particular the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas;
(dd) Requests the Executive Secretary to strengthen collaboration with other organizations, institutions and conventions with a view to supporting implementation of the activities contained in the programme of work, promoting synergies and avoiding unnecessary duplications, and to establish a liaison group of relevant organizations including the World Heritage Convention, the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, the Man and Biosphere programme of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, relevant regional conventions and other organizations to facilitate this objective;
(ee) Further requests the Executive Secretary to:
(i) Compile information received from Parties, other Governments and relevant organizations and bodies on the implementation of the programme of work, and transmit this information to the [ad hoc open ended working group] [ad hoc Technical expert group];
(ii) Compile and disseminate information linking protected areas to sustainable development, poverty eradication and the Millennium Development Goals;
(iii) Establish in collaboration with the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas a roster of experts to help respond to requests by Parties for assistance in implementing the programme of work on protected areas and to drawn experts from this roster, at the request of countries, to assesses their steps undertaken to implement the programme of work on protected areas with a view to identifying the needs of those countries in the further implementation of the programme of work.
7. Requests the Executive Secretary to incorporate the submissions made by Parties at the ninth meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice, where appropriate, into the activities in the programme of work to be forwarded to the seventh meeting of the Conference of the Parties.
[PROPOSED ELEMENTS OF A PROGRAMME OF WORK ON PROTECTED AREAS
In situ conservation, sustainable use of biological diversity and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of genetic resources are dependent upon properly maintaining sufficient natural habitat. Protected areas, together with conservation, sustainable use and restoration initiatives in the wider land-and seascape are essential components in national and global biodiversity conservation strategies. They provide a range of goods and ecological services while preserving natural and cultural heritage. They can contribute to poverty alleviation by providing employment opportunities and livelihoods to people living in and around them. In addition, they also provide opportunities for research including for adaptive measures to cope with climate change, environmental education, recreation and tourism. As a result, most countries have developed a system of protected areas. The protected-area network now covers about 11 percent of Earth's land surface. Less than 1% of the Earth's marine area is covered. The central role of protected areas in implementing the objectives of the Convention has been repeatedly emphasized in decisions of the Conference of Parties. They form a vital element of the various thematic programmes of work, namely, marine and coastal biological diversity, inland water ecosystems biological diversity, dry and sub-humid lands biological diversity, forest biological diversity and mountain biological diversity.
Given their many benefits, protected areas are important instruments for meeting the Convention's targets of significantly reducing the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010. However, according to the best available data on the status and trends on protected areas (see UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA/9/5), the current global systems of protected areas are not sufficiently large, sufficiently well-planned, nor sufficiently well-managed to maximize their contribution to preventing global biodiversity loss. Therefore, there is an urgent need to take action to improve the coverage, representativeness and management of protected areas nationally, regionally and globally.
The Convention on Biological Diversity works with many partner organizations, conventions and initiatives in facilitating conservation and sustainable use through protected areas. These include the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA); the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC); the International Maritime Organization (IMO); the World Resources Institute (WRI); The Nature Conservancy (TNC); the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF); the UNESCO Man and Biosphere programme (MAB); the UNESCO World Heritage Convention; the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar Convention); the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals and the associated agreements; the Convention on Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES); the Global Environment Facility (GEF); and various regional agreements and programmes.
The present programme of work on protected areas features goals and activities that are specific to protected areas. Some elements of existing programmes of work on forests, inland waters, dry and sub-humid lands, coastal and marine and mountain biological diversity also apply to protected areas. The goals and activities contained in these existing programmes of work should also be applied and implemented, whenever appropriate for their respective protected areas.
The World Summit on Sustainable Development, in its Plan of Implementation, has stated that the achievement of the 2010 target requires new and additional financial and technical resources for developing countries, and that the progress in establishment and maintenance of a comprehensive, effectively managed, and ecologically representative global system of protected areas is of crucial importance for achieving the 2010 target. The decision of the World Summit includes the commitment to increase funding for activities in this field, recognizing that funding for this purpose generally should consist of a mixture of national and international resources and include the whole range of possible funding instruments such as public funding, debt for nature swaps, private funding, remuneration from services provided by protected areas, and taxes and fees at the national level for the sue of ecological services.
II. OVERALL PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF THE PROGRAMME OF WORK
The overall purpose of the programme of work on protected areas is to support the establishment and maintenance by 2010 of a comprehensive, effectively managed, and ecologically representative global system of networks of protected areas. The ultimate result will be to significantly reduce biological diversity loss at the international, regional, national and sub-national levels through the implementation of the three main objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity, and to contribute to poverty alleviation and sustainable development, thereby supporting the objectives of the Strategic Plan of the Convention, the World Summit on Sustainable Development Plan of Implementation and the Millennium Development Goals.
The programme of work consists of four interlinked elements intended to be mutually reinforcing. It was developed bearing in mind the need to avoid unnecessary duplication with existing thematic work programmes and other ongoing initiatives of the Convention on Biological Diversity, and to promote synergy and coordination with relevant programmes of various international organizations. Parties are encouraged to apply where appropriate the objectives and activities from these thematic work programmes and the work on cross-cutting issues.
The Convention's work on protected areas takes into account the ecosystem approach. The ecosystem approach is the primary framework for action under the Convention, and its application will help reach a balance between the three objectives of the Convention. Multiple-use protected areas applied in an ecosystem approach context can, for example, help meet specific goals relating to conservation, sustainable use and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of genetic resources. The ecosystem approach provides a framework within which the relationship of protected areas to the wider landscape and seascape can be understood, and the goods and services flowing from protected areas can be valued. In addition, the establishment and management of protected area systems in the context of the ecosystem approach should not simply be considered in national terms, but where the relevant ecosystem extends beyond national boundaries, in ecosystem or bioregional terms as well. This presents a strong argument for transboundary and high-seas protected areas.
The programme of work is intended to assist Parties in establishing national programmes of work with targeted goals, actions, specific actors, time frame, inputs and expected measurable outputs. Parties may select from, adapt, and/or add to the goals and actions suggested in the current programme of work according to particular national and local conditions and their level of development. Implementation of this programme of work should take into account the ecosystem approach of the Convention on Biological Diversity. In implementing the programme of work, Parties are encouraged to pay due regard to the social, economic and environmental costs and benefits of various options. In addition, Parties are encouraged to consider the use of appropriate technologies, source of finance and technical cooperation, and to ensure, through appropriate actions, the means to meet the particular challenges and demands of their protected areas..
Bearing in mind the three objectives of the Convention and the need to approach work on protected areas in a balanced manner that pays due attention to conservation, sustainable use, and the equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources, the Parties may wish to establish the following programme of work on protected areas:]
III. PROGRAMME ELEMENTS, GOALS AND ACTIONS
PROGRAMME ELEMENT 1: Direct actions for planning, selecting, establishing, strengthening, and managing, protected-area systems and sites
Goal 1.1 - To establish and strengthen national and regional systems of protected areas integrated into a global network as a contribution to globally agreed goals.
Target: By 2010, terrestrially and 2012 in the marine area, 6/ a global network of comprehensive, representative and effectively managed national and regional protected area system is established as a contribution to (i) the goal of the Strategic Plan of the Convention and the World Summit on Sustainable Development of achieving a significant reduction in the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010; (ii) the Millennium Development Goals - particularly goal 7 on ensuring environmental sustainability; and (iii) the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation.
[Definition: Systems of protected areas and ecological networks should consist of a system of core areas, corridors, stepping stones and buffer zones designed and managed in such a way as to maintain or restore ecosystem services, preserve biological diversity and allow a suitable and sustainable use of natural resources. It is recognized throughout the programme of work that the term "national" may mean either national or sub-national in some countries. A differentiated system comprising a broad range of protection levels and intensities of land use compatible with conservation objectives should be put in place. Protected areas should not be seen as being isolated and should be integrated into broader landscapes, seascapes and sectors.
Suggested activities of the Parties
By 2006, conduct national-level analyses of options for setting time-bound, measurable protected area targets that contribute to the above globally agreed conservation goals. Suggested national-level measures of progress toward targets include: total hectares under protected status, percent of ecoregions and major habitat types under protected status, status assessment of ecological integrity of protected areas, and numerical targets for species-at-risk.
1.1.2. As a matter of urgency, by 2005 conduct feasibility studies to establish or expand protected areas in any remaining large, intact or relatively unfragmented or highly irreplaceable natural areas under high threat, as well as protected areas securing globally critical endangered species and endangered species confined to a single site, and largely unprotected freshwater and marine ecosystems, paying particular attention to areas beyond national jurisdiction.
Drawing upon existing site selection methodologies, develop by 2005 a framework for assessing protected area system gaps at the national and ecoregional levels, including marine and coastal protected areas. This should take into account different levels of biodiversity, namely genetic, species, habitat, ecosystem and landscape. The framework should take into account Annex I of the Convention on Biological Diversity and other relevant international conventions, along with such criteria as irreplaceability of target biodiversity components, minimum size and viability requirements, connectivity (including corridors), intactness, ecological processes and ecosystem services. The framework should contain lists of species and habitats for which conservation measures are considered necessary.
By 2006, conduct national-level reviews of existing and potential forms of conservation including innovative models of governance for protected areas that need to be recognized and promoted through legal, policy, financial institutional and community mechanisms, such as protected areas run by government agencies at various levels, co-managed protected areas, private protected areas, community conserved areas, indigenous conservation areas and micro-reserves.
Drawing upon the above-mentioned reviews, conduct gap assessments and develop, by 2006, national plans for filling identified system gaps (including site selection for establishment of new sites, expansion of existing sites, restoration and rehabilitation of degraded and semi-natural areas, and recovery of endangered species).
By 2008, designate the protected areas as identified through the gap analysis (including precise borders and maps) and complete by 2010 the establishment of comprehensive and representative national systems of protected areas, as part of national and regional ecological netoworks. .
1.1.7. Increase support for and participation in existing international systems of protected areas, including the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, the World Heritage Convention and the UNESCO MAB programme.
Suggested supporting activities of the Executive Secretary
Prepare and disseminate to Parties a technical document providing a framework for national-level, time-bound, measurable protected areas targets as referenced above.
Identify options for quantitative and qualitative protected areas targets and indicators that should be used at the global level that could contribute to the 2010 target and the Millennium Development Goals.
Invite relevant international and regional organizations to offer their assistance to the Parties in conducting national-level rapid assessments.
Compile and disseminate through the clearing-house mechanism relevant approaches, frameworks and tools for system planning and promote and facilitate the exchange of experiences and lessons learned in applying and adapting them to different ecological and social settings.
Parties, UNEP-WCMC, UNESCO-MAB, UNESCO-World Heritage Centre, UNDP, Ramsar Convention, IUCN-WCPA.
Relevant international, regional and national organizations such as The Nature Conservancy, WWF, WRI, intergovernmental organizations]
Goal 1.2 - To integrate protected areas into broader land- and seascapes and sectors so as to maintain ecological structure and function
Target: By 2015, all protected areas are integrated into the wider land- and seascape protected area systems, and relevant sectors, by applying the ecosystem approach and taking into account ecological connectivity and the concept, where appropriate, of ecological networks.
[An ecologically representative and coherent mix of land and/or sea areas that may include protected areas, corridors and buffer zones, and which provides connectivity for species and ecosystems in order to achieve their satisfactory conservation status. Areas within an ecological network may have different types of protection.
Evaluate by 2006 national and sub-national lessons learned on specific efforts to integrate protected areas and biodiversity into broader landscapes and sectoral plans and strategies such as poverty reduction strategy papers.
Identify and implement, by 2008, practical steps for improving such integration, including policy, legal, planning and other measures.
1.2.3 Design and manage buffer zones around protected areas, in order to help maintain their ecological integrity, as part of ecological networks.
Restore habitats, as appropriate, as a contribution to building ecological networks.
Employ, where appropriate, technical innovations in agroforestry, eco-agriculture and sustainable fisheries management to strengthen land- and seascape approaches.
Organize by 2005 an international workshop on integration of biodiversity and protected areas into relevant sectoral and spatial plans, and disseminate results to all Parties and relevant partners and collaborators.
Prepare an updated format for the second thematic reports on protected areas, covering, inter alia, integration of protected areas and national systems of protected areas into relevant sectors and spatial planning.
Parties, UNESCO-MAB, IUCN-WCPA, Ramsar and other environmental conventions
Relevant international, regional and national organizations and intergovernmental organizations]
Goal 1.3 - To establish and strengthen regional networks, transboundary protected areas (TBPAs) and collaboration between neighbouring protected areas across national boundaries
Target: Establish and strengthen by 2010,7/ transboundary protected areas, other forms of collaboration between neighbouring protected areas across national boundaries and regional networks to the extent necessary to achieve Goal 1.1, to enhance the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, implementing the ecosystem approach, and improving international cooperation.
[Suggested activities of the Parties
1.3.1 Collaborate with other parties and relevant partners to establish effective regional networks of protected areas , particularly around shared ecological resources identified as conservation priorities (e.g. barrier reef systems, large scale river basins, mountain systems, large remaining forest areas), and establish multi-country coordination mechanisms as appropriate to support the establishment and effective long term management of such networks.
1.3.2 Collaborate with other Parties to establish and manage protected areas on the high seas and other areas beyond national jurisdiction.
1.3.3 Establish, where appropriate, new TBPAs with adjacent Parties and countries. and strengthen effective collaborative management of existing TBPAs.
1.3.4 Harmonize relevant national management practices with a view to facilitating the establishment and management of TBPAs.
1.3.5 Collaborate and consult with inter alia the Ramsar Bureau, World Heritage Centre and UNESCO MAB, Ramsar and CMS Conventions, UNEP-WCMC, IUCN-WCPA, local and indigenous communities, NGOs, private sector companies and funding agencies for developing guidelines for establishing transboundary protected areas and collaborative management approaches, as appropriate, for dissemination to Parties, taking into account the existing IUCN-WCPA Guidelines on TBPAs.
1.3.6 Prepare, for the eighth meeting of the Conference of the Parties, a comprehensive inventory of existing adjacent protected areas on either side of international borders, and other Transfrontier land areas suitable for the establishment of TBPAs, with particular attention to such areas lying within biodiversity hotspots.
1.3.7 Compile and disseminate information on regional networks of protected areas, including , as far as possible, their geographical distribution, their historical background, their role and the partners involved.
Parties, UNESCO-MAB, World Heritage Centre, IUCN-WCPA, Ramsar, CMS, CITES and other environmental conventions.
Relevant international, regional and national organizations and intergovernmental organizations.]
Goal 1.4 - To substantially improve site-based protected area planning and management:
Target: All protected areas to have effective management in existence by 2012, using highly participatory and science-based site planning processes that incorporate clear biodiversity objectives, targets, management strategies and monitoring programmes, drawing upon existing methodologies.
1.4.1 Create a highly participatory process - involving all major relevant stakeholders - as part of site-based planning, and use relevant ecological and socioeconomic data required to develop effective planning processes.
1.4.2 Identify measurable conservation targets for sites, such as genomes, species, natural communities, ecosystems, and ecological processes, drawing on criteria laid out in Annex I to the Convention on Biological Diversity and other relevant criteria.
1.4.3 Identify and rank the relative importance of major threats to defined conservation targets (including both proximate stresses and underlying sources), and identify strategies to address critical threats.
1.4.4 Include in the site-planning process an analysis of opportunities for the protected area to contribute to conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity at local and regional scales.
1.4.5 As appropriate, but no later than 2012, develop or update strategic management plans for protected areas, built on the above process, to better achieve conservation objectives.
1.4.6 Utilize as appropriate the full range of governance systems as well as traditional knowledge and practices of indigenous peoples and local communities.
1.4.7. Ensure equitable distribution of costs and benefits arising from the establishment and management of protected areas.
1.4.8 Compile and disseminate through the clearing-house mechanism current relevant approaches, frameworks and tools for site planning and promote and facilitate the exchange of experiences and lessons learned in applying and adapting them in different ecological and social settings.
1.4.9 Assist Parties, multilateral agencies, non-governmental organizations and other relevant actors to utilize such tools in their relevant site-based work.
Parties, IUCN-WCPA, UNEP-WCMC, UNESCO MAB, UNESCO World Heritage Centre, Ramsar and other international conventions.
Relevant international, regional and national organizations, WWF, The Nature Conservancy, Birdlife International, and other intergovernmental organizations.]
Goal 1.5 - To prevent and mitigate the negative impacts of key threats to protected areas:
Target: By 2008, effective mechanisms for identifying and preventing, and/or mitigating the negative impacts of key threats to protected areas are in place.
1.5.1 Apply, as appropriate, but not later than 2010 - timely, strategic environmental impact assessments to any plan or project with the potential to have effects on protected areas, and ensure timely information flow among all concerned parties to that end, taking into account decision VI/7 A of the Conference of the Parties on guidelines for incorporating biodiversity-related issues into environmental impact assessment legislation and/or processes and in strategic environmental assessments.
1.5.2 Develop, by 2010, liability regimes, incorporate the polluter-pays principle or other appropriate mechanisms in relation to damages to protected areas, at national and international levels.
1.5.3 Address issues specific to protected areas, in the guidelines for incorporating biodiversity considerations in environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment, procedures and regulations.
1.5.4 Collaboration with the International Association for Impact Assessment and other relevant organizations on further development and refinement of the impact assessment guidelines particularly to incorporate all stages of environmental impact assessment processes in protected areas taking into account the ecosystem approach.
1.5.5 Compile and disseminate through the clearing-house mechanism case-studies practices and lessoned learned in mitigating the negative impacts of key threats and facilitate the exchange of experiences.
Parties, UNESCO-MAB, World Heritage Centre, scientific bodies of UNFCCC, CCD and Ramsar conventions, IUCN-WCPA, the International Association for Impact Assessment.
PROGRAMME ELEMENT 2: Governance, participation, equity and benefit-sharing.
Goal 2.1 - To promote equity and benefit-sharing:
Target: Establish by 2008 mechanisms for the equitable sharing of both costs and benefits arising from the establishment and management of protected areas.
[Suggested activities of the Parties
Assess the economic and socio-cultural costs and impacts arising from the establishment and maintenance of protected areas, particularly for indigenous and local communities, and adjust policies to ensure that such costs and impacts - including the costs of livelihood opportunities foregone - are equitably compensated.
Complementing government-managed protected areas, recognize and promote the broader set of conservation areas (e.g., areas conserved by indigenous and local communities, private reserves) through legal, policy, financial, institutional and community mechanisms.
Establish policies and institutional mechanisms to facilitate the legal recognition and effective management of indigenous protected areas and community conserved areas in a manner consistent with the goals of conserving both biodiversity and the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities.
Use social and economic benefits generated by protected areas to alleviate poverty, consistent with protected-area management objectives.
2.1.5. Engage relevant stakeholders in participatory planning and governance, recalling the principles of the ecosystem approach.
Establish adequate national policies to deal with access to genetic resources within protected areas and benefits arising from their utilization, drawing on the Bonn Guidelines on Access to Genetic Resources and Fair and Equitable Sharing of the Benefits Arising out of their Utilization.]
Goal 2.2 - To enhance and secure involvement of all stakeholders including local and indigenous communities.
Target: By 2008, all protected areas are managed and established with full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities rights, consistent with national law and international obligations; and participation of other stakeholders in the appropriate phases and levels of work related to protected areas is enhanced;
Carry out national reviews of the status, needs and context-specific mechanisms for involving stakeholders, ensuring gender and social equity, in protected-areas policy and management, at the level of national policy, protected-area systems and individual sites.
2.2.2 On the basis of the national reviews, develop specific plans and initiatives to involve stakeholders in all levels of protected areas planning, establishment, governance and management, including indigenous reserves and community conserved areas, including through establishment of multi-stakeholder management councils, as appropriate, using relevant ecological and socioeconomic data with particular emphasis on identifying and removing barriers preventing adequate private sector, NGO and community participation.
2.2.3 Plan, establish and manage protected areas with the prior informed consent and in full compliance with the rights of indigenous peoples and local communities.
2.2.4 Involve representatives chosen by indigenous and local communities in the management of protected areas proportionate to their rights and interests.
2.2.5 Support participatory assessment exercises among stakeholders to identify and harness the wealth of knowledge, skills, resources and institutions of importance for conservation that are available in society.
2.2.6 Promote and support stakeholder organising and capacity building for the establishment and management of protected areas.
2.2.7 Ensure an enabling environment (legislation, policies, capacities, and resources) for the involvement of local and mobile people and indigenous stakeholders in decision making, and the development of their capacities and opportunities to establish and manage community-conserved and private protected areas.
2.2.8 In collaboration with the key partners and based upon the best practices develop and make available guidance for parties on how to promote and enhance stakeholder participation in all aspects of protected areas.
2.2.9 Make available to Parties case-studies, advice on best practices and other sources of information on stakeholder participation in protected areas
2.2.10 Promote the international sharing of experience on effective mechanisms for stakeholder involvement in conservation in particular with regard to co-managed protected areas, community conserved areas and private protected areas.
IUCN-WCPA, UNESCO-MAB, World Heritage Centre, Ramsar, CCD, and other environmental conventions, World Bank, UNDP.
Relevant international, regional and national organizations, WWF, The Nature Conservancy, Birdlife International, other NGOs and interested parties.]
PROGRAMME ELEMENT 3: Enabling activities
Goal 3.1 - To provide an enabling policy, institutional and socioeconomic environment for protected areas:
Target: by 2008 review and revise policies as appropriate , including use of social and economic valuation and incentives, to provide a supportive enabling environment for more effective establishment and management of protected areas and protected areas systems.
By 2006, identify legislative and institutional gaps that impede the effective establishment and management of protected areas, and by 2009, effectively address these gaps.
Conduct national-level assessments of the contributions of protected areas to the country's economy and culture, and to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals at the national level; and integrate the use of economic valuation and natural resource accounting tools into national planning processes in order to identify the hidden and non-hidden economic benefits provided by protected areas and who appropriates these benefits.
Harmonize sectoral policies and laws to ensure that they support the conservation and effective management of the protected area system.
Consider governance principles, such as the rule of law, decentralisation, participatory decision-making mechanisms for accountability and equitable dispute resolution institutions and procedures.
3.1.5 Identify and remove perverse incentives and inconsistencies in sectoral policies that increase pressure on protected areas, or take action to mitigate their perverse effects. Whenever feasible, redirect these to positive incentives for conservation.
Identify and establish positive incentives that support the integrity and maintenance of protected areas and the involvement of communities and other stakeholders in conservation.
Develop national incentive mechanisms and institutions to support the establishment of biodiversity conservation areas on private lands, including private reserves and conservation easements, at the national, regional and local level, which achieve biodiversity conservation goals in the managed landscape and seascape surrounding formal protected areas.
Identify and foster economic opportunities and the creation of markets for goods and services produced by protected areas and/or reliant on the ecosystem services that protected areas provide, consistent with protected area objectives.
3.1.9 Develop necessary mechanisms for institutions with responsibilities for conservation of biological diversity at the national, regional and local level to achieve institutional and financial sustainability
3.1.10 Cooperate with neighbouring countries to establish an enabling environment for transboundary protected areas and other similar approaches including regional networks.
3.1.11 In collaboration with key partners such as OECD, IUCN, WWF and the secretariats of other conventions compile information on relevant guidance, resource kits and other information on incentive measures including those relating to the development of incentive options through tenure rights, markets, pricing policies, etc.
3.1.12 Compile and disseminate case-studies on best practices on the use of incentive measures for the management of protected areas.
3.1.13 Identify ways and means to integrate the use of incentive measures into protected area management plans, programmes and policies including opportunities for the removal or mitigation of perverse incentives.
Parties, IUCN-WCPA, UNESCO-MAB, World Heritage Centre, scientific bodies of CCD and Ramsar conventions.
Relevant international, regional and national organizations, WWF, The Nature Conservancy, Birdlife International, World Bank and other intergovernmental organizations.]
Goal 3.2 - To build capacity for the planning, establishment and management of protected areas:
Target: By 2010, comprehensive capacity-building programmes and initiatives are implemented to develop knowledge and skills at individual, community and institutional levels, and raise professional standards, with particular emphasis on social equity.
3.2.1 Compile and/or develop by 2006 national protected-area capacity assessments, incorporating existing knowledge and experiences on protected areas management, including indigenous and traditional knowledge and establish and implement capacity building programmes at the national and local levels and report progress within the framework of the Convention on Biological Diversity. This should include conflict resolution and negotiation skills.
3.2.2 Establish effective mechanisms to document existing knowledge and experiences on protected area management, including indigenous/traditional knowledge and identify knowledge and skills gaps.
3.2.3 Establish and implement a capacity-building programme, including on financial and technical assistance needs, at the national level that is demand driven and adaptive to changes and innovation and report progress within the framework of the Convention on Biological Diversity
3.2.4 Establish mechanisms to exchange lessons learnt, information and capacity-building experiences among countries, in collaboration with the Clearing-house Mechanisms and relevant organizations.
3.2.5 Create and/or strengthen the capacities of institutions to establish cross-sectoral collaboration for protected area management at the regional, national and local levels, and to establish harmonized and enabling policy and legal frameworks.
3.2.6 Create and/or strengthen the capacities of institutions to establish and sustain baseline funding at levels adequate to ensure appropriate standards of protected area management, including creative fundraising through fiscal incentives, environmental services and other instruments.
3.2.7 Create and/or develop the capacity of protected areas institutions for creative fundraising through fiscal incentives, environmental services, and other instruments.
3.2.8 Call on the GEF and other donor agencies to support developing countries and countries with economies in transition to put in place their capacity-building initiatives on protected area management and for implementation of national systems of protected areas and networks.
3.2.9 Compile available information, including national reports, review past studies, and identify capacity needs.
3.2.10 Cooperate with and support the Protected Areas Learning Network (PALNet), an interactive website where protected area managers and associated people can exchange experience and explore lessons learned from those experiences, in collaboration with relevant organizations and the CHM.
Parties, IUCN-WCPA, UNESCO-MAB, World Heritage Centre, scientific bodies of CCD and Ramsar Conventions.
Goal 3.3 To develop, apply and transfer appropriate technologies for protected areas:
Target: By 2010 the development, validation, and transfer of appropriate technologies and innovative approaches for the effective management of protected areas is substantially improved, taking into account decisions of the Conference of the Parties on technology transfer and cooperation.
Carry out documentation of appropriate technologies for conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity of protected areas and management of protected areas.
Undertake an assessment of needs for relevant technologies for protected area management involving all stakeholders such as the local and indigenous communities, research institutions, non-governmental organizations and the private sector.
Make available to the Executive Secretary information concerning appropriate technologies and effective approaches for the management of protected areas.
Encourage development and use of appropriate technology for habitat restoration, resource mapping, biological inventory, and rapid assessment of biodiversity, monitoring, in situ and ex situ conservation, sustainable use etc.
Create enabling environment for transfer of technology through legal frameworks and strengthening law enforcement.
Compile information provided by Parties and relevant international organizations on appropriate technologies and approaches for efficient management of protected areas and conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity of protected areas.
Disseminate this information through the clearing-house mechanism and facilitate exchange of information.
IUCN-WCPA, UNEP-WCMC, UNESCO-MAB, World Heritage Centre, WRI, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment.
Relevant international, regional and national organizations, WWF, The Nature Conservancy, Birdlife International, other NGOs, Global Biodiversity Information Facility, and interested parties.]
Goal 3.4 . - To ensure financial sustainability of protected areas and national and regional systems of protected areas
Target: By 2008, sufficient resources to meet the costs to effectively implement and manage national and regional systems of protected areas are secured.
3.4.1 Conduct a national-level study by 2006 of financial needs and options (taking into account possibilities of prioritization and adjustment of expenditure patterns) related to the national system of protected areas with funding consisting of a mixture of national and international resources and include the whole range of possible funding instruments, such as public funding, debt for nature swaps, private funding, taxes and fees for the use of ecological services at national level, remuneration from services provided by protected areas, and environmental compensation payments.
3.4.2 Based on the results of this study, establish country-level sustainable financing plans (SFPs) that support national systems of protected areas, and begin to implement these by 2006, including necessary regulatory, legislative, institutional and other measures. To help in the development of these plans, countries should draw on the expertise and resources of United Nations agencies, multilateral and bilateral aid agencies, other funding agencies and non-governmental organizations.
3.4.3 Collaborate with other countries to develop and implement sustainable financing programs for regional and international systems of protected areas.
3.4.4 Provide information on national protected areas financing in future national reports under the Convention on Biological Diversity, and help to strengthen the role of the Convention Secretariat in collecting and sharing information about protected-areas financing, in collaboration with other relevant mechanisms such as the World Database on Protected Areas.
3.4.5. Mainstream protected areas into development planning.
3.4.6 Seek information from parties about the financing of protected areas and requirements for implementation of the programme of work.
3.4.7 Convene a meeting of the donor agencies for facilitating funding to parties for implementation of the programme of work.
Compile and disseminate case-studies and best practices concerning protected area financing through the clearing-house mechanism.
Carry out by 2006 a study on the value of ecosystem services provided by protected areas.
Parties, GEF, World Bank, Conservation Finance Alliance, and other donors.
Relevant international, regional and national organizations, IUCN, WWF, The Nature Conservancy, Birdlife International, other intergovernmental organizations.]
Goal 3.5- To strengthen communication, education and public awareness
Target: By 2008 public awareness, understanding and appreciation of the importance and benefits of protected areas is significantly increased.
3.5.1 Establish or strengthen education and public awareness programs on the importance of protected areas in terms of their role in national conservation and socio-economic development, in close collaboration with the Communication, Education and Public Awareness Initiative (CEPA) under the Convention on Biological Diversity and targeted towards all stakeholders
3.5.2 Identify core themes for education, awareness and communication programmes relevant to protected areas, including inter alia their contribution to economy and culture to achieve specific end results such as compliance by resource users and other stakeholders or an increased understanding of science-based knowledge by local and indigenous communities and policy makers.
3.5.3 Strengthen, and where necessary, establish information mechanisms directed at target groups such as the private sector, policy makers, development institutions, community-based organizations, the youth, the media, and the general public.
3.5.4 Develop mechanisms for constructive dialogue and knowledge exchange among protected-area managers, and between protected area managers and indigenous and local communities and their organizations.
3.5.5. Ensure that particular attention is to be drawn to a suitable preparation of the information for the variety of local/indigenous groups.
3.5.6. Incorporate protected areas as an integral component of the school curricula at both national and regional levels.
3.5.7. Develop copyright-free educational tools and materials for adaptation and use in the promotion of protected areas as an important means of achieving the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.
3.5.7. Generate an annotated bibliography and case studies to demonstrate the range of effective options available for designing and implementing awareness and communication programmes and activities for protected areas.
3.5.8. Establish, in collaboration with the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas, the Education and Communication Commission of IUCN, and other relevant partners, an initiative to engage the global news and entertainment industry (television, film, popular music, internet, etc.) in a global campaign to raise awareness of the costs of biological diversity loss and the important role of protected areas in reversing that loss.
IUCN-WCPA, UNESCO-MAB, World Heritage Centre, and Ramsar CIPA Working Group
Relevant international, regional and national organizations, WWF, The Nature Conservancy, Birdlife International, multinational mass media corporations.]
PROGRAMME ELEMENT 4: Standards, assessment, and monitoring
Goal 4.1 - To develop minimum standards and best practices for national and regional protected-area systems:
Target: By 2008, standards, criteria, and best practices for planning, selecting, establishing, managing and governance of national and regional systems of protected areas are developed and adopted.
4.1.1 Institute, within the framework of the Convention, a process for the development of voluntary protected areas standards and best practices on planning and management. In developing this framework, Parties may wish to recall the Guideline Series on Protected Area Management produced by IUCN.
4.1.2 Develop an efficient, long-term monitoring system, measuring: biodiversity status, status of conservation targets, ecological integrity, threat abatement, and capacity for effective management, where appropriate based on a set of indicators and including voluntary participation.
4.1.3 Draw upon monitoring results to employ adaptive management according to the ecosystem approach.
4.1.4 In collaboration with the key partners and based upon the best practices develop and make available guidance for parties minimum standards for planning, selecting, establishing, managing and governance of protected area sites and systems.
4.1.5 Compile information on best practices and case-studies on effective management of protected areas and disseminate it through clearing-house mechanism and facilitate exchange of information.
IUCN-WCPA, UNEP-WCMC, UNESCO-MAB, World Heritage Centre, Ramsar and other environmental conventions.
Goal 4.2 - To evaluate the effectiveness of protected areas management:
Target: By 2008, frameworks for monitoring, evaluating and reporting protected areas management effectiveness at sites, national and regional systems, and transboundary protected area levels adopted and implemented by Parties.
4.2.1 Develop standards and best practice guidelines for evaluating the effectiveness of protected area management and governance, and set up a related database, taking into account the IUCN-WCPA framework for evaluating management effectiveness, and other relevant methodologies, which should adapted to local conditions.
4.2.2 Select by 2005 appropriate methods, criteria and indicators for evaluating protected areas management effectiveness.
4.2.3 Implement management effectiveness evaluations of at least 30 percent of each Party's protected areas by 2010 and of national protected area systems and ecological networks.
4.2.4 Include information resulting from evaluation of protected areas management effectiveness in national reports under the Convention on Biological Diversity.
4.2.5 Focus management effectiveness efforts on site and system planning, governance, participatory process, financing, access to genetic resources, and benefit sharing processes.
4.2.6 Compile and disseminate information on initiatives through the clearing-house mechanism and develop a database of experts in evaluation of protected area management effectiveness.
4.2.7 Compile information on approaches to protected area design, establishment and management that have high probability of being the most effective in conserving biodiversity.
Goal 4.3 - To assess and monitor protected-area status and trends:
Target: By 2010, systems to enable effective monitoring of protected-area coverage, status and trends at national, regional and global scales, and to assist in evaluating progress in meeting global biodiversity targets are established.
Measure progress towards achieving targets based on a periodic monitoring programme and report on progress towards targets in future national reports under the Convention on Biological Diversity.
Incorporate reporting on national components of regional networks of protected areas in national reports and protected areas under the Convention on Biological Diversity.
Explore establishment of a harmonized system for reporting on sites designated under the Convention on Wetlands, the World Heritage Convention, and UNESCO MAB programme, taking into account the reporting mechanism currently being developed by UNEP-WCMC.
4.3.4 Participate in the World Database on Protected Areas maintained by UNEP-WCMC, and the United Nations List of Protected Areas and the State of the World's Protected Areas assessment process.
4.3.5 Encourage establishment of geographic information system units as a tool for monitoring protected areas and supporting decision-making processes.
4.3.6 Invite multilateral, bilateral and private donor agencies and institutions to support the World Database on Protected Areas in its function as a key support mechanism in the assessment and monitoring of protected area status and trends, taking into account paragraph 4 of decision VI/7 C of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, as well as national and regional databases on protected areas.
4.3.7 Develop and strengthen working partnerships with appropriate organizations and institutions that have developed and maintained databases on protected areas, in particular with the UNEP-WCMC and the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas.]
Goal 4.4 - To ensure that scientific knowledge contributes to the establishment and effectiveness of protected areas and protected-area systems.
Target: Scientific knowledge relevant to protected areas is further developed as a contribution to their establishment, effectiveness, and management.
4.4.1 Improve research, scientific and technical cooperation related to protected areas.
4.4.2 Promote interdisciplinary, applied research, bringing together ecological, social, and economic sciences, with a view to, inter alia, develop and improve understanding of the ecological functions of protected areas, particularly in regard to the maintenance of biogeochemical cycles, including as a criteria for defining standards of exemplification.
4.4.3 In line with the Global Taxonomy Initiative, encourage studies to improve the knowledge of the distribution, status and trends of biological diversity in protected areas.
4.4.4 Develop and strengthen working partnerships with appropriate organizations and institutions which undertake research studies leading to an improved understanding of biodiversity in protected areas.
4.4.5 Further develop methods and techniques for evaluation of goods and services of biodiversity of protected areas.
1 / BirdLife International, Conservation International, The Nature Conservancy, Wildlife Conservation Society, WWF, and World Resources Institute.
2 / Bracketed text in the recommendation indicates lack of consensus.
3 / References to marine protected area networks to be consistent with the target in the WSSD plan of implementation.
4 / Detailed terms of reference of the ad hoc open ended working group to be elaborated by the Conference of the Parties at its seventh meeting.
* The bracketed text in the annex could not be discussed due to lack of time.
6 / References to marine protected area networks to be consistent with the target in the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development.