Status and Trends of Biodiversity
Oman’s land consists of gravel desert plains, sand and mountain ranges and coastal lines. Despite its arid climate, it is an area of relatively high biodiversity, especially in the regions with a higher level of precipitations. Terrestrial biodiversity is an important component of Oman’s biodiversity as rangelands and woodlands are found to harbour a diverse array of plant species (more than 1208 have been identified so far). The plant communities include 78 endemic species. In addition, some 11 plant species are currently considered to be endangered or critically endangered, out of 1204 occurring in Oman. The country’s fauna include the Arabian gazelle, wolf, striped hyenas, sand gazelle, Arabian Oryx, Nubian Ibex, Arabian Tahr and Arabian Leopard. Some 1,142 fish species, 329 bird species, 75 reptile species, and thousands of invertebrate species have been identified. Five species of turtle are found in the coast of Oman. Main threats to biodiversity in Oman include overgrazing, loss of habitat, overuse of and damage to coastal and marine ecosystems, invasive species, as well as population growth and use of modern technology.
Number and Extent of Protected Areas
Oman has established four protected areas, accounting for 9.6% of the total land area of the country. Oman has also set up two marine protected areas.
Percentage of Forest Cover
Forests in Oman cover 2,000 ha and other wooded areas cover 1,303,000 ha.