The documents listed below comprise those received by SCBD since COP-10 in October 2010. Suriname
Suriname's National Biodiversity Action Plan (NBAP) (2012-2016), finalized in February 2013, was essentially formulated on the basis of the directions outlined in the National Biodiversity Strategy (NBS) finalized 6 years earlier in 2007. The NBAP contains 8 objectives: (i) biodiversity conservation (ii) sustainable use of biodiversity (iii) regulated access to genetic material and associated knowledge, with fair and equitable sharing of benefits (iv) knowledge acquisition through research and monitoring (v) capacity-building (vi) CEPA (vii) cooperation at local and international levels (viii) sustainable financing. Each of these 8 objectives contains sub-objectives detailing desired actions to which are associated necessary inputs, expected outputs, level of importance and priority (timeframe), responsible implementing bodies, budget indication and budget source. Actions for the NBAP were elaborated through a phased approach with those for the Coastal Zone, including the urbanized areas, addressed in 2007 and those for the Interior in 2010-2012. Additionally, the final version of the NBAP incorporates actions promoting comprehensive stakeholder consultations, the rights of the communities (Indigenous and Maroons), the application of the Principles of Free Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) associated with the Nagoya Protocol, EIA/SEA, co-management of protected areas with local stakeholders. Suriname recognizes the need to develop a series of objective, quantifiable indicators for measuring the effects of actions.
In December 2012, the Finnish Government adopted the National Strategy for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity (2012-2020) entitled ‛Saving Nature for People’. Replacing the National Strategy (2006–2016), the vision of the new strategy is to halt biodiversity loss in Finland by 2020 and ensure the favourable status of biodiversity and ecosystem services by 2050. Comprised of 5 strategic goals and 20 national targets, it has been formulated in compliance with the Strategic Plan (2011-2020) and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, as well as with the targets set out in the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. Implementation of the strategy will be conducted in a manner respectful of the indigenous Sámi community’s traditional knowledge and practices related to biodiversity. Relevant ministries have been assigned to implement the strategy by working in cooperation with civil society, commercial interests and other stakeholders to create a cost-effective and purposeful action plan that contains quantitative and qualitative bases for monitoring. The action plan has been adopted for fulfilling the goals and targets set by the Government until 2020, while giving due consideration to national needs and priorities. It will be implemented within spending limits defined in central government budget frameworks. Progress on the implementation of the strategy and action plan will be monitored and assessed, with findings reported to the Government in 2015.
- By 2020 biodiversity loss in Finland will have been halted.
- The favourable status of biodiversity and ecosystem services will be ensured by 2050.
- Finland will protect and sustainably utilise biodiversity for its own intrinsic value and as a source of human wellbeing, while also taking active responsibility for issues related to biodiversity in international contexts.
- The Government believes that wide-ranging actions, changes in attitudes and processes, and enhanced cooperation will all be needed to achieve the goals described above. These actions must be based on the following principles:
Finland will urgently undertake effective actions designed to halt the loss of biodiversity by 2020 and ensure that by 2050 the state of the natural environment in Finland is stable and capable of ensuring people’s future well-being.
To achieve this:
- Issues and values related to biodiversity must become fundamental elements in decision-making.
- The pressures facing biodiversity must be reduced.
- Collaboration between the authorities, citizens, businesses and stakeholders and related participation procedures must be enhanced. New forms of cooperation designed to prevent and minimise any harmful impacts on biodiversity must be realised at a timely stage of the preparation of decisions on projects and plans.
- Degraded ecosystems must be restored cost-effectively or left to revert to their natural state through natural processes.
- Natural resources must be utilised sustainably. Renewable natural resources must be used in economic activities and to increase well-being in ways that ensure they are not depleted, but are renewed for the benefit of future generations. Non-renewable resources must be used as eco-efficiently as possible. In this way the present generation will not endanger the prospects for future generations to enjoy a good life in a sustainable society.
- Actions related to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity must be realised effectively with due regard to citizens’ constitutional property rights and Finland’s traditional everyman’s right of access to the land, while also ensuring that all citizens meet their responsibility to preserve biodiversity. The indigenous Sámi community’s traditional knowledge related to biodiversity will be respected.
- Decisions related to biodiversity must be based on the best available scientific information, and also apply the precautionary approach.
- Finland will take responsibility for ensuring access to genetic resources and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from their utilisation.
The National Biodiversity Strategy of Japan (2012-2020) was adopted by Cabinet in September 2012, following two major events: the adoption at COP-10 in Nagoya of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity (2011-2020), including the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, and the Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred in March 2011 that made us think anew about the relationship between human beings and nature. The current Strategy provides a national roadmap for achieving the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, as well as outlines direction for realizing a vision of “Living in Harmony with Nature”. It contains 13 national targets and 48 key action goals (accompanied by target years for implementation) whose achievement will be monitored by a set of 81 indicators developed for this purpose. The Strategy also contains around 700 specific measures which will serve as the national action plan for implementing the roadmap. With a view to reflecting the views of diverse stakeholders, several enabling activities were carried out (e.g. establishment of a liaison committee, comprised of relevant ministries and agencies; organization of townhall meetings nationwide; invitation for public comments; conduct of meetings for exchanging opinions with relevant academic societies and NGOs; consultation with the Central Environment Council).
Malta's first National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (2012-2020), entitled "Working Hand-in-Hand with Nature", serves as a policy driver to set the country on the right track to meet its biodiversity and environmental objectives, as identified in Malta's National Environment Policy (2012) and in the 2020 Aichi Biodiversity Targets and EU targets. The NBSAP addresses the need to preserve biodiversity and ecosystem services through biodiversity integration in decision-making as well as within policies, plans and programmes of those sectors that act as drivers of biodiversity change. Nineteen national targets with action-driven and outcome-oriented measures, grouped under 18 thematic areas, have been set out, with implementation of actions assigned to one of four possible timeframes. CBD, EEA, SEBI and EU indicators, including the EU 2010 Biodiversity Baseline, have been adapted to serve as examples of indicators to measure progress towards NBSAP implementation and are subject to revision. Examples of prioritized actions relate to the establishment of: species and habitat action plans for priority species, especially endemic species, and for rare specialized habitats; a strict protection regime, incorporating measures to address the illegal and the incidental capture and killing of protected species, including those that are migratory; a range of governance types for long-term management of protected areas, based on good governance principles.
The first National Biodiversity Strategy and Action (NBSAP) of Myanmar, adopted by Cabinet on 3 May 2012, contains 10 strategic directions on the following themes: (i) strengthening conservation of priority sites; (ii) mainstreaming biodiversity into other policy sectors; (iii) implementing focused conservation actions for priority species; (iv) supporting local NGOs and academic institutions; (v) creating capacity to coordinate conservation investment in Myanmar; (vi) scaling up the implementation of in situ
and ex situ
conservation of agriculture, livestock and fisheries biodiversity and genetic resource management; (vii) expediting the process of implementing the national biosafety framework; (viii) promoting the initiative to manage IAS; (ix) facilitating the legislative process of environmental protection and environmental impact assessment; (x) enhancing communication, education and public awareness on biodiversity conservation. Priority actions have been established for each strategic direction, as have the major agencies responsible for implementation. In addition, a set of 9 action plans, based on the above strategic directions, has been established for five-year periods toward the sustainable management of the following sectors: forests; wildlife conservation and protected areas; freshwater resources; coastal, marine and island ecosystems; land resources; agriculture, livestock and fisheries; ecotourism; environmental quality and biosafety; mineral resource utilization. The NBSAP has been aligned with the National Environmental Policy, Myanmar Agenda 21 and the National Sustainable Development Strategy.
The Colombian "Política Nacional para la Gestión Integral de la Biodiversidad y sus Servicios Ecosistémicos (PNGIBSE)", launched on 28 July 2012, promotes a new way of addressing biodiversity in the country, oriented on the integrated management of biodiversity and the ecosystem services it provides, with the view to maintaining and increasing the resilience of socioecological systems at the national, regional, local and transboundary levels. The policy is considered fundamental to national development processes and is to serve as the strategic and conceptual framework for all existing and future environmental instruments related to biodiversity, developed at various levels, as well as the basis for inter-sectoral coordination of activities. It contains six strategic directions: (i) conservation and care of nature; (ii) governance and creation of public value; (iii) economic development, competitiveness and quality of life; (iv) management of knowledge, technology and information; (v) risk management and provision of ecosystem services; (vi) co-responsibility and global commitments. Actions for implementing the policy are to be arranged, coordinated and carried out jointly by the state, the production sector and civil society. The document also establishes the links between the policy’s strategic directions and compliance with the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, as well as some priority actions to be implemented by 2014, in alignment with the targets of the National Development Plan (2010 - 2014) – “Prosperity for All”, related to the integrated management of biodiversity and the ecosystem services it provides. The elaboration of a comprehensive action plan, based on the policy’s six strategic directions, is called for in the short term.
The “Estrategia Nacional de Conservación y Uso Sostenible de la Biodiversidad y Plan de Acción (2011-2020)” constitutes the country’s first NBSAP. Aligned with the global framework, national targets have been developed for the short, medium and long terms, as have milestones and indicators. The Ecosystem Approach is promoted in planning processes. The NBSAP is linked to implementation of the National Development Strategy (2010-2030) indicating that, by 2016, actions to strengthen aspects related to biodiversity, under the fourth strategic objective of the National Development Strategy on sustainable natural resource management, will be carried out as necessary. Women were highly involved in the NBSAP development process. The business sector (e.g. Bon Agroindustrial and Fundación Propa-Gas) is engaged in numerous biodiversity conservation activities through its association with RENAEPA, the national non-profit network promoting the integration of the business sector in sustainable natural resource management processes. A draft sectoral law on biodiversity has been submitted to Parliament for adoption.
The new Swiss Biodiversity Strategy, adopted by the Federal Council on 25 April 2012, describes 10 strategic objectives to be achieved by 2020. Among these objectives are, notably, the sustainable use of natural resources by all relevant sectors, the implementation of an ecological infrastructure comprised of protected areas and protected area networks, the development of activities related to biodiversity and cities and consideration of biodiversity as a measure of Swiss prosperity. The Aichi Biodiversity Targets and the EU’s Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 were taken into account in the preparation of the Strategy. The Department of Environment, Transportation, Energy and Communication (DETEC) intends to develop an accompanying action plan by 2014 with the participation of all actors.
The NBSAP (2011-2020) is closely linked to the National Strategic Development Plan of Timor-Leste for the next two decades and consistent with other policy frameworks such as the National Adaptation Programme of Action on Climate Change, National Action Programme to Combat Land Degradation, Fisheries Sector Plan and the Forestry Sector Plan. It also serves as a guiding policy framework for district and sub-district authorities, civil society and the private sector. The development of the NBSAP was guided by the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. It contains 5 Priority Actions and 5 Priority Targets and 21 Strategic Actions, as well as additional detailed activities for implementing the Nagoya outcomes over the decade. The NBSAP uses the Ecosystem Approach and notably contains both a CEPA Strategy and Action Plan as well as a Partnership Strategy for addressing financing needs. A priority target of the NBSAP is to establish, by 2015, a national biodiversity monitoring and reporting system using the CHM as an operational tool. The NBSAP also outlines the strategy to ratify and implement the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-sharing.
Democratic People's Republic of Korea
NBSAP implementation in the country is closely linked with implementation of the Master Plan for Development (MPLD) and national plans for sectors such as forestry, fisheries, Koryo medicine manufacturing, agriculture, as well to scientific research and energy development. The revised NBSAP contains 10 strategic goals and 23 actions (several of which will be implemented through projects). An action plan is currently being developed to mainstream biodiversity and environment in the education sector. The immediate objectives of the Strategy include: (i) restoring degraded ecosystems, halting the deterioration of the ecological environment, reducing the rate of loss of biodiversity components and improving the whole ecological environment; (ii) improving the management of nature reserves for raising the effectiveness of the system; (iii) increasing bio-productivity and service function of ecosystems and establishing the system for the sustainable use of bio-resources, thus enabling people to gain both environmental and socio-economical benefits via biodiversity conservation and sustainable use.
The Spanish "Plan Estratégico del Patrimonio Natural y la Biodiversidad 2011-2017", adopted through Royal Decree 1274 on 16 September 2011, constitutes a fundamental element in support of the 2007 Law on Natural Heritage and Biodiversity. The plan considers themes derived from the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and the 2011 EU Strategy, and was subjected to Strategic Environmental Assessment in accordance with the provisions of the 2006 law on assessment of the effects of environmental plans and programmes.
"Actions for Biodiversity 2011-2016", Ireland's second National Biodiversity Plan, addresses objectives raised by the international and European communities to reduce biodiversity loss. The plan comprises 7 strategic objectives: 1) To mainstream biodiversity in the decision-making process across all sectors; 2) To substantially strengthen the knowledge base for conservation, management and sustainable use of biodiversity; 3) To increase awareness and appreciation of biodiversity and ecosystems services; 4) To conserve and restore biodiversity and ecosystem services in the wider countryside; 5) To conserve and restore biodiversity and ecosystem services in the marine environment; 6) To expand and improve on the management of protected areas and legally protected species; and 7) To substantially strengthen the effectiveness of international governance for biodiversity and ecosystem services. Twenty-one national targets have been established, accompanied by 102 actions, headline biodiversity indicators that are expected to be adopted in 2012, as well as outcomes.
"Biodiversity 2020: A strategy for England's wildlife and ecosystem services" outlines the strategic direction for biodiversity policy for the next decade on land (including rivers and lakes) and at sea, building upon the Natural Environment White Paper published in June 2011. The strategy stresses the provision of support for healthy well-functioning ecosystems and the establishment of coherent ecological networks. A set of outcomes for 2020 has been defined, including the establishment of a network of marine protected areas containing in excess of 25% of English waters by the end of 2016. The strategy aims to ensure that biodiversity values are considered in the decision-making processes of both the public and private sectors. The government also intends to develop new and innovative financing mechanisms for achieving the 2020 outcomes.
The revised National Biodiversity Strategy (2011-2020) is coherent with various existing national strategies and action plans. The strategy attaches particular importance to increasing biodiversity information and education for all stakeholders; biodiversity mainstreaming in development projects (especially in overseas territories where exceptionally rich biodiversity has significant socioeconomic and cultural value for the local populations); as well as to biodiversity governance at all levels (global to local).
At its meeting of 21 June 2011, the Environment Council of the European Union
endorsed the new Strategy
to halt the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services in the EU by 2020, and agreed to further discuss the actions in order to ensure the effective and coherent implementation of the Strategy. The preparation of a new Strategy is in line with two commitments made by EU leaders in March 2010. The first is the 2020 headline target: "Halting the loss of biodiversity and the degradation of ecosystem services in the EU by 2020, and restoring them in so far as feasible, while stepping up the EU contribution to averting global biodiversity loss"; the second is the 2050 vision: “By 2050, European Union biodiversity and the ecosystem services it provides – its natural capital – are protected, valued and appropriately restored for biodiversity's intrinsic value and for their essential contribution to human wellbeing and economic prosperity, and so that catastrophic changes caused by the loss of biodiversity are avoided.” There are six main targets
, and 20 actions to help Europe reach its goal.
In 2010, Venezuela adopted a new National Strategy for the Conservation of Biological Diversity (2010-2020). The new Strategy was formulated with the participation of a wide variety of sectors within society (academic, Government employees, enthusiasts and community-based organizations), in several workshops that took place over a period of 18 months. Overall, over 1600 people participated nationwide, promoting debate and enriching the analytical process through offering different points of view. During the workshops, the problems associated with the loss of biological diversity were identified and their causes and consequences analyzed. The causes identified were then grouped into one of three categories: proximate, intermediate and structural. The next stage consisted of collectively constructing strategies for the conservation of biological diversity. Using the analysis of the problems and the current status of biodiversity as starting points, seven strategic lines were formulated in terms of the technical elements required to confront the loss of biological diversity, and seven crosscutting themes identified as the political and social elements necessary to guarantee biological conservation together with social commitment. This collective construction ensured that participants were involved in the entire process of preparing the Strategy, generating awareness of the urgency of the issues while contributing to the transformation of the country’s situation via the transformation of individuals and vice versa. The National Strategy for the Conservation of Biological Diversity contains the fundamental guidelines that will govern actions taken during the 2010-2020 period. It is composed of seven strategic lines, with a general objective and several specific objectives, which contain general actions that constitute the basis on which the Action Plans are built. Venezuela's first NBSAP was adopted in 2001.
The Serbian Biodiversity Strategy for the period 2011-2018 was adopted in 2011. Objective 9.1 of the document addresses the establishment of national-level targets for biodiversity protection, according to the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and Aichi Biodiversity Targets, over the next three-year period. Current actions are associated with institutions responsible for implementation, timeframes and potential funding sources.
Australia agreed a revised Biodiversity Conservation Strategy for the 2010-2030 period in October 2010 and has substantially moved towards the etablishment of national targets that are measurable and time-bound, with ten measurable targets linking to various elements of the new Strategic Plan for Biodiversity set for implementation by 2015. In 2015, the Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council will review the status of implementation of the strategy as well as consider what amendments may be required to the targets and strategic elements.
The Council of Ministers adopted the revised Belarusian Strategy on the Conservation and Sustainable Utilization of Biological Diversity (2011-2020), and accompanying Action Plan for implementation by 2015, in November 2010. Organizations responsible for implementation of activities by specific timeframes are identified in the Action Plan.
The 'Strategia Nazionale per la Biodiversità' was adopted by the Italian Permanent Conference for Relationships between State, Regions and Autonomous Provinces in October 2010.