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Latest NBSAPs

NBSAP Status

United Arab Emirates
The new Biodiversity Strategy of the United Arab Emirates includes a series of main orientations and national goals in line with the “Emirates vision 2021”, in addition to the Emirates' Strategy for Green Development, the National Strategy for Coastal and Marine Environment, the Biosafety Strategy and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. The main orientations focus on: 1) mainstreaming biodiversity in all economic and social sectors; 2) reinforcement of knowledge sharing and capacity building for upgrading and addressing biodiversity management; 3) improvement of biodiversity status through habitat protection, genetic diversity and restoration of degraded ecosystems; 4) reducing pressure on marine and terrestrial biodiversity; and 5) enhancing regional and international cooperation on biodiversity cross-cutting issues. Twenty-one national targets with action-driven and outcome-oriented measures, grouped under 5 thematic areas, have been set out. The new biodiversity strategy includes particular engagements on capacity building, communication and public awareness, resource mobilization, and on a national knowledge sharing platform in line with the CHM of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Progress on the implementation of the strategy and action plan will be monitored and assessed and findings will be reported by representatives from each Emirate.

India
Although prepared prior to the adoption of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and its Aichi Targets in 2010, India’s NBAP 2008 is nevertheless broadly aligned with the current global biodiversity agenda. In this regard, India decided that a revision of the NBAP 2008 was not necessary, and instead prepared an addendum in 2014 to the NBAP 2008 consisting of 12 national biodiversity targets developed within the framework of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. These national targets are mapped to the achievement of the latter as well as complemented by indicators and a monitoring framework.

Bhutan

Bhutan’s “National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plan” (2014) is the country’s fourth NBSAP document. Prepared by a National Task Force comprised of key biodiversity stakeholders, under the coordination of the National Biodiversity Centre, it considers key gaps identified from a review of earlier NBSAPs and seeks to, among other matters, strengthen coordination mechanisms, mainstreaming in sectorial development plans and programs, capacity, awareness, and promote ownership of the NBSAP as a guiding document at national, sectorial and local levels. Twenty national targets have been established and are mapped to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. Each target is complemented by a rationale, strategies, actions, indicators, timelines, priority ranking and cost estimates on implementation. Additionally, a framework for NBSAP implementation, monitoring and evaluation identifies responsible thematic groups and stakeholders. Since the first NBSAP was formulated in 1997, Bhutan has adopted 12 acts, policies and strategies related to biodiversity conservation. Notably, the safeguarding of Bhutan’s biodiversity is enshrined in its Constitution (2008). The Biodiversity Act of Bhutan was adopted in 2003. More recently, the Food and Nutrition Security Policy of Bhutan (2014) promotes biodiversity conservation for food security and resilience for all time thereby contributing to Gross National Happiness. Bhutan currently has 70.46% of its total area under forest cover and 51.44% of the total area secured as protected areas and biological corridors.

Republic of Korea

The Republic of Korea’s new NBSAP (2014-2018) was developed in accordance with the requirements of the Act on the Conservation and the Use of Biodiversity adopted in 2012. Based mainly on the theme of “Expanding the Future Value of Biodiversity”, the NBSAP is the third prepared by Korea and addresses 6 priorities for action: mainstreaming biodiversity; strengthening biodiversity conservation; reducing threats to biodiversity; the sustainable use of ecosystems; establishing a mechanism for biodiversity research and management; and international collaboration. Under these priorities, 18 goals have been established and are linked, as appropriate, to the achievement of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. Action plans, accompanied by targets, actions and indicators, have been formulated for each of these goals. Korea’s first NBSAP was prepared in 1997, and the second in 2009 for the 2009-2013 period which focused attention on the equitable sharing of benefits from biodiversity and the sustainable use of biological and genetic resources. A notable achievement of these NBSAPs corresponds to the creation of institutions for biodiversity conservation, as demonstrated by the establishment of the National Biodiversity Centre (within the National Biological Resource Centre) in March 2013, and the Marine Biodiversity Institute of Korea which is scheduled to open in 2014, among others. The Korea Biodiversity Observation Network (KBON) has also been recently set up to monitor biodiversity, including the impacts on biodiversity due to climate change, at the national level over the long term. Furthermore, in September 2013, the Ministry of Environment established a partnership with the business sector to raise and promote biodiversity programs called the “Korea Business and Biodiversity Initiative” (KBBI), which has been officially enrolled in the Global Platform on Business and Biodiversity managed by SCBD.

Georgia

Adopted by Government Decree on 8 May 2014, Georgia’s new NBSAP (2014-2020) was prepared in the light of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and its Aichi Targets. In contrast to Georgia’s earlier NBSAP (2005), the current NBSAP addresses implementation from a more holistic, cross-cutting and ecosystem-based perspective. CBD’s Gender Plan of Action was also fully considered in the course of its preparation. National targets have been set to achieve both the 2030 Vision and the strategic goals and targets of the global agenda and are accompanied by indicators, objectives, critical assumptions, actions, timeframes, responsible implementing bodies, and sources of potential funding. An overview of the country’s biodiversity is provided with respect to eight themes: species and habitats; protected areas; forest ecosystems; agricultural biodiversity and natural grasslands; inland water ecosystems; The Black Sea; cross-cutting issues and governance; and CEPA, with actions for implementing each national target linked to the theme of relevance. A Committee for Supervising and Monitoring NBSAP Implementation will be established by the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources Protection and ensure broad stakeholder engagement, including with the economic sectors and local authorities. Georgia also intends to develop a National Resource Mobilization Strategy.

Netherlands

Actions for implementing the Aichi Biodiversity Targets have been integrated into several Dutch policy plans which together serve as a revised NBSAP, thereby fulfilling the requirements of Aichi Biodiversity Target 17. Based on the recommendations of the Taskforce on Biodiversity and Natural Resources, the “Natural Capital Agenda: conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity” (2013) sets the implementation agenda to 2020 in the Netherlands and in the Dutch Caribbean. The Agenda considers the provisions of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and its Aichi Targets, the EU Biodiversity Strategy, as well as Dutch international development policy. Emphasis is placed on strengthening the economy-ecology relationship, with four main themes defined (sustainable production and consumption: sustainable supply chains; sustainable fisheries and protection of marine biodiversity; sustainable agriculture and protection of biodiversity; valuing natural capital). General objectives and specific action points are identified for each theme, with activities to be implemented by all stakeholders, including civil society and the private sector. Related policy plans include, among others, the Natural Way Forward (Government Vision 2014) and the Nature Policy Plan (The Caribbean) 2013-2017.

Guatemala

Guatemala's revised NBSAP (2012-2022) is the main instrument for implementing the National Biodiversity Policy which was adopted in 2011 for mainstreaming biodiversity in support of socioeconomic development; this approach exemplifies a paradigm shift in the manner in which biodiversity is addressed in the country, with the original NBSAP (1999) having stressed a purely conservationist approach. Responsibility for implementation of all policy related to biodiversity is assigned to the National Council for Protected Areas (CONAP). The revised NBSAP focuses on the five thematic areas outlined in the Biodiversity Policy: 1) biodiversity knowledge and valuation; 2) biodiversity conservation and restoration; 3) sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystem services; 4) role of biodiversity in climate change mitigation and adaptation; and 5) policy implementation. The Strategy contains 5 operational strategies, 11 strategic objectives, 14 national targets (aligned with the Aichi Biodiversity Targets), while the Action Plan contains 139 actions for implementing the Strategy. Indicators have been developed for monitoring and assessing implementation. Further, a preliminary version of the financial requirements and budget for NBSAP implementation has been prepared. Recognition is also given to the fact that the development of a Resource Mobilization Strategy is essential and should consider national, regional and international sources, and those that are public and private in nature.

Nepal

Nepal’s revised NBSAP (2014-2020) has a long-term vision (35 years) and includes specific short-term (up to 2020) strategies and priorities for action. The latter are clustered into 6 sectoral thematic areas (protected areas, forests outside protected areas, rangelands, wetlands, agriculture, mountains) designed to address key biodiversity threats, gaps and issues, the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and the Millennium Development Goals. Strategies and priority actions have also been developed for 15 cross-sectoral thematic areas focused on: policy and legislation, institutions, mainstreaming, harmonization among biodiversity-related conventions, capacity, landscape management, invasive alien species, climate change, gender and social inclusion, traditional knowledge and indigenous and local communities, knowledge generation and management, technology, communication, extension and outreach (CEO), fund generation and mobilization, and monitoring and evaluation. Where appropriate, quantitative targets have been set against the priority action. The strategies generally indicate the agency responsible for implementation and supporting agencies, while the strategy on monitoring and evaluation also sets out performance indicators, means of verification and a time schedule. The National Biodiversity Coordination Committee (NBCC) serves as the key national institution for managing biodiversity, and also facilitates and monitors activities carried out by institutions at the district and local levels. The framework for the Local Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan is intended to serve as a guide to the Village Development Committees (VDCs) and municipalities in preparing their own BSAP. A preliminary estimate of costs for implementing the NBSAP based on the recommended priority actions and past funding trends has been prepared.

Estonia

Adopted in 2012 and developed in line with the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020, Estonia’s “Nature Conservation Development Plan until 2020” (NCDP) serves as the country’s revised NBSAP. The NCDP is also aligned with the Estonian Sustainable Development Strategy until 2030 and the Estonian Environmental Strategy until 2030 and promoted as a strategic base document for mainstreaming into all sectors. The NCDP comprises 3 main goals to ensure: (i) that people know, appreciate and conserve nature and know how to use their knowledge in their everyday lives; (ii) the favourable conservation status of species and habitats and the diversity of landscapes so that habitats function as a coherent ecological network; and (iii) the long-term sustainability of natural resources, and the preconditions for this, and that the principles of the Ecosystem Approach are followed in the use of natural resources. Measures and activities have been developed to achieve each goal. The total cost for implementing the NCDP over the 2012–2020 period is 582.2 million euros. Progress achieved on implementing the NCDP will be reported to the Government once a year with revisions deemed necessary initiated by the Ministry of the Environment who will involve all relevant ministries, including the Ministry of Finance, and parties in the revision process.

Cameroon

Cameroon’s NBSAP II, completed in 2012, is a revision and update of the 2000 NBSAP, proposing a new policy orientation to reverse and halt the current trend in biodiversity loss as a way to establish a strong nature base that is indispensable for the country’s socioeconomic growth. Of importance is Cameroon’s 2035 vision for growth and development and its priority orientations, defined within the Growth and Employment Strategy Paper (GESP) which provides development options to boost key production sectors that are largely dependent on biodiversity (the document highlights activities that are unsustainable within each of these sectors and their negative impacts on biodiversity). NBSAP II will be implemented through to 2020 and contains 4 strategic goals, 20 national-level targets and 10 ecosystem-specific targets, priority actions, timeframes for action, performance indicators and actors/organizations responsible for implementation. It has been prepared with consideration given to the framework provided by the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and its Aichi Biodiversity Targets. A monitoring and evaluation framework has been conceived as well. In addition, NBSAP II provides an orientation for the subsequent development of a Capacity Development Plan, CEPA Plan and a Resource Mobilization Plan for its implementation.

Dominica

Dominica's revised NBSAP promotes the pursuit of a ‘green’ development path in keeping with the Government’s pronouncement that declared Dominica the ‘Nature Isle’. Dominica is aligning its development agenda and biodiversity conservation strategy with the global biodiversity objectives. All of the goals and targets of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 are therefore considered relevant and will be addressed to the extent possible within the development framework, and as far as they amplify the 'Nature Isle' concept and influence biodiversity management in Dominica. However, the country has selected the following five 2020 targets as national priorities and developed twelve strategies and accompanying actions for achieving them.
  • By 2020 at the latest, all residents of the Commonwealth of Dominica will be aware of the value of biodiversity, and the steps they can take to conserve and use it sustainably.
  • By 2020, at least 15% of areas under agriculture, aquaculture and forestry are managed sustainably, ensuring conservation of biodiversity.
  • By 2020, pollution, including from excess nutrient, has been brought to levels that are not detrimental to ecosystem function and biodiversity.
  • By 2020, at least 20% of terrestrial, inland water and 15% of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem service, are conserved through comprehensive ecologically representative and well-connected systems of effectively managed, protected areas and other means, and integrated into the wider land and seascape.
  • By 2020, ecosystem resilience and the contribution of biodiversity to carbon stock has been enhanced, through conservation and restoration, including restoration of at least 15% of degraded ecosystems, thereby contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation, and to combating desertification.

Tuvalu

Endorsed by Cabinet in 2013, Tuvalu's first NBSAP (2012-2016) addresses eight thematic areas: climate change and disaster risk management; traditional knowledge, cultural practices and indigenous property rights; conservation of species, ecosystems (marine, coastal, land terrestrial) and genetic diversity; Community - empowerment, involvement, awareness, understanding and ownership; sustainable use of natural resources; trade, biosecurity and food security; waste and pollution management; and management of invasive species. Strategy goals, objectives, actions, key performance indicators, key implementing bodies and stakeholders have been identified for each thematic area. Five cross-cutting issues necessary for effective implementation have also been established, namely: capacity building, education, training, awareness and understanding; sustainable development and environment management; mainstreaming and financing mechanisms; legal framework for biodiversity and law enforcement; and monitoring and evaluation. The planning process has emphasized inter alia an integrated approach to implementation, broad stakeholder engagement with a view to building "ownership" of the NBSAP by Tuvaluans, and the application of traditional knowledge, together with innovations and best practices, in activities. Tuvalu recognizes the importance to increase awareness among government and non-government stakeholders in order to acquire the support needed for implementation.

Belgium

In November 2013, Belgium's Interministerial Conference for the Environment adopted an update of the National Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. Based largely on the previous Strategy (2006-2016), the update incorporates provisions aligned with the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity (2011-2020) and the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. It will guide activities for revising federal and regional biodiversity action plans and be promoted in sectoral policy-making. Its main focuses are: a) tackling emerging risks and the impact of internal trade of live specimens; b) protecting and restoring biodiversity and associated ecosystem services through protected areas - green infrastructure - no net loss; identifying pathways of introduction on IAS; c) phasing out perverse incentives and using guidelines on the integration of the values of biodiversity and ecosystem services in development strategies, planning processes and reporting systems included; developing an approach to include these values in national accounting; d) implementing the Nagoya Protocol; e) mapping ecosystem services in Belgium and assessing their values; f) ensuring the implementation and enforcement of biodiversity legislation; g) involving provinces, cities and other local authorities; h) boosting the mobilization of resources (including through innovative mechanisms) and enhancing capacities. The Strategy contains 15 priority strategic objectives and 85 operational objectives that have been mapped to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and to the targets of the EU Biodiversity Strategy. Specific actions and indicators for the Strategy will be developed at a later stage (during the implementation process).

El Salvador

El Salvador’s new Biodiversity Strategy (2013) was developed in accordance with the provisions of the Environment Law (Art. 69), constituting one of four national strategies that have been developed for implementing the National Policy for the Environment (2012) whose overall goal is to reverse environmental degradation and reduce vulnerability to climate change. (National Strategies have also been developed on climate change, water resources and environmental sanitation). The new Biodiversity Strategy focuses on massive restoration and conservation undertakings, including in regard to the country’s ecosystems, with a view towards recovering the capacity required to sustain current and future development. Particular emphasis is placed on soil and land uses. It is structured along 3 main goals, and identifies respective priority areas: 1) biodiversity mainstreaming in the economy (agriculture, fisheries and aquaculture, tourism); 2) restoration and conservation, including critical ecosystems (mangroves and beach ecosystems, rivers and wetlands, gallery forests and other forest ecosystems); 3) biodiversity for the people (rescue of traditional conservation practices for genetic resources, rights of use of biological resources, local economic options). To enable implementation, five critical themes are highlighted (awareness-raising, research, education and training, technology, financing), as is action required at the institutional level (inter-institutional coordination, institutional strengthening, local governance and management models, monitoring, reporting and verification, normative and regulatory legislation). The accompanying Action Plan is currently in development.

Suriname

Suriname's National Biodiversity Action Plan (NBAP) (2012-2016), finalized in February 2013, was essentially formulated on the basis of the directions outlined in the National Biodiversity Strategy (NBS) finalized 6 years earlier in 2007. The NBAP contains 8 objectives: (i) biodiversity conservation (ii) sustainable use of biodiversity (iii) regulated access to genetic material and associated knowledge, with fair and equitable sharing of benefits (iv) knowledge acquisition through research and monitoring (v) capacity-building (vi) CEPA (vii) cooperation at local and international levels (viii) sustainable financing. Each of these 8 objectives contains sub-objectives detailing desired actions to which are associated necessary inputs, expected outputs, level of importance and priority (timeframe), responsible implementing bodies, budget indication and budget source. Actions for the NBAP were elaborated through a phased approach with those for the Coastal Zone, including the urbanized areas, addressed in 2007 and those for the Interior in 2010-2012. Additionally, the final version of the NBAP incorporates actions promoting comprehensive stakeholder consultations, the rights of the communities (Indigenous and Maroons), the application of the Principles of Free Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) associated with the Nagoya Protocol, EIA/SEA, co-management of protected areas with local stakeholders. Suriname recognizes the need to develop a series of objective, quantifiable indicators for measuring the effects of actions.

Finland

In December 2012, the Finnish Government adopted the National Strategy for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity (2012-2020) entitled ‛Saving Nature for People’. Replacing the National Strategy (2006–2016), the vision of the new strategy is to halt biodiversity loss in Finland by 2020 and ensure the favourable status of biodiversity and ecosystem services by 2050. Comprised of 5 strategic goals and 20 national targets, it has been formulated in compliance with the Strategic Plan (2011-2020) and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, as well as with the targets set out in the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. Implementation of the strategy will be conducted in a manner respectful of the indigenous Sámi community’s traditional knowledge and practices related to biodiversity. Relevant ministries have been assigned to implement the strategy by working in cooperation with civil society, commercial interests and other stakeholders to create a cost-effective and purposeful action plan that contains quantitative and qualitative bases for monitoring. The action plan has been adopted for fulfilling the goals and targets set by the Government until 2020, while giving due consideration to national needs and priorities. It will be implemented within spending limits defined in central government budget frameworks. Progress on the implementation of the strategy and action plan will be monitored and assessed, with findings reported to the Government in 2015.
Vision
  • By 2020 biodiversity loss in Finland will have been halted.
  • The favourable status of biodiversity and ecosystem services will be ensured by 2050.
  • Finland will protect and sustainably utilise biodiversity for its own intrinsic value and as a source of human wellbeing, while also taking active responsibility for issues related to biodiversity in international contexts.
  • The Government believes that wide-ranging actions, changes in attitudes and processes, and enhanced cooperation will all be needed to achieve the goals described above. These actions must be based on the following principles:

Mission

Finland will urgently undertake effective actions designed to halt the loss of biodiversity by 2020 and ensure that by 2050 the state of the natural environment in Finland is stable and capable of ensuring people’s future well-being.
To achieve this:
  • Issues and values related to biodiversity must become fundamental elements in decision-making.
  • The pressures facing biodiversity must be reduced.
  • Collaboration between the authorities, citizens, businesses and stakeholders and related participation procedures must be enhanced. New forms of cooperation designed to prevent and minimise any harmful impacts on biodiversity must be realised at a timely stage of the preparation of decisions on projects and plans.
  • Degraded ecosystems must be restored cost-effectively or left to revert to their natural state through natural processes.
  • Natural resources must be utilised sustainably. Renewable natural resources must be used in economic activities and to increase well-being in ways that ensure they are not depleted, but are renewed for the benefit of future generations. Non-renewable resources must be used as eco-efficiently as possible. In this way the present generation will not endanger the prospects for future generations to enjoy a good life in a sustainable society.
  • Actions related to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity must be realised effectively with due regard to citizens’ constitutional property rights and Finland’s traditional everyman’s right of access to the land, while also ensuring that all citizens meet their responsibility to preserve biodiversity. The indigenous Sámi community’s traditional knowledge related to biodiversity will be respected.
  • Decisions related to biodiversity must be based on the best available scientific information, and also apply the precautionary approach.
  • Finland will take responsibility for ensuring access to genetic resources and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from their utilisation.

Japan

The National Biodiversity Strategy of Japan (2012-2020) was adopted by Cabinet in September 2012, following two major events: the adoption at COP-10 in Nagoya of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity (2011-2020), including the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, and the Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred in March 2011 that made us think anew about the relationship between human beings and nature. The current Strategy provides a national roadmap for achieving the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, as well as outlines direction for realizing a vision of “Living in Harmony with Nature”. It contains 13 national targets and 48 key action goals (accompanied by target years for implementation) whose achievement will be monitored by a set of 81 indicators developed for this purpose. The Strategy also contains around 700 specific measures which will serve as the national action plan for implementing the roadmap. With a view to reflecting the views of diverse stakeholders, several enabling activities were carried out (e.g. establishment of a liaison committee, comprised of relevant ministries and agencies; organization of townhall meetings nationwide; invitation for public comments; conduct of meetings for exchanging opinions with relevant academic societies and NGOs; consultation with the Central Environment Council).

Malta

Adopted in December 2012, Malta's first National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (2012-2020), entitled "Working Hand-in-Hand with Nature", serves as a policy driver to set the country on the right track to meet its biodiversity and environmental objectives, as identified in Malta's National Environment Policy (2012) and in the 2020 Aichi Biodiversity Targets and EU targets. The NBSAP addresses the need to preserve biodiversity and ecosystem services through biodiversity integration in decision-making as well as within policies, plans and programmes of those sectors that act as drivers of biodiversity change. Nineteen national targets with action-driven and outcome-oriented measures, grouped under 18 thematic areas, have been set out, with implementation of actions assigned to one of four possible timeframes. CBD, EEA, SEBI and EU indicators, including the EU 2010 Biodiversity Baseline, have been adapted to serve as examples of indicators to measure progress towards NBSAP implementation and are subject to revision. Examples of prioritized actions relate to the establishment of: species and habitat action plans for priority species, especially endemic species, and for rare specialized habitats; a strict protection regime, incorporating measures to address the illegal and the incidental capture and killing of protected species, including those that are migratory; a range of governance types for long-term management of protected areas, based on good governance principles.

Myanmar

The first National Biodiversity Strategy and Action (NBSAP) of Myanmar, adopted by Cabinet on 3 May 2012, contains 10 strategic directions on the following themes: (i) strengthening conservation of priority sites; (ii) mainstreaming biodiversity into other policy sectors; (iii) implementing focused conservation actions for priority species; (iv) supporting local NGOs and academic institutions; (v) creating capacity to coordinate conservation investment in Myanmar; (vi) scaling up the implementation of in situ and ex situ conservation of agriculture, livestock and fisheries biodiversity and genetic resource management; (vii) expediting the process of implementing the national biosafety framework; (viii) promoting the initiative to manage IAS; (ix) facilitating the legislative process of environmental protection and environmental impact assessment; (x) enhancing communication, education and public awareness on biodiversity conservation. Priority actions have been established for each strategic direction, as have the major agencies responsible for implementation. In addition, a set of 9 action plans, based on the above strategic directions, has been established for five-year periods toward the sustainable management of the following sectors: forests; wildlife conservation and protected areas; freshwater resources; coastal, marine and island ecosystems; land resources; agriculture, livestock and fisheries; ecotourism; environmental quality and biosafety; mineral resource utilization. The NBSAP has been aligned with the National Environmental Policy, Myanmar Agenda 21 and the National Sustainable Development Strategy.

Colombia

The Colombian "Política Nacional para la Gestión Integral de la Biodiversidad y sus Servicios Ecosistémicos (PNGIBSE)", launched on 28 July 2012, promotes a new way of addressing biodiversity in the country, oriented on the integrated management of biodiversity and the ecosystem services it provides, with the view to maintaining and increasing the resilience of socioecological systems at the national, regional, local and transboundary levels. The policy is considered fundamental to national development processes and is to serve as the strategic and conceptual framework for all existing and future environmental instruments related to biodiversity, developed at various levels, as well as the basis for inter-sectoral coordination of activities. It contains six strategic directions: (i) conservation and care of nature; (ii) governance and creation of public value; (iii) economic development, competitiveness and quality of life; (iv) management of knowledge, technology and information; (v) risk management and provision of ecosystem services; (vi) co-responsibility and global commitments. Actions for implementing the policy are to be arranged, coordinated and carried out jointly by the state, the production sector and civil society. The document also establishes the links between the policy’s strategic directions and compliance with the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, as well as some priority actions to be implemented by 2014, in alignment with the targets of the National Development Plan (2010 - 2014) – “Prosperity for All”, related to the integrated management of biodiversity and the ecosystem services it provides. The elaboration of a comprehensive action plan, based on the policy’s six strategic directions, is called for in the short term.

Dominican Republic

The “Estrategia Nacional de Conservación y Uso Sostenible de la Biodiversidad y Plan de Acción (2011-2020)” constitutes the country’s first NBSAP. Aligned with the global framework, national targets have been developed for the short, medium and long terms, as have milestones and indicators. The Ecosystem Approach is promoted in planning processes. The NBSAP is linked to implementation of the National Development Strategy (2010-2030) indicating that, by 2016, actions to strengthen aspects related to biodiversity, under the fourth strategic objective of the National Development Strategy on sustainable natural resource management, will be carried out as necessary. Women were highly involved in the NBSAP development process. The business sector (e.g. Bon Agroindustrial and Fundación Propa-Gas) is engaged in numerous biodiversity conservation activities through its association with RENAEPA, the national non-profit network promoting the integration of the business sector in sustainable natural resource management processes. A draft sectoral law on biodiversity has been submitted to Parliament for adoption.

Switzerland

The new Swiss Biodiversity Strategy, adopted by the Federal Council on 25 April 2012, describes 10 strategic objectives to be achieved by 2020. Among these objectives are, notably, the sustainable use of natural resources by all relevant sectors, the implementation of an ecological infrastructure comprised of protected areas and protected area networks, the development of activities related to biodiversity and cities and consideration of biodiversity as a measure of Swiss prosperity. The Aichi Biodiversity Targets and the EU’s Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 were taken into account in the preparation of the Strategy. The Department of Environment, Transportation, Energy and Communication (DETEC) intends to develop an accompanying action plan by 2014 with the participation of all actors.

Timor-Leste

Approved in February 2012, the NBSAP (2011-2020) is closely linked to the National Strategic Development Plan of Timor-Leste for the next two decades and consistent with other policy frameworks, such as the National Adaptation Programme of Action on Climate Change, National Action Programme to Combat Land Degradation, Fisheries Sector Plan and the Forestry Sector Plan. It also serves as a guiding policy framework for district and sub-district authorities, civil society and the private sector. The development of the NBSAP was guided by the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. It contains 5 Priority Actions and 5 Priority Targets and 21 Strategic Actions, as well as additional detailed activities for implementing the Nagoya outcomes over the decade. The NBSAP uses the Ecosystem Approach and notably contains both a CEPA Strategy and Action Plan as well as a Partnership Strategy for addressing financing needs. A priority target of the NBSAP is to establish, by 2015, a national biodiversity monitoring and reporting system using the CHM as an operational tool. The NBSAP also outlines the strategy to ratify and implement the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-sharing.

Democratic People's Republic of Korea

NBSAP implementation in the country is closely linked with implementation of the Master Plan for Development (MPLD) and national plans for sectors such as forestry, fisheries, Koryo medicine manufacturing, agriculture, as well to scientific research and energy development. The revised NBSAP contains 10 strategic goals and 23 actions (several of which will be implemented through projects). An action plan is currently being developed to mainstream biodiversity and environment in the education sector. The immediate objectives of the Strategy include: (i) restoring degraded ecosystems, halting the deterioration of the ecological environment, reducing the rate of loss of biodiversity components and improving the whole ecological environment; (ii) improving the management of nature reserves for raising the effectiveness of the system; (iii) increasing bio-productivity and service function of ecosystems and establishing the system for the sustainable use of bio-resources, thus enabling people to gain both environmental and socio-economical benefits via biodiversity conservation and sustainable use.

Spain

The Spanish "Plan Estratégico del Patrimonio Natural y la Biodiversidad 2011-2017", adopted through Royal Decree 1274 on 16 September 2011, constitutes a fundamental element in support of the 2007 Law on Natural Heritage and Biodiversity. The plan considers themes derived from the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and the 2011 EU Strategy, and was subjected to Strategic Environmental Assessment in accordance with the provisions of the 2006 law on assessment of the effects of environmental plans and programmes.

Ireland

Launched on 9 November 2011, "Actions for Biodiversity 2011-2016", Ireland's second National Biodiversity Plan, addresses objectives raised by the international and European communities to reduce biodiversity loss. The plan comprises 7 strategic objectives: 1) To mainstream biodiversity in the decision-making process across all sectors; 2) To substantially strengthen the knowledge base for conservation, management and sustainable use of biodiversity; 3) To increase awareness and appreciation of biodiversity and ecosystems services; 4) To conserve and restore biodiversity and ecosystem services in the wider countryside; 5) To conserve and restore biodiversity and ecosystem services in the marine environment; 6) To expand and improve on the management of protected areas and legally protected species; and 7) To substantially strengthen the effectiveness of international governance for biodiversity and ecosystem services. Twenty-one national targets have been established, accompanied by 102 actions, headline biodiversity indicators that are expected to be adopted in 2012, as well as outcomes.

United Kingdom

While ultimate responsibility for CBD implementation lies with the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) of the UK Government, it is shared among the UK's 4 countries (England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Wales) and its Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies. In view of this, individual Country Biodiversity Strategies have been developed, as have a number of strategies for the Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies. To date, England and Scotland have completed revisions of their strategies in the light of the 2010 Nagoya outcomes. A UK-wide post-2010 biodiversity framework has also been developed.

England - "Biodiversity 2020: A strategy for England's wildlife and ecosystem services" outlines the strategic direction for biodiversity policy for the next decade on land (including rivers and lakes) and at sea, building upon the Natural Environment White Paper published in June 2011. The strategy stresses the provision of support for healthy well-functioning ecosystems and the establishment of coherent ecological networks. A set of outcomes for 2020 has been defined, including the establishment of a network of marine protected areas containing in excess of 25% of English waters by the end of 2016. The strategy aims to ensure that biodiversity values are considered in the decision-making processes of both the public and private sectors. The government also intends to develop new and innovative financing mechanisms for achieving the 2020 outcomes.

Scotland - "2020 Challenge for Scotland's Biodiversity" published in 2013 is Scotland’s response to implementing the Nagoya outcomes and the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. It aims to protect and restore biodiversity on land and in Scotland's seas, and support healthier ecosystems; connect people with the natural world, for their health and wellbeing and to involve them more in decisions about their environment; maximise the benefits for Scotland of a diverse natural environment and the services it provides, contributing to sustainable economic growth.

France

The revised National Biodiversity Strategy (2011-2020) is coherent with various existing national strategies and action plans. The strategy attaches particular importance to increasing biodiversity information and education for all stakeholders; biodiversity mainstreaming in development projects (especially in overseas territories where exceptionally rich biodiversity has significant socioeconomic and cultural value for the local populations); as well as to biodiversity governance at all levels (global to local).

European Union

At its meeting of 21 June 2011, the Environment Council of the European Union endorsed the new Strategy to halt the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services in the EU by 2020, and agreed to further discuss the actions in order to ensure the effective and coherent implementation of the Strategy. The preparation of a new Strategy is in line with two commitments made by EU leaders in March 2010. The first is the 2020 headline target: "Halting the loss of biodiversity and the degradation of ecosystem services in the EU by 2020, and restoring them in so far as feasible, while stepping up the EU contribution to averting global biodiversity loss"; the second is the 2050 vision: “By 2050, European Union biodiversity and the ecosystem services it provides – its natural capital – are protected, valued and appropriately restored for biodiversity's intrinsic value and for their essential contribution to human wellbeing and economic prosperity, and so that catastrophic changes caused by the loss of biodiversity are avoided.” There are six main targets, and 20 actions to help Europe reach its goal.

Venezuela

In 2010, Venezuela adopted a new National Strategy for the Conservation of Biological Diversity (2010-2020). The new Strategy was formulated with the participation of a wide variety of sectors within society (academic, Government employees, enthusiasts and community-based organizations), in several workshops that took place over a period of 18 months. Overall, over 1600 people participated nationwide, promoting debate and enriching the analytical process through offering different points of view. During the workshops, the problems associated with the loss of biological diversity were identified and their causes and consequences analyzed. The causes identified were then grouped into one of three categories: proximate, intermediate and structural. The next stage consisted of collectively constructing strategies for the conservation of biological diversity. Using the analysis of the problems and the current status of biodiversity as starting points, seven strategic lines were formulated in terms of the technical elements required to confront the loss of biological diversity, and seven crosscutting themes identified as the political and social elements necessary to guarantee biological conservation together with social commitment. This collective construction ensured that participants were involved in the entire process of preparing the Strategy, generating awareness of the urgency of the issues while contributing to the transformation of the country’s situation via the transformation of individuals and vice versa. The National Strategy for the Conservation of Biological Diversity contains the fundamental guidelines that will govern actions taken during the 2010-2020 period. It is composed of seven strategic lines, with a general objective and several specific objectives, which contain general actions that constitute the basis on which the Action Plans are built. Venezuela's first NBSAP was adopted in 2001.

Serbia

The Serbian Biodiversity Strategy for the period 2011-2018 was adopted in 2011. Objective 9.1 of the document addresses the establishment of national-level targets for biodiversity protection, according to the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and Aichi Biodiversity Targets, over the next three-year period. Current actions are associated with institutions responsible for implementation, timeframes and potential funding sources.

Australia

Australia agreed a revised Biodiversity Conservation Strategy for the 2010-2030 period in October 2010 and has substantially moved towards the etablishment of national targets that are measurable and time-bound, with ten measurable targets linking to various elements of the new Strategic Plan for Biodiversity set for implementation by 2015. In 2015, the Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council will review the status of implementation of the strategy as well as consider what amendments may be required to the targets and strategic elements.

Belarus

The Council of Ministers adopted the revised Belarusian Strategy on the Conservation and Sustainable Utilization of Biological Diversity (2011-2020), and accompanying Action Plan for implementation by 2015, in November 2010. Organizations responsible for implementation of activities by specific timeframes are identified in the Action Plan.

Burkina Faso

While Burkina Faso’s Biodiversity Strategy (2001) covers a 25-year period, its Action Plan is revised every five years. The Biodiversity Action Plan (2011-2015) is currently under implementation and was developed with consideration given to, inter alia, the conclusions of GBO-3, the impacts of climate change on biodiversity, the Rural Land Tenure Law (2009), a coordinated approach to implementation of the Rio Conventions, and the socio-ecological principles of the Satoyama Initiative. The Plan also considers the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity adopted in 2010 in Nagoya, while also being linked to the National Strategy for Accelerated Growth and Sustainable Development, also adopted in 2010, among other plans. It contains 36 priority actions with expected results formulated against each action, along with associated activities, indicators, verification sources, and important assumptions on the availability of funding, technical capacity and political will, among other requirements. The costs of the Plan's implementation have also been calculated on an annual basis. A decentralized approach to biodiversity management involving local communities (especially women) is particularly emphasized, as is improving knowledge on the conservation and use of biological resources (especially genetic resources) and ensuring that the benefits arising from their use are equitably shared, as prescribed in the Nagoya Protocol.

Italy

The 'Strategia Nazionale per la Biodiversità' was adopted by the Italian Permanent Conference for Relationships between State, Regions and Autonomous Provinces in October 2010.

  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme