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Egypt - Overview

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Main References

National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan

Fourth National Report



National Website

Biodiversity Facts

Status and trends of biodiversity, including benefits from biodiversity and ecosystem services

The land area of Egypt is composed of desert (92%) and agricultural land (8%). The country comprises 22 main habitat groups such as: Gebel Elba; Mountains and Wadies of the Eastern Desert; Red Sea Littoral Habitats; Red Sea Islands; Red Sea Marine Habitats; Mountains and Wadies of South Sinai; Central and North Sinai; Mediterranean Wetlands; Nile Valley and Delta; Gebel Uweinat and Gilf Kebir; Western Desert Depressions and Oases; Sand and Dunes of the Western Desert; Western Desert Mediterranean Coast and Mediterranean... More »

Main pressures on and drivers of change to biodiversity (direct and indirect)

Threats to biodiversity in Egypt are either directly or indirectly related to human impacts, with the former including excessive hunting, clear-cutting and deforestation, and the latter linked to habitat destruction for developmental purposes and all pollution types, including refuse from industry and human settlements... More »

Measures to Enhance Implementation of the Convention

Implementation of the NBSAP

The Egyptian NBSAP (1998) aims to establish a sound basis for the sustainable development of natural resources for meeting the needs of present and future generations, and harmonize conservation and development plans in relevant sectors (e.g. agriculture, industry, mining, housing, tourism). Three main issues are prioritized, namely: the development and management of existing protected areas with a view toward the creation of new ones; biodiversity assessment through monitoring and database updating; institutional development, capacity-building, partnership-building, outreach, securing sustainable financing of projects from donor states and organizations... More »

Actions taken to achieve the 2020 Aichi Biodiversity Targets

A network of protected areas, representing the principal ecosystem types of scientific importance, has been established throughout the country and currently comprises up to 15% of the territory. Egypt intends to increase this figure to 20% by 2017. Programs have also been established for the conservation and management of important and sensitive ecosystems and habitats outside the natural protected areas network, especially in marine and coastal environments and arid lands... More »

Support mechanisms for national implementation (legislation, funding, capacity-building, coordination, mainstreaming, etc.)

Egypt is among the first countries in the world to have taken an active interest in biodiversity conservation and the preservation of natural resources and heritage at the international and regional levels. Egypt became a Party to the Convention Relative to the Preservation of Fauna and Flora in their Natural State in 1936 and to the Agreement for the Establishment of a General Fisheries Council for the Mediterranean Sea in 1952, and a Party to several other related agreements since... More »

Mechanisms for monitoring and reviewing implementation

As part of a major biodiversity data management program, the National Biodiversity Unit (NBU) has established a biodiversity database containing information available on representatives of the various taxonomic groups in the country. This database is the nucleus of a national network connecting scientific establishments and referral collections (e.g... More »

National Contacts

Full details of national contacts »

Convention on Biological Diversity

Dr. Moustafa Fouda
CBD Primary NFP, ABS Competent National Authorities
Dr. Ossama El-Tayeb
ICNP ABS NFP
Dr./Mr. Mohamed Talaat El-Hennawy
GSPC NFP
Dr. Taher Issa
CHM NFP
Mr. Khaled Allam Harhash
Protected Areas NFP

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

Dr. Ossama El-Tayeb
Cartagena Protocol Primary NFP, BCH NFP

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  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme