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Sri Lanka - Overview

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Please note that this country profile has been prepared by the Secretariat on the basis of information provided in the NBSAP and national reports, but has not been reviewed by the Party concerned.

Main References

National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan

Other Information about National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plans

Fourth National Report



Biodiversity Facts

Status and trends of biodiversity, including benefits from biodiversity and ecosystem services

Sri Lanka is an island nation, exhibiting remarkable biological diversity and considered to be the richest country in the Asian region in terms of species concentration. Ecological, climatic, soil and topographical variability across the country provides favourable conditions for many types of species of flora and fauna in most localities... More »

Main pressures on and drivers of change to biodiversity (direct and indirect)

The main threats include habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation, overexploitation of biological resources, loss of traditional crop and livestock varieties and breeds, pollution, human/wildlife conflicts, the burgeoning spread of alien invasive species and increasing human population density. Habitat loss is the result of land use change in forests, ad hoc reclamation of wetlands, indiscriminate use of coastal lands and landfills in wetlands and deforestation (the latter constituting the most serious threat to terrestrial biodiversity, with the island having lost approximately 50% of its forest cover within about 50 years)... More »

Measures to Enhance Implementation of the Convention

Implementation of the NBSAP

A strategy for the preparation of a National Biodiversity Action Plan was developed by IUCN Sri Lanka in 1994. This was followed by the preparation of a Biodiversity Conservation Action Plan (BCAP) which was approved by Cabinet in 1998 and published in 1999. The BCAP outlines conservation objectives and recommended action for four priority systems (forests, wetland, coastal and marine, agriculture), as well as for several priority cross-cutting and inter-sectoral thematic areas, namely: ex situ conservation; biodiversity information; biodiversity-related legal measures, research, education and awareness; institutional support for biodiversity conservation and valuation... More »

Actions taken to achieve the 2020 Aichi Biodiversity Targets

Among the already noticeable signs of progress are the considerable slowing down in forest loss, eradication of forest encroachments and illegal logging in the biologically-rich wet zone, protection of 28% of the land area within reserves (with 60% of the closed canopy natural forest or 55% of all natural forests under protection), and the mechanisms that have been put in place for the prevention and eradication of invasive alien species... More »

Support mechanisms for national implementation (legislation, funding, capacity-building, coordination, mainstreaming, etc.)

The main pieces of legislation that relate to biodiversity conservation include the Forest Ordinance (1907), Fauna and Flora Protection Ordinance (1937), Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Act (1996), Urban Development Authority Law (1978), as amended by subsequent Acts, National Environmental Act (1980) and Amendment No. 56 (1988), and the Marine Pollution Prevention Act (2008)... More »

Mechanisms for monitoring and reviewing implementation

The BCAP provides indicators for monitoring the success of meeting CBD objectives through implementation of the BCAP. In 2007, an Addendum was prepared to update and implement conservation action. Thereafter, in 2009, the Ministry of Environment and Renewable Energy (MoERE) established the ‘National Action Plan for the Haritha Lanka’ programme to meet current and emerging economic and environmental challenges... More »

National Contacts

Full details of national contacts »

Convention on Biological Diversity

Hon. Mr. A.D. Susil Premajayantha
CBD Primary NFP
Mr. B.M.U.D. Basnayake
CBD Primary NFP, CHM NFP, SBSTTA NFP, ICNP ABS NFP, GSPC NFP
Ms. R.H.M.P. Abeykoon
CBD Primary NFP
Mr. Gamini Gamage
Protected Areas NFP
Rasnekaralalage Sujith Sumeda Ratnayake
CHM Informal Advisory Committee

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

Mr. B.M.U.D. Basnayake
Cartagena Protocol Primary NFP, BCH NFP

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  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme