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Latest NBSAPs

NBSAP Status

Republic of Moldova
The revised National Strategy on Biological Diversity (2015-2020) and its Action Plan were adopted by Government Decision No. 274 on 18 May 2015, with consideration given to the goals of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and its Aichi Targets, the Strategic Plan for the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety 2011-2020 and the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. The new NBSAP contains five 2020 “Specific Objectives” which aim to: a) ensure sustainable management and institutional efficiency; b) reduce pressures on biodiversity; c) implement measures to stop threats to biodiversity; d) implement measures to increase the benefits derived from natural resources and ecosystem services; and e) provide scientific support for biodiversity conservation, access to information and promote education for sustainable development. The scope of actions to be undertaken towards each Specific Objective has been defined, and the actions themselves are prioritized, costed and assigned monitoring indicators, funding sources and institutions responsible for implementation. The results expected from implementation have also been formulated. A Monitoring Group will be established by order of the Minister of Environment and develop annual reports on implementation progress. Among other outcomes, it is anticipated that NBSAP implementation will result in the integration of biodiversity conservation in the most important policies; development of efficient financial tools and mechanisms for biodiversity and natural ecosystems conservation; extension of State protected natural areas and the creation of a national ecological network from 5.5% to 8% and of afforested areas from 11.1% to 15%; establishment of the first tri-Party (Romania-Republic of Moldova-Ukraine) biosphere reserve; promotion of environment-friendly practices in organic farming; projects for local communities for the sustainable development of genetic resources; promotion of biotechnology for reproducing rare, vulnerable and economically valuable species. The Parliament of the Republic of Moldova adopted the country’s first NBSAP in 2001.

Seychelles
A revised NBSAP (2015-2020) was endorsed by the Cabinet of Ministers in July 2015. NBSAP 2.0 contains 20 objectives developed with consideration given to the global framework, as well as 31 projects to be implemented over the 6-year duration that have been respectively mapped to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets they will contribute to. This document is to serve as the primary mechanism for CBD implementation and be updated periodically in accordance with COP decisions. The biodiversity component of the National Sustainable Development Strategy (SSDS) (2012-2020) is the primary mechanism for mainstreaming biodiversity into and across development sectors, with tourism and fisheries being the country's main such sectors. A trend of using revenue derived from tourism for mainstreaming biodiversity activities in this sector has achieved notable success with respect to biodiversity conservation, small island ecosystem rehabilitation and the eradication of invasive alien species. Mainstreaming in the fisheries sector has been less successful to date. The terrestrial Protected Areas Network today constitutes 46.6% of Seychelles’ total landmass, and official approval has been given to further increase this to more than 50%. It should however be mentioned that most of Seychelles’ endemic biodiversity is located on its ancient granitic islands where a considerably lower percentage of the landmass (22.3%) is protected. Marine protected areas constitute less than 1% of the EEZ today however a process has been initiated to designate 30% of the EEZ as protected and half of this area (15% of the EEZ) as strict no-take zones. An NBSAP Implementation Unit will be established and integrated into the administration framework for SSDS implementation to facilitate biodiversity mainstreaming. In addition, an NBSAP Partnership Forum will be established whose members will be responsible for reporting to the NBSAP Implementation Unit on the status of implementation of their respective projects, among other matters. Seychelles has developed an initial biodiversity metadatabase and a priority gap analysis on national biodiversity data. Moreover, a project to develop a strategy and action plan to facilitate NBSAP funding has been prioritized and is being facilitated by Seychelles’ participation in the UNDP Biodiversity Finance Initiative (BIOFIN) currently under implementation. The country’s first NBSAP (1997) was considered particularly successful in mobilizing biodiversity stakeholders, identifying priorities and providing civil society with a framework for engagement which has contributed to the emergence of a dynamic and effective biodiversity NGO sector.

Sudan
The Interim National Constitution of Sudan (2005), in its Article 11 (1), states that "the people of the Sudan shall have the right to a clean and diverse environment; the State and the citizens have the duty to preserve and promote the country’s biodiversity". On 25 June 2015, Sudan’s Council of Ministers adopted a revised NBSAP (2015-2020) strategically oriented on the sustainable use of natural resources, maintenance of ecosystem services and biodiversity mainstreaming across sectors and society for achieving socioeconomic development. The Action Plan addresses 5 thematic areas (education, awareness and training; legislation; policies; conservation; sustainable use) for each of the following 7 “biodiversity components”: plant agrobiodiversity; forestry biodiversity; rangeland and livestock biodiversity; wildlife, marine and inland waters ecosystems; biotechnology and biosafety; invasive alien species; climate change impacts. Each biodiversity component contains targets mapped to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, accompanied by costed and timeframed actions, including agencies responsible for implementation. While the Higher Council for Environment and Natural Resources (HCENR) is responsible for overall implementation, a Technical Committee composed of a group of biodiversity experts has been proposed to work closely with and under the HCENR. Sudan has political commitment to mainstream biodiversity components and ecosystems as high development priorities. The new NBSAP takes into account Sudan’s National 25-Year Strategy (2002-2027), Five-Year Plan (2012-2016), Five-Year Program for Economic Reform (2015-2019), National Plan for Poverty Reduction, among other instruments. The Plant Genetic Resources Unit of the Agricultural Research Corporation has achieved notable progress in regard to the establishment of an electronic gene bank documentation system which includes passport data on existing Plant Genetic Resources (PGR) collections, which are uploaded and made available on the Internet through a regional data portal for the Eastern Africa Plant Genetic Resources Network (EAPGREN). Sudan became a Party to the Nagoya Protocol in October 2014.

Latvia
Latvia's Environmental Policy Concept (EPC) 2014-2020, adopted in 2014, covers biodiversity protection issues linked to the implementation of the goals and objectives of the Convention. In this light, the EPC is considered equivalent to a revised NBSAP. It is available in Latvian only at the moment. An English version is forthcoming (a summary of the EPC will be provided upon receipt of this version).

Austria
Adopted in August 2014, Austria’s new Biodiversity Strategy 2020+ promotes implementation through shared responsibility and holistic solutions. It contains 12 targets developed with the Aichi Biodiversity Targets taken into account and distributed among 5 fields of action: (1) knowing and acknowledging biodiversity (2) sustainable use of biodiversity (3) reducing pressures on biodiversity (4) conserving and developing biodiversity (5) securing global biodiversity. The targets’ priorities have been designed to orient the Federal Government, Federal Provinces and municipalities, NGOs, among other stakeholders, in carrying out measures to promote the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services over the long term. For each target, evaluation parameters, implementation (and further) stakeholders have been established. The National Biodiversity Commission is composed of representatives from all societal groups and will assist and review implementation on an annual basis. Based on the Commission’s reporting, adjustments and further strategic planning will be developed from 2020 onward. Funds for implementing the Strategy will be secured from public and private funds as well as through the EU co-financing system. Examples of measures to be implemented through the Strategy include: cross-sectoral platforms on Biodiversity and Health and Business and Biodiversity; adapted education syllabuses across all levels of education; assessment and regular monitoring, primarily of target features defined under EU legislation; expanded organic farming; improved coordination of spatially-effective sectoral planning between and at all levels of planning, with a view on biodiversity and ecosystem services; consideration of biodiversity-related results of Strategic Environmental Assessments; implementation of the Alpine Convention's Tourism Protocol; increased integration of biodiversity aspects in existing corporate social responsibility (CSR) systems. Notable achievements have been made to date in establishing protected areas. Land protected under various nature conservation laws today comprises 27% of the national territory. Of this area, 16% is designated as Natura 2000 area, national park or nature conservation area and thus strictly protected; almost 11% are less strictly protected sites such as landscape conservation areas.

Mongolia
Mongolia’s National Biodiversity Program for 2015-2025 (NBSAP) was adopted on 29 June 2015. The final document, including an English version, will be sent to the CBD Secretariat after a minor review. Please check back here shortly.

Hungary
The Hungarian Parliament adopted a revised National Biodiversity Strategy for the 2015-2020 period on 9 June 2015. The Strategy was developed in line with the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, and its Aichi Targets, as well as with EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. An English version of the new Strategy will be posted shortly.

Guyana
Adopted by Cabinet in May 2015, Guyana’s new NBSAP 2012-2020 contains a vision to 2030 and constitutes the country’s third NBSAP. Developed with consideration given to the global biodiversity agenda, 9 strategic objectives have been established to: (i) improve biodiversity status (ii) mainstream biodiversity in key productive sectors (iii) promote CEPA matters (iv) improve implementation, monitoring and reporting for MEAs, among other commitments (v) enhance national, regional and international partnerships (vi) consolidate and harmonize policy, legal, regulatory and administrative frameworks (vii) improve monitoring, including within productive sectors (viii) strengthen the knowledge base and capacity (ix) secure adequate resources. Priority actions, lead implementation agencies and targets have also been identified. A Communications Strategy to support actions taken to address the NBSAP's priorities has also been developed. Information that was key to informing the revision process related to the contribution of natural resources and biodiversity/ecosystem services to the economy (more than 95% of foreign exchange earnings in 2013 notably related to their use); low carbon development (through the Low Carbon Development Strategy, work is ongoing to establish a REDD+ framework and a monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) system); increased investment in ecotourism, including in collaboration with the private sector (visitor arrivals are increasing and Guyana is receiving regional and international acclaim as a tourist destination); increased projection in the growth of the mining (gold) industry; and the increasing threat of land degradation (it is projected that the rate of degradation will increase to between 200,000 and 250,000 hectares annually over the next 5 to 10 years). With gold production from small- and medium-scale miners having risen by 48% between 2007 and 2011 and investor confidence unshaken, prospects for large-scale gold mining in Guyana are very real. The adoption of innovative technology is unfolding nowadays to deal with issues associated with mercury abatement, improved efficiencies in recovery to offset the cost of production, and to reduce threats to the environment. A national policy on access to genetic resources and fair and equitable benefit-sharing has been developed. In April 2014, Guyana acceded to the Nagoya Protocol on ABS. Guyana and the European Union are currently negotiating a Voluntary Partnership Agreement under the existing EU Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) Action Plan which is expected to contribute to the sustainable management of Guyana's forests, employment and economic development.

Denmark
Adopted in 2014, the Danish Nature Policy – Our Shared Nature contains a long-term vision to 2050 and serves as Denmark’s revised NBSAP, concretizing implementation of both the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and its Aichi Targets and the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. The Policy contains 22 initiatives that have been mapped to achieving the global and EU targets and that are distributed among three main focus areas: (i) to establish more and better interconnected nature (including marine habitats); (ii) to strengthen initiatives for wild animals and plants; and (iii) to improve a sense of community through nature experiences and outdoor activities. What is known as the Danish “Green Map” will serve as the strategic framework and plan for policy implementation, contributing to ongoing and new initiatives, including actions related to international and Natura 2000 sites. Broad stakeholder participation, identification of synergies and establishment of partnerships at all levels is encouraged, with municipalities being particularly responsible for targeted nature management. The Danish Nature Foundation was recently established by the Danish Government, the Aage V. Jensen Nature Foundation and the Villum Foundation to support implementation (DKK 500 million have been allocated as initial capital). Initiatives to better integrate farmers in nature management are under investigation. Denmark has produced a digital collection of nature maps, including one on biodiversity detailing Red List species and other endangered species. At the moment, two large projects are being carried out under the EU LIFE programme to create more coherent natural habitats and support both water and climate measures. A new national forest programme is moreover soon to be launched and will address, among other matters, the protection of important forests on private property. Denmark’s level of development assistance expenditure, which averaged DKK 2.4 billion per year between 2006 and 2012, has been maintained in the Danish Development Assistance Strategy.

Peru
Peru’s Estrategia Nacional de Diversidad Biológica al 2021 y su Plan de Acción 2014-2018 was developed in accordance with the 1997 Law on Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity and adopted by decree in 2014. Its development featured a broad, regionally-balanced and participatory process, including representatives from five national organizations of Indigenous Peoples, including the National Organization of Indigenous Andean and Amazonian Women, the private sector and civil society. The new Strategy contains 6 strategic objectives to 2021 focused on: biodiversity status and ecosystem services; national development; reducing pressures; strengthening capacity at the three levels of government; improving knowledge and technologies and re-valuing traditional knowledge associated with the biodiversity of Indigenous Peoples; and strengthening cooperation and the participation of all actors in biodiversity governance. Thirteen national targets have been set (and mapped to the global targets), along with 2013 baselines and indicators. In addition, 147 actions are prioritized, scheduled and assigned entities responsible for implementation (a decentralized approach is promoted with regional and local governments assigned responsibilities). NBSAP considerations have been mainstreamed in various instruments, such as the Bicentennial Plan “Peru 2021”, National Environmental Action Plan, Environmental Agenda, and the Ministry of Environment’s Multi-annual Sectoral Strategic Plan. A CEPA Strategy and Resource Mobilization Strategy are currently in development. By the end of the first half of 2015, Peru aims to have adequate incentives, developed and coordinated across sectors and between levels of government, for engaging the private sector in biodiversity conservation initiatives.

Jordan
The development of Jordan’s revised NBSAP (2015-2020) was guided by past experiences and lessons learned from implementing the first NBSAP, adopted in 2003, the guidelines set by the CBD for this process, as well as by the current global biodiversity agenda. Twenty-nine national targets have been established under 5 strategic goals that focus on: good governance and mainstreaming; reducing human-induced pressures; protected areas, priority species and genetic resources; ecosystem services and climate change; knowledge management and monitoring. Each national target is assigned key performance indicators (KPIs), potential lead agency (ies), priority actions (there are over 300 actions all together) and implementation deadlines. The new NBSAP addresses the shortcomings of the previous NBSAP (which as of 2014 had only been 50% implemented) by seeking to adopt a financing framework using internal, external and innovative funding sources; a national outreach and awareness-raising program; a national-capacity-building program for the Ministry and its partners and stakeholders, including local communities and the private sector; a revised governance framework for implementation and its monitoring; improving capabilities for inter-institutional coordination, national mainstreaming and knowledge management; among other matters. Although primary ownership of the NBSAP lies with the Ministry of Environment, the National Biodiversity Committee (NBC) established in 2005 operates as its executive arm and is gradually becoming an active platform for improved involvement of civil society in the decision-making process. Jordan also anticipates amending its Environment Protection Law (2006) by 2017 which will enhance the legal biodiversity framework by including several bylaws specifically on protected areas, genetic resources and biodiversity and species conservation, as well as a revised EIA Bylaw (2005). The National Action Plan (NAP) to Combat Desertification (2006) is also under review.

Burundi
To facilitate implementation of its new NBSAP 2013-2020, which takes into account the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, Burundi has notably developed an associated Resource Mobilization Strategy, Capacity Development Strategy and CEPA Strategy. Moreover, the country adopted a Bill on Biodiversity in 2013. Twenty-two national biodiversity objectives are distributed among the NBSAP’s five strategic goals which aim to: 1) manage the underlying causes of biodiversity loss through the involvement and commitment of all stakeholders at all levels; 2) reduce direct pressures on biodiversity and biological resources; 3) improve the state of biodiversity through safeguarding ecosystems, species and genetic diversity; 4) value and sustain the benefits derived from biodiversity and ecosystem services; and 5) reinforce NBSAP implementation through participatory planning, efficient knowledge management and capacity development. A suite of indicators has been adopted and will be used by the National Biodiversity Committee to monitor and evaluate NBSAP implementation. A National CHM Strategy and Action Plan to 2020 has also been completed. Five regional plans for implementing the NBSAP exist, as do plans for integrating biodiversity into six sectors (Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock; Ministry of Energy and Mines; Ministry of the Interior; Ministry of Transportation, Public Works and Equipment; Ministry of Commerce, Industry, Postal Services and Tourism; and the highest levels of decision-making).

Niger
The preparation of the second edition of Niger’s Stratégie Nationale et Plan d'Actions sur la Diversité Biologique, adopted in 2014, was guided by the objectives of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity (2011-2020) and the National Plan for Social and Economic Development (2012-2015). Niger has undertaken measures to mainstream biodiversity, integrally or partially, in several additional planning frameworks, including the National Environmental Plan for Sustainable Development. Gender consideration is set down as a principle in the new NBSAP. A decentralized bottom-up approach to implementation is being promoted. It is anticipated that the main impact of implementation will be a reduction in the level of poverty for Niger’s population. The revision contains 5 strategic objectives that have been mapped to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets: i) conserve and sustainably exploit ecosystems, species and genetic resources; ii) reduce various forms of pollution; iii) improve and develop tools for managing protected areas; iv) take into account biodiversity in policies and strategies; v) address the effects of climate change. Eighty actions have been formulated, along with associated responsible actors, indicators, verification sources, costs per year (including funding gaps), hypotheses and risks. The total estimated cost of NBSAP implementation to 2020 is FCFA 420 647 660 000. Needs regarding capacity-building and access to technologies for implementing the new NBSAP have been identified, as have activities required to increase levels of communication and public awareness. Niger intends to adopt a system for monitoring and evaluation based on the principles of Results-based Management (RBM).

Namibia
Namibia’s Second National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (2013-2022) (NBSAP2) was adopted in 2014. The sustainable management of biodiversity is enshrined in Namibia’s Constitution and integrated in its long-term National Development Strategy (Vision 2030). NBSAP2 has 9 key priorities: mainstreaming biodiversity; improving communication of biodiversity-related issues; addressing critical threats to biodiversity; contributing to national development objectives; strengthening the policy-making framework for biodiversity management; generating reliable baseline information; capitalizing on synergies with the Rio and other Biodiversity-Related Conventions; enhancing regional cooperation; and mainstreaming gender considerations. It is aligned with the five strategic goals of the global framework and contains 17 SMART national targets mapped to the Aichi Targets. NBSAP2 is also aligned with the SADC Regional Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. Moreover, it contains 38 strategic initiatives, with associated activities, that have been formulated to guide actions that will lead to the achievement of the 17 targets. Activities have designated lead agencies and partners and associated baselines (where available), key performance indicators, timeframes and costs (a conservative estimate for implementing NBSAP2 is N$ 494 million). Implementation will be led by natural resources management-related ministries and target key groups not typically directly responsible for biodiversity management, such as the Office of the Prime Minister, Ministry of Finance, National Planning Commission, parliamentarians, traditional authorities, regional councils and local authorities, private sector. Notably, a CEPA Strategy for implementing NBSAP2 has also been elaborated. Monitoring and evaluation will be coordinated by the newly established Division of Multilateral Environmental Agreements, under the Ministry of Environment and Tourism, with support from the cross-sectoral NBSAP2 Steering Committee. By 2022, Namibia hopes to have increased mobilization of financial resources from all sources compared to the 2008-2012 period. Among other successes, NBSAP1 implementation led to the proclamation of a first Marine Protected Area, the world’s largest Trans-frontier Conservation Area and 32 community forests. The beneficiation of communities continues to be at the heart of the country’s sustainable development process.

Mali
Mali’s Stratégie Nationale et Plan d’Actions pour la Diversité Biologique (SNPA/DB) was revised in 2014, taking into account the global framework and emphasizing biodiversity conservation as a development concept. It contains five strategic directions: i) integrate biodiversity conservation in government and civil society actions to manage the underlying causes of biodiversity loss; ii) reduce direct pressures on biodiversity and encourage sustainable use; iii) improve biodiversity status by safeguarding ecosystems, species and genetic diversity; iv) reinforce the advantages for all derived from biodiversity and the services provided by ecosystems; and v) reinforce implementation by means of participatory planning, knowledge management and capacity reinforcement. Nineteen national targets have been developed, along with 94 priority actions to be implemented from 2015 to 2020. The Action Plan identifies responsible institutions and partners, and costs and timeframes associated with implementing actions. Indicators for monitoring the achievement of each action have also been established. The estimated total cost of NBSAP implementation over the next 5 years has been placed at FCFA 44 290 000 000. Unlike the first NBSAP, adopted in 2001, the new NBSAP addresses for the first time, or emphasizes, matters such as: gender, poverty reduction, rights of local and indigenous communities, invasive plants, commerce, tourism, transboundary issues, climate change. A mechanism for improving the mobilization of financial resources has been proposed. An analysis has also been conducted regarding the country’s capacity-building needs. Mali also acknowledges the need to establish mechanisms to ensure mainstreaming in development planning processes and to monitor and evaluate implementation.

Antigua and Barbuda
Adopted in 2014, the first NBSAP of Antigua and Barbuda was developed on the basis of the framework provided in the draft prepared in 2001, and with consideration given to the application of the current global targets to the country’s biodiversity status. The Strategy contains four major objectives: (1) develop and establish a national system, including protected areas, for the management and conservation of biodiversity conservation; (2) strengthen the capacity of governmental natural resources management institutions, as well as non-governmental organizations, to support the objectives and achieve the overall aim of the NBSAP; (3) develop, improve, enact and enforce ecological legislation that provides adequate protection of biological diversity; and (4) strengthen public awareness of environmental issues, ecological education and public participation in decision-making. Twenty national targets, accompanied by implementation activities and indicators, have been formulated in alignment with the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, and agencies to engage in implementing activities have been identified. Support activities to be carried out over the 2014-2020 period have also been developed through stakeholder consultations to ensure effective implementation. The NBSAP emphasizes the importance of achieving an integrated, coordinated and inter-sectoral approach to biodiversity policy planning and management. Implementation will be led by the Environment Division, with assistance provided by the National Coordinating Mechanism (NCM) for Environment Conventions which was formally established by the Environment Protection and Management Bill (2014). This new legislation has also enabled the country to initiate work on the creation of a sustainable financing mechanism for biodiversity and particularly for protected areas management known as the SIRF (Sustainable Island Resource Fund).

Greece
Adopted in 2014 as a Ministerial Decision, Greece’s first NBSAP aims to halt biodiversity loss and the degradation of ecosystem services by 2026. The Strategy’s implementation period is 15 years (2014-2029). It consists of 13 general national targets, under which 39 specific targets have been respectively formulated, to address the following themes: (i) increasing scientific knowledge; (ii) preservation of national natural capital; (iii) national system of protected areas; (iv) conservation of genetic resources; (v) synergistic policies to conserve biodiversity; (vi) conservation of landscape diversity; (vii) biodiversity and climate change; (viii) biodiversity and invasive alien species; (ix) international and transnational conservation; (x) public administration and the protection of biodiversity; (xi) integrating biodiversity conservation in the value system of society; (xii) participation of society in biodiversity conservation; and (xiii) valuation of ecosystem services and promotion of the value of Greek biodiversity. Greece’s national targets have been mapped to both the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and EU Biodiversity Targets. The Strategy will be reviewed and amended every five years and action plans prepared for five-year periods. Actions for the achievement of all 39 specific targets have been established for the first five-year period (2014-2019), as have some indicative implementation indicators. During this first period, Greece intends to establish a monitoring system to quantifiably measure the status of implementation of the Strategy. The Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change is the main institution responsible for implementation.

Mauritania
The primary goal of Mauritania’s new National Biodiversity Strategy (2011-2020) is to maintain the functions of ecosystems over the long term, including their capacity to adapt and evolve in relation to environmental changes, particularly climate change and desertification processes. The document is based on six strategic orientations: the creation of the desire to act on behalf of biodiversity; the preservation of life and its ability to evolve; investment in biodiversity conservation; assuring the sustainable and equitable use of biodiversity; assuring policy coherence and the effectiveness of actions; and the development, sharing and utilization of knowledge. In addition, 14 national targets have been set, together with actions, indicators and costs for implementing actions. Progress achieved to date towards the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and relevant Millennium Development Goals is also outlined in the Strategy. The National Action Plan for the Environment (PANE) and the National Strategy for Sustainable Development (SNDD) together define environmental policy. The PANE serves as a coherent environmental framework for Mauritania and, notably, its second phase (PANE II) for 2012-2016 has mainstreamed biodiversity in all its considerations, promotes a decentralized and synergistic approach to environmental management, including with the participation of local actors. Biodiversity is also integrated in the Strategic Framework for Poverty Reduction (CSLP) and the National Action Plan to Combat Desertification (PAN/LCD), among several other planning documents. Moreover, as a result of an increase in institution building in recent years, there now exists greater opportunities for harmonizing actions and mainstreaming in sectors. Examples of current national priorities include: sectoral reform focused on human, material and financial resources, consideration of inter-sectoral matters, restructuring; Good Environmental Governance promoted in PANE II; preservation and valuation of natural resources; and the promotion of renewable energy sources.

United Arab Emirates
The new (and first) Biodiversity Strategy of the United Arab Emirates includes a series of main orientations and national goals in line with the “Emirates vision 2021”, in addition to the Emirates' Strategy for Green Development, the National Strategy for Coastal and Marine Environment, the Biosafety Strategy and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. The main orientations focus on: 1) mainstreaming biodiversity in all economic and social sectors; 2) reinforcement of knowledge sharing and capacity building for upgrading and addressing biodiversity management; 3) improvement of biodiversity status through habitat protection, genetic diversity and restoration of degraded ecosystems; 4) reducing pressure on marine and terrestrial biodiversity; and 5) enhancing regional and international cooperation on biodiversity cross-cutting issues. Twenty-one national targets with action-driven and outcome-oriented measures, grouped under 5 thematic areas, have been set out. The new biodiversity strategy includes particular engagements on capacity building, communication and public awareness, resource mobilization, and on a national knowledge sharing platform in line with the CHM of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Progress on the implementation of the strategy and action plan will be monitored and assessed and findings will be reported by representatives from each Emirate.

India
Although prepared prior to the adoption of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and its Aichi Targets in 2010, India’s NBAP 2008 is nevertheless broadly aligned with the current global biodiversity agenda. In this regard, India decided that a revision of the NBAP 2008 was not necessary, and instead prepared an addendum in 2014 to the NBAP 2008 consisting of 12 national biodiversity targets developed within the framework of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. These national targets are mapped to the achievement of the latter as well as complemented by indicators and a monitoring framework.

Bhutan

Bhutan’s “National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plan” (2014) is the country’s fourth NBSAP document. Prepared by a National Task Force comprised of key biodiversity stakeholders, under the coordination of the National Biodiversity Centre, it considers key gaps identified from a review of earlier NBSAPs and seeks to, among other matters, strengthen coordination mechanisms, mainstreaming in sectorial development plans and programs, capacity, awareness, and promote ownership of the NBSAP as a guiding document at national, sectorial and local levels. Twenty national targets have been established and are mapped to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. Each target is complemented by a rationale, strategies, actions, indicators, timelines, priority ranking and cost estimates on implementation. Additionally, a framework for NBSAP implementation, monitoring and evaluation identifies responsible thematic groups and stakeholders. Since the first NBSAP was formulated in 1997, Bhutan has adopted 12 acts, policies and strategies related to biodiversity conservation. Notably, the safeguarding of Bhutan’s biodiversity is enshrined in its Constitution (2008). The Biodiversity Act of Bhutan was adopted in 2003. More recently, the Food and Nutrition Security Policy of Bhutan (2014) promotes biodiversity conservation for food security and resilience for all time thereby contributing to Gross National Happiness. Bhutan currently has 70.46% of its total area under forest cover and 51.44% of the total area secured as protected areas and biological corridors.

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Afghanistan
Afghanistan’s first NBSAP (2014-2017) contains 11 preliminary targets focusing on: protected areas; conserving selected taxonomic groups; conserving genetic diversity of valuable species and maintaining associated indigenous and local knowledge; sustainably managing sources from which biodiversity-based products are derived; decreasing the rate of loss and degradation of natural habitats; alien species; climate change and pollution; ecosystem capacity and sustainable livelihoods; traditional knowledge and the rights of ILCs; access and benefits sharing; and financial and technological resources. All of these targets include a timeframe and implementation responsibilities and have been mapped to the achievement of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. The NBSAP is mainstreamed with the Environment Sector Strategy and the National Priority Programme 1 - National Water and Natural Resources Development Programme, among other strategies. In addition, the UNFCCC National Adaptation Plan of Action (2009) extensively references biodiversity and its role in supporting ecosystems, and especially rural communities, to adapt to climate change. Pursuant to the Environment Law (2007), the National Environmental Protection Agency (NEPA) is mandated with overall responsibility for NBSAP implementation, in partnership with the Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock and other government organizations, and assisted by international organizations and NGOs. In terms of decentralizing actions for implementing the NBSAP, the Sub-National Government National Priority Programme - Subnational Governance Strategy will be key to this process. Further, through environmental plans, of which biodiversity is a subcomponent, contained in the National Development Plan (2015-2019), NBSAP implementation at the provincial level (there are 34 provinces) will be facilitated (NBSAP updates for the 2015-2019 period will elaborate extensively on this objective). Afghanistan’s National Development Strategy (2008-2013) currently serves as its National Poverty Reduction Paper; its cross-cutting environmental issues section contains a section on biodiversity which illustrates how Afghanistan will link up its development, security, and environmental issues, combining with sectoral policies and plans. For NBSAP implementation to be successful, the country further recognizes the need to develop a plan for capacity development, a communication and outreach strategy, and a plan for resource mobilization. To monitor activities, a comprehensive list of indicators will be developed for the updated NBSAP (2015-2019).

Republic of Korea

The Republic of Korea’s new NBSAP (2014-2018) was developed in accordance with the requirements of the Act on the Conservation and the Use of Biodiversity adopted in 2012. Based mainly on the theme of “Expanding the Future Value of Biodiversity”, the NBSAP is the third prepared by Korea and addresses 6 priorities for action: mainstreaming biodiversity; strengthening biodiversity conservation; reducing threats to biodiversity; the sustainable use of ecosystems; establishing a mechanism for biodiversity research and management; and international collaboration. Under these priorities, 18 goals have been established and are linked, as appropriate, to the achievement of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. Action plans, accompanied by targets, actions and indicators, have been formulated for each of these goals. Korea’s first NBSAP was prepared in 1997, and the second in 2009 for the 2009-2013 period which focused attention on the equitable sharing of benefits from biodiversity and the sustainable use of biological and genetic resources. A notable achievement of these NBSAPs corresponds to the creation of institutions for biodiversity conservation, as demonstrated by the establishment of the National Biodiversity Centre (within the National Biological Resource Centre) in March 2013, and the Marine Biodiversity Institute of Korea which is scheduled to open in 2014, among others. The Korea Biodiversity Observation Network (KBON) has also been recently set up to monitor biodiversity, including the impacts on biodiversity due to climate change, at the national level over the long term. Furthermore, in September 2013, the Ministry of Environment established a partnership with the business sector to raise and promote biodiversity programs called the “Korea Business and Biodiversity Initiative” (KBBI), which has been officially enrolled in the Global Platform on Business and Biodiversity managed by SCBD.

Georgia

Adopted by Government Decree on 8 May 2014, Georgia’s new NBSAP (2014-2020) was prepared in the light of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and its Aichi Targets. In contrast to Georgia’s earlier NBSAP (2005), the current NBSAP addresses implementation from a more holistic, cross-cutting and ecosystem-based perspective. CBD’s Gender Plan of Action was also fully considered in the course of its preparation. National targets have been set to achieve both the 2030 Vision and the strategic goals and targets of the global agenda and are accompanied by indicators, objectives, critical assumptions, actions, timeframes, responsible implementing bodies, and sources of potential funding. An overview of the country’s biodiversity is provided with respect to eight themes: species and habitats; protected areas; forest ecosystems; agricultural biodiversity and natural grasslands; inland water ecosystems; The Black Sea; cross-cutting issues and governance; and CEPA, with actions for implementing each national target linked to the theme of relevance. A Committee for Supervising and Monitoring NBSAP Implementation will be established by the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources Protection and ensure broad stakeholder engagement, including with the economic sectors and local authorities. Georgia also intends to develop a National Resource Mobilization Strategy.

Netherlands

Actions for implementing the Aichi Biodiversity Targets have been integrated into several Dutch policy plans which together serve as a revised NBSAP, thereby fulfilling the requirements of Aichi Biodiversity Target 17. Based on the recommendations of the Taskforce on Biodiversity and Natural Resources, the “Natural Capital Agenda: conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity” (2013) sets the implementation agenda to 2020 in the Netherlands and in the Dutch Caribbean. The Agenda considers the provisions of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and its Aichi Targets, the EU Biodiversity Strategy, as well as Dutch international development policy. Emphasis is placed on strengthening the economy-ecology relationship, with four main themes defined (sustainable production and consumption: sustainable supply chains; sustainable fisheries and protection of marine biodiversity; sustainable agriculture and protection of biodiversity; valuing natural capital). General objectives and specific action points are identified for each theme, with activities to be implemented by all stakeholders, including civil society and the private sector. Related policy plans include, among others, the Natural Way Forward (Government Vision 2014) and the Nature Policy Plan (The Caribbean) 2013-2017.

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Liechtenstein

Liechtenstein’s National Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 is accompanied by an Action Plan to 2020 and constitutes the country’s first NBSAP submission to the Convention. It was originally prepared in the 2010 International Year of Biodiversity and adjusted in 2014. The Strategy is based on one overall target which is to ensure the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. In addition, 4 sub-targets have been established addressing: i) biodiversity as the core element for nature conservation, including food and livelihood, with regard for its value and effects on nature; ii) the legally binding designation of nature protection areas to ensure and support biodiversity; iii) the sustainable use of Liechtenstein’s resources with consideration given to the biodiversity targets; and iv) Liechtenstein’s responsibility for its fair share of global biodiversity. Distributed among these 4 sub-targets are 12 strategy elements for which actions, bodies responsible for implementation and timeframes have been established.

Guatemala

Guatemala's revised NBSAP (2012-2022) is the main instrument for implementing the National Biodiversity Policy which was adopted in 2011 for mainstreaming biodiversity in support of socioeconomic development; this approach exemplifies a paradigm shift in the manner in which biodiversity is addressed in the country, with the original NBSAP (1999) having stressed a purely conservationist approach. Responsibility for implementation of all policy related to biodiversity is assigned to the National Council for Protected Areas (CONAP). The revised NBSAP focuses on the five thematic areas outlined in the Biodiversity Policy: 1) biodiversity knowledge and valuation; 2) biodiversity conservation and restoration; 3) sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystem services; 4) role of biodiversity in climate change mitigation and adaptation; and 5) policy implementation. The Strategy contains 5 operational strategies, 11 strategic objectives, 14 national targets (aligned with the Aichi Biodiversity Targets), while the Action Plan contains 139 actions for implementing the Strategy. Indicators have been developed for monitoring and assessing implementation. Further, a preliminary version of the financial requirements and budget for NBSAP implementation has been prepared. Recognition is also given to the fact that the development of a Resource Mobilization Strategy is essential and should consider national, regional and international sources, and those that are public and private in nature.

Nepal

Nepal’s revised NBSAP (2014-2020) has a long-term vision (35 years) and includes specific short-term (up to 2020) strategies and priorities for action. The latter are clustered into 6 sectoral thematic areas (protected areas, forests outside protected areas, rangelands, wetlands, agriculture, mountains) designed to address key biodiversity threats, gaps and issues, the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and the Millennium Development Goals. Strategies and priority actions have also been developed for 15 cross-sectoral thematic areas focused on: policy and legislation, institutions, mainstreaming, harmonization among biodiversity-related conventions, capacity, landscape management, invasive alien species, climate change, gender and social inclusion, traditional knowledge and indigenous and local communities, knowledge generation and management, technology, communication, extension and outreach (CEO), fund generation and mobilization, and monitoring and evaluation. Where appropriate, quantitative targets have been set against the priority action. The strategies generally indicate the agency responsible for implementation and supporting agencies, while the strategy on monitoring and evaluation also sets out performance indicators, means of verification and a time schedule. The National Biodiversity Coordination Committee (NBCC) serves as the key national institution for managing biodiversity, and also facilitates and monitors activities carried out by institutions at the district and local levels. The framework for the Local Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan is intended to serve as a guide to the Village Development Committees (VDCs) and municipalities in preparing their own BSAP. A preliminary estimate of costs for implementing the NBSAP based on the recommended priority actions and past funding trends has been prepared.

Estonia

Adopted in 2012 and developed in line with the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020, Estonia’s “Nature Conservation Development Plan until 2020” (NCDP) serves as the country’s revised NBSAP. The NCDP is also aligned with the Estonian Sustainable Development Strategy until 2030 and the Estonian Environmental Strategy until 2030 and promoted as a strategic base document for mainstreaming into all sectors. The NCDP comprises 3 main goals to ensure: (i) that people know, appreciate and conserve nature and know how to use their knowledge in their everyday lives; (ii) the favourable conservation status of species and habitats and the diversity of landscapes so that habitats function as a coherent ecological network; and (iii) the long-term sustainability of natural resources, and the preconditions for this, and that the principles of the Ecosystem Approach are followed in the use of natural resources. Measures and activities have been developed to achieve each goal. The total cost for implementing the NCDP over the 2012–2020 period is 582.2 million euros. Progress achieved on implementing the NCDP will be reported to the Government once a year with revisions deemed necessary initiated by the Ministry of the Environment who will involve all relevant ministries, including the Ministry of Finance, and parties in the revision process.

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Cameroon

Cameroon’s NBSAP II, completed in 2012, is a revision and update of the 2000 NBSAP, proposing a new policy orientation to reverse and halt the current trend in biodiversity loss as a way to establish a strong nature base that is indispensable for the country’s socioeconomic growth. Of importance is Cameroon’s 2035 vision for growth and development and its priority orientations, defined within the Growth and Employment Strategy Paper (GESP) which provides development options to boost key production sectors that are largely dependent on biodiversity (the document highlights activities that are unsustainable within each of these sectors and their negative impacts on biodiversity). NBSAP II will be implemented through to 2020 and contains 4 strategic goals, 20 national-level targets and 10 ecosystem-specific targets, priority actions, timeframes for action, performance indicators and actors/organizations responsible for implementation. It has been prepared with consideration given to the framework provided by the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and its Aichi Biodiversity Targets. A monitoring and evaluation framework has been conceived as well. In addition, NBSAP II provides an orientation for the subsequent development of a Capacity Development Plan, CEPA Plan and a Resource Mobilization Plan for its implementation.

Dominica

Dominica's revised NBSAP promotes the pursuit of a ‘green’ development path in keeping with the Government’s pronouncement that declared Dominica the ‘Nature Isle’. Dominica is aligning its development agenda and biodiversity conservation strategy with the global biodiversity objectives. All of the goals and targets of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 are therefore considered relevant and will be addressed to the extent possible within the development framework, and as far as they amplify the 'Nature Isle' concept and influence biodiversity management in Dominica. However, the country has selected the following five 2020 targets as national priorities and developed twelve strategies and accompanying actions for achieving them.
  • By 2020 at the latest, all residents of the Commonwealth of Dominica will be aware of the value of biodiversity, and the steps they can take to conserve and use it sustainably.
  • By 2020, at least 15% of areas under agriculture, aquaculture and forestry are managed sustainably, ensuring conservation of biodiversity.
  • By 2020, pollution, including from excess nutrient, has been brought to levels that are not detrimental to ecosystem function and biodiversity.
  • By 2020, at least 20% of terrestrial, inland water and 15% of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem service, are conserved through comprehensive ecologically representative and well-connected systems of effectively managed, protected areas and other means, and integrated into the wider land and seascape.
  • By 2020, ecosystem resilience and the contribution of biodiversity to carbon stock has been enhanced, through conservation and restoration, including restoration of at least 15% of degraded ecosystems, thereby contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation, and to combating desertification.

Tuvalu

Endorsed by Cabinet in 2013, Tuvalu's first NBSAP (2012-2016) addresses eight thematic areas: climate change and disaster risk management; traditional knowledge, cultural practices and indigenous property rights; conservation of species, ecosystems (marine, coastal, land terrestrial) and genetic diversity; Community - empowerment, involvement, awareness, understanding and ownership; sustainable use of natural resources; trade, biosecurity and food security; waste and pollution management; and management of invasive species. Strategy goals, objectives, actions, key performance indicators, key implementing bodies and stakeholders have been identified for each thematic area. Five cross-cutting issues necessary for effective implementation have also been established, namely: capacity building, education, training, awareness and understanding; sustainable development and environment management; mainstreaming and financing mechanisms; legal framework for biodiversity and law enforcement; and monitoring and evaluation. The planning process has emphasized inter alia an integrated approach to implementation, broad stakeholder engagement with a view to building "ownership" of the NBSAP by Tuvaluans, and the application of traditional knowledge, together with innovations and best practices, in activities. Tuvalu recognizes the importance to increase awareness among government and non-government stakeholders in order to acquire the support needed for implementation.

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Belgium

In November 2013, Belgium's Interministerial Conference for the Environment adopted an update of the National Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. Based largely on the previous Strategy (2006-2016), the update incorporates provisions aligned with the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity (2011-2020) and the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. It will guide activities for revising federal and regional biodiversity action plans and be promoted in sectoral policy-making. Its main focuses are: a) tackling emerging risks and the impact of internal trade of live specimens; b) protecting and restoring biodiversity and associated ecosystem services through protected areas - green infrastructure - no net loss; identifying pathways of introduction on IAS; c) phasing out perverse incentives and using guidelines on the integration of the values of biodiversity and ecosystem services in development strategies, planning processes and reporting systems included; developing an approach to include these values in national accounting; d) implementing the Nagoya Protocol; e) mapping ecosystem services in Belgium and assessing their values; f) ensuring the implementation and enforcement of biodiversity legislation; g) involving provinces, cities and other local authorities; h) boosting the mobilization of resources (including through innovative mechanisms) and enhancing capacities. The Strategy contains 15 priority strategic objectives and 85 operational objectives that have been mapped to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and to the targets of the EU Biodiversity Strategy. Specific actions and indicators for the Strategy will be developed at a later stage (during the implementation process).

El Salvador

El Salvador’s new Biodiversity Strategy (2013) was developed in accordance with the provisions of the Environment Law (Art. 69), constituting one of four national strategies that have been developed for implementing the National Policy for the Environment (2012) whose overall goal is to reverse environmental degradation and reduce vulnerability to climate change. (National Strategies have also been developed on climate change, water resources and environmental sanitation). The new Biodiversity Strategy focuses on massive restoration and conservation undertakings, including in regard to the country’s ecosystems, with a view towards recovering the capacity required to sustain current and future development. Particular emphasis is placed on soil and land uses. It is structured along 3 main goals, and identifies respective priority areas: 1) biodiversity mainstreaming in the economy (agriculture, fisheries and aquaculture, tourism); 2) restoration and conservation, including critical ecosystems (mangroves and beach ecosystems, rivers and wetlands, gallery forests and other forest ecosystems); 3) biodiversity for the people (rescue of traditional conservation practices for genetic resources, rights of use of biological resources, local economic options). To enable implementation, five critical themes are highlighted (awareness-raising, research, education and training, technology, financing), as is action required at the institutional level (inter-institutional coordination, institutional strengthening, local governance and management models, monitoring, reporting and verification, normative and regulatory legislation). The accompanying Action Plan is currently in development.

Suriname

Suriname's National Biodiversity Action Plan (NBAP) (2012-2016), finalized in February 2013, was essentially formulated on the basis of the directions outlined in the National Biodiversity Strategy (NBS) finalized 6 years earlier in 2007. The NBAP contains 8 objectives: (i) biodiversity conservation (ii) sustainable use of biodiversity (iii) regulated access to genetic material and associated knowledge, with fair and equitable sharing of benefits (iv) knowledge acquisition through research and monitoring (v) capacity-building (vi) CEPA (vii) cooperation at local and international levels (viii) sustainable financing. Each of these 8 objectives contains sub-objectives detailing desired actions to which are associated necessary inputs, expected outputs, level of importance and priority (timeframe), responsible implementing bodies, budget indication and budget source. Actions for the NBAP were elaborated through a phased approach with those for the Coastal Zone, including the urbanized areas, addressed in 2007 and those for the Interior in 2010-2012. Additionally, the final version of the NBAP incorporates actions promoting comprehensive stakeholder consultations, the rights of the communities (Indigenous and Maroons), the application of the Principles of Free Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) associated with the Nagoya Protocol, EIA/SEA, co-management of protected areas with local stakeholders. Suriname recognizes the need to develop a series of objective, quantifiable indicators for measuring the effects of actions.

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Finland

In December 2012, the Finnish Government adopted the National Strategy for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity (2012-2020) entitled ‛Saving Nature for People’. Replacing the National Strategy (2006–2016), the vision of the new strategy is to halt biodiversity loss in Finland by 2020 and ensure the favourable status of biodiversity and ecosystem services by 2050. Comprised of 5 strategic goals and 20 national targets, it has been formulated in compliance with the Strategic Plan (2011-2020) and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, as well as with the targets set out in the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. Implementation of the strategy will be conducted in a manner respectful of the indigenous Sámi community’s traditional knowledge and practices related to biodiversity. Relevant ministries have been assigned to implement the strategy by working in cooperation with civil society, commercial interests and other stakeholders to create a cost-effective and purposeful action plan that contains quantitative and qualitative bases for monitoring. The action plan has been adopted for fulfilling the goals and targets set by the Government until 2020, while giving due consideration to national needs and priorities. It will be implemented within spending limits defined in central government budget frameworks. Progress on the implementation of the strategy and action plan will be monitored and assessed, with findings reported to the Government in 2015.
Vision
  • By 2020 biodiversity loss in Finland will have been halted.
  • The favourable status of biodiversity and ecosystem services will be ensured by 2050.
  • Finland will protect and sustainably utilise biodiversity for its own intrinsic value and as a source of human wellbeing, while also taking active responsibility for issues related to biodiversity in international contexts.
  • The Government believes that wide-ranging actions, changes in attitudes and processes, and enhanced cooperation will all be needed to achieve the goals described above. These actions must be based on the following principles:

Mission

Finland will urgently undertake effective actions designed to halt the loss of biodiversity by 2020 and ensure that by 2050 the state of the natural environment in Finland is stable and capable of ensuring people’s future well-being.
To achieve this:
  • Issues and values related to biodiversity must become fundamental elements in decision-making.
  • The pressures facing biodiversity must be reduced.
  • Collaboration between the authorities, citizens, businesses and stakeholders and related participation procedures must be enhanced. New forms of cooperation designed to prevent and minimise any harmful impacts on biodiversity must be realised at a timely stage of the preparation of decisions on projects and plans.
  • Degraded ecosystems must be restored cost-effectively or left to revert to their natural state through natural processes.
  • Natural resources must be utilised sustainably. Renewable natural resources must be used in economic activities and to increase well-being in ways that ensure they are not depleted, but are renewed for the benefit of future generations. Non-renewable resources must be used as eco-efficiently as possible. In this way the present generation will not endanger the prospects for future generations to enjoy a good life in a sustainable society.
  • Actions related to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity must be realised effectively with due regard to citizens’ constitutional property rights and Finland’s traditional everyman’s right of access to the land, while also ensuring that all citizens meet their responsibility to preserve biodiversity. The indigenous Sámi community’s traditional knowledge related to biodiversity will be respected.
  • Decisions related to biodiversity must be based on the best available scientific information, and also apply the precautionary approach.
  • Finland will take responsibility for ensuring access to genetic resources and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from their utilisation.

Japan

The National Biodiversity Strategy of Japan (2012-2020) was adopted by Cabinet in September 2012, following two major events: the adoption at COP-10 in Nagoya of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity (2011-2020), including the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, and the Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred in March 2011 that made us think anew about the relationship between human beings and nature. The current Strategy provides a national roadmap for achieving the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, as well as outlines direction for realizing a vision of “Living in Harmony with Nature”. It contains 13 national targets and 48 key action goals (accompanied by target years for implementation) whose achievement will be monitored by a set of 81 indicators developed for this purpose. The Strategy also contains around 700 specific measures which will serve as the national action plan for implementing the roadmap. With a view to reflecting the views of diverse stakeholders, several enabling activities were carried out (e.g. establishment of a liaison committee, comprised of relevant ministries and agencies; organization of townhall meetings nationwide; invitation for public comments; conduct of meetings for exchanging opinions with relevant academic societies and NGOs; consultation with the Central Environment Council).

Malta

Adopted in December 2012, Malta's first National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (2012-2020), entitled "Working Hand-in-Hand with Nature", serves as a policy driver to set the country on the right track to meet its biodiversity and environmental objectives, as identified in Malta's National Environment Policy (2012) and in the 2020 Aichi Biodiversity Targets and EU targets. The NBSAP addresses the need to preserve biodiversity and ecosystem services through biodiversity integration in decision-making as well as within policies, plans and programmes of those sectors that act as drivers of biodiversity change. Nineteen national targets with action-driven and outcome-oriented measures, grouped under 18 thematic areas, have been set out, with implementation of actions assigned to one of four possible timeframes. CBD, EEA, SEBI and EU indicators, including the EU 2010 Biodiversity Baseline, have been adapted to serve as examples of indicators to measure progress towards NBSAP implementation and are subject to revision. Examples of prioritized actions relate to the establishment of: species and habitat action plans for priority species, especially endemic species, and for rare specialized habitats; a strict protection regime, incorporating measures to address the illegal and the incidental capture and killing of protected species, including those that are migratory; a range of governance types for long-term management of protected areas, based on good governance principles.

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Myanmar

The first National Biodiversity Strategy and Action (NBSAP) of Myanmar, adopted by Cabinet on 3 May 2012, contains 10 strategic directions on the following themes: (i) strengthening conservation of priority sites; (ii) mainstreaming biodiversity into other policy sectors; (iii) implementing focused conservation actions for priority species; (iv) supporting local NGOs and academic institutions; (v) creating capacity to coordinate conservation investment in Myanmar; (vi) scaling up the implementation of in situ and ex situ conservation of agriculture, livestock and fisheries biodiversity and genetic resource management; (vii) expediting the process of implementing the national biosafety framework; (viii) promoting the initiative to manage IAS; (ix) facilitating the legislative process of environmental protection and environmental impact assessment; (x) enhancing communication, education and public awareness on biodiversity conservation. Priority actions have been established for each strategic direction, as have the major agencies responsible for implementation. In addition, a set of 9 action plans, based on the above strategic directions, has been established for five-year periods toward the sustainable management of the following sectors: forests; wildlife conservation and protected areas; freshwater resources; coastal, marine and island ecosystems; land resources; agriculture, livestock and fisheries; ecotourism; environmental quality and biosafety; mineral resource utilization. The NBSAP has been aligned with the National Environmental Policy, Myanmar Agenda 21 and the National Sustainable Development Strategy.

Colombia

The Colombian "Política Nacional para la Gestión Integral de la Biodiversidad y sus Servicios Ecosistémicos (PNGIBSE)", launched on 28 July 2012, promotes a new way of addressing biodiversity in the country, oriented on the integrated management of biodiversity and the ecosystem services it provides, with the view to maintaining and increasing the resilience of socioecological systems at the national, regional, local and transboundary levels. The policy is considered fundamental to national development processes and is to serve as the strategic and conceptual framework for all existing and future environmental instruments related to biodiversity, developed at various levels, as well as the basis for inter-sectoral coordination of activities. It contains six strategic directions: (i) conservation and care of nature; (ii) governance and creation of public value; (iii) economic development, competitiveness and quality of life; (iv) management of knowledge, technology and information; (v) risk management and provision of ecosystem services; (vi) co-responsibility and global commitments. Actions for implementing the policy are to be arranged, coordinated and carried out jointly by the state, the production sector and civil society. The document also establishes the links between the policy’s strategic directions and compliance with the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, as well as some priority actions to be implemented by 2014, in alignment with the targets of the National Development Plan (2010 - 2014) – “Prosperity for All”, related to the integrated management of biodiversity and the ecosystem services it provides. The elaboration of a comprehensive action plan, based on the policy’s six strategic directions, is called for in the short term.

Dominican Republic

The “Estrategia Nacional de Conservación y Uso Sostenible de la Biodiversidad y Plan de Acción (2011-2020)” constitutes the country’s first NBSAP. Aligned with the global framework, national targets have been developed for the short, medium and long terms, as have milestones and indicators. The Ecosystem Approach is promoted in planning processes. The NBSAP is linked to implementation of the National Development Strategy (2010-2030) indicating that, by 2016, actions to strengthen aspects related to biodiversity, under the fourth strategic objective of the National Development Strategy on sustainable natural resource management, will be carried out as necessary. Women were highly involved in the NBSAP development process. The business sector (e.g. Bon Agroindustrial and Fundación Propa-Gas) is engaged in numerous biodiversity conservation activities through its association with RENAEPA, the national non-profit network promoting the integration of the business sector in sustainable natural resource management processes. A draft sectoral law on biodiversity has been submitted to Parliament for adoption.

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Switzerland

The new Swiss Biodiversity Strategy, adopted by the Federal Council on 25 April 2012, describes 10 strategic objectives to be achieved by 2020. Among these objectives are, notably, the sustainable use of natural resources by all relevant sectors, the implementation of an ecological infrastructure comprised of protected areas and protected area networks, the development of activities related to biodiversity and cities and consideration of biodiversity as a measure of Swiss prosperity. The Aichi Biodiversity Targets and the EU’s Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 were taken into account in the preparation of the Strategy. The Department of Environment, Transportation, Energy and Communication (DETEC) intends to develop an accompanying action plan by 2014 with the participation of all actors.

Timor-Leste

Approved in February 2012, the NBSAP (2011-2020) is closely linked to the National Strategic Development Plan of Timor-Leste for the next two decades and consistent with other policy frameworks, such as the National Adaptation Programme of Action on Climate Change, National Action Programme to Combat Land Degradation, Fisheries Sector Plan and the Forestry Sector Plan. It also serves as a guiding policy framework for district and sub-district authorities, civil society and the private sector. The development of the NBSAP was guided by the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. It contains 5 Priority Actions and 5 Priority Targets and 21 Strategic Actions, as well as additional detailed activities for implementing the Nagoya outcomes over the decade. The NBSAP uses the Ecosystem Approach and notably contains both a CEPA Strategy and Action Plan as well as a Partnership Strategy for addressing financing needs. A priority target of the NBSAP is to establish, by 2015, a national biodiversity monitoring and reporting system using the CHM as an operational tool. The NBSAP also outlines the strategy to ratify and implement the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-sharing.

Democratic People's Republic of Korea

NBSAP implementation in the country is closely linked with implementation of the Master Plan for Development (MPLD) and national plans for sectors such as forestry, fisheries, Koryo medicine manufacturing, agriculture, as well to scientific research and energy development. The revised NBSAP contains 10 strategic goals and 23 actions (several of which will be implemented through projects). An action plan is currently being developed to mainstream biodiversity and environment in the education sector. The immediate objectives of the Strategy include: (i) restoring degraded ecosystems, halting the deterioration of the ecological environment, reducing the rate of loss of biodiversity components and improving the whole ecological environment; (ii) improving the management of nature reserves for raising the effectiveness of the system; (iii) increasing bio-productivity and service function of ecosystems and establishing the system for the sustainable use of bio-resources, thus enabling people to gain both environmental and socio-economical benefits via biodiversity conservation and sustainable use.

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Spain

The Spanish "Plan Estratégico del Patrimonio Natural y la Biodiversidad 2011-2017", adopted through Royal Decree 1274 on 16 September 2011, constitutes a fundamental element in support of the 2007 Law on Natural Heritage and Biodiversity. The plan considers themes derived from the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and the 2011 EU Strategy, and was subjected to Strategic Environmental Assessment in accordance with the provisions of the 2006 law on assessment of the effects of environmental plans and programmes.

Ireland

Launched on 9 November 2011, "Actions for Biodiversity 2011-2016", Ireland's second National Biodiversity Plan, addresses objectives raised by the international and European communities to reduce biodiversity loss. The plan comprises 7 strategic objectives: 1) To mainstream biodiversity in the decision-making process across all sectors; 2) To substantially strengthen the knowledge base for conservation, management and sustainable use of biodiversity; 3) To increase awareness and appreciation of biodiversity and ecosystems services; 4) To conserve and restore biodiversity and ecosystem services in the wider countryside; 5) To conserve and restore biodiversity and ecosystem services in the marine environment; 6) To expand and improve on the management of protected areas and legally protected species; and 7) To substantially strengthen the effectiveness of international governance for biodiversity and ecosystem services. Twenty-one national targets have been established, accompanied by 102 actions, headline biodiversity indicators that are expected to be adopted in 2012, as well as outcomes.

United Kingdom

While ultimate responsibility for CBD implementation lies with the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) of the UK Government, it is shared among the UK's 4 countries (England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Wales) and its Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies. In view of this, individual Country Biodiversity Strategies have been developed, as have a number of strategies for the Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies. To date, England and Scotland have completed revisions of their strategies in the light of the 2010 Nagoya outcomes. A UK-wide post-2010 biodiversity framework has also been developed.

England - "Biodiversity 2020: A strategy for England's wildlife and ecosystem services" outlines the strategic direction for biodiversity policy for the next decade on land (including rivers and lakes) and at sea, building upon the Natural Environment White Paper published in June 2011. The strategy stresses the provision of support for healthy well-functioning ecosystems and the establishment of coherent ecological networks. A set of outcomes for 2020 has been defined, including the establishment of a network of marine protected areas containing in excess of 25% of English waters by the end of 2016. The strategy aims to ensure that biodiversity values are considered in the decision-making processes of both the public and private sectors. The government also intends to develop new and innovative financing mechanisms for achieving the 2020 outcomes.

Scotland - "2020 Challenge for Scotland's Biodiversity" published in 2013 is Scotland’s response to implementing the Nagoya outcomes and the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. It aims to protect and restore biodiversity on land and in Scotland's seas, and support healthier ecosystems; connect people with the natural world, for their health and wellbeing and to involve them more in decisions about their environment; maximise the benefits for Scotland of a diverse natural environment and the services it provides, contributing to sustainable economic growth.

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France

The revised National Biodiversity Strategy (2011-2020) is coherent with various existing national strategies and action plans. The strategy attaches particular importance to increasing biodiversity information and education for all stakeholders; biodiversity mainstreaming in development projects (especially in overseas territories where exceptionally rich biodiversity has significant socioeconomic and cultural value for the local populations); as well as to biodiversity governance at all levels (global to local).

European Union

At its meeting of 21 June 2011, the Environment Council of the European Union endorsed the new Strategy to halt the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services in the EU by 2020, and agreed to further discuss the actions in order to ensure the effective and coherent implementation of the Strategy. The preparation of a new Strategy is in line with two commitments made by EU leaders in March 2010. The first is the 2020 headline target: "Halting the loss of biodiversity and the degradation of ecosystem services in the EU by 2020, and restoring them in so far as feasible, while stepping up the EU contribution to averting global biodiversity loss"; the second is the 2050 vision: “By 2050, European Union biodiversity and the ecosystem services it provides – its natural capital – are protected, valued and appropriately restored for biodiversity's intrinsic value and for their essential contribution to human wellbeing and economic prosperity, and so that catastrophic changes caused by the loss of biodiversity are avoided.” There are six main targets, and 20 actions to help Europe reach its goal.

Venezuela

In 2010, Venezuela adopted a new National Strategy for the Conservation of Biological Diversity (2010-2020). The new Strategy was formulated with the participation of a wide variety of sectors within society (academic, Government employees, enthusiasts and community-based organizations), in several workshops that took place over a period of 18 months. Overall, over 1600 people participated nationwide, promoting debate and enriching the analytical process through offering different points of view. During the workshops, the problems associated with the loss of biological diversity were identified and their causes and consequences analyzed. The causes identified were then grouped into one of three categories: proximate, intermediate and structural. The next stage consisted of collectively constructing strategies for the conservation of biological diversity. Using the analysis of the problems and the current status of biodiversity as starting points, seven strategic lines were formulated in terms of the technical elements required to confront the loss of biological diversity, and seven crosscutting themes identified as the political and social elements necessary to guarantee biological conservation together with social commitment. This collective construction ensured that participants were involved in the entire process of preparing the Strategy, generating awareness of the urgency of the issues while contributing to the transformation of the country’s situation via the transformation of individuals and vice versa. The National Strategy for the Conservation of Biological Diversity contains the fundamental guidelines that will govern actions taken during the 2010-2020 period. It is composed of seven strategic lines, with a general objective and several specific objectives, which contain general actions that constitute the basis on which the Action Plans are built. Venezuela's first NBSAP was adopted in 2001.

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Serbia

The Serbian Biodiversity Strategy for the period 2011-2018 was adopted in 2011. Objective 9.1 of the document addresses the establishment of national-level targets for biodiversity protection, according to the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and Aichi Biodiversity Targets, over the next three-year period. Current actions are associated with institutions responsible for implementation, timeframes and potential funding sources.

Australia

Australia agreed a revised Biodiversity Conservation Strategy for the 2010-2030 period in October 2010 and has substantially moved towards the etablishment of national targets that are measurable and time-bound, with ten measurable targets linking to various elements of the new Strategic Plan for Biodiversity set for implementation by 2015. In 2015, the Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council will review the status of implementation of the strategy as well as consider what amendments may be required to the targets and strategic elements.

Belarus

The Council of Ministers adopted the revised Belarusian Strategy on the Conservation and Sustainable Utilization of Biological Diversity (2011-2020), and accompanying Action Plan for implementation by 2015, in November 2010. Organizations responsible for implementation of activities by specific timeframes are identified in the Action Plan.

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Burkina Faso

While Burkina Faso’s Biodiversity Strategy (2001) covers a 25-year period, its Action Plan is revised every five years. The Biodiversity Action Plan (2011-2015) is currently under implementation and was developed with consideration given to, inter alia, the conclusions of GBO-3, the impacts of climate change on biodiversity, the Rural Land Tenure Law (2009), a coordinated approach to implementation of the Rio Conventions, and the socio-ecological principles of the Satoyama Initiative. The Plan also considers the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity adopted in 2010 in Nagoya, while also being linked to the National Strategy for Accelerated Growth and Sustainable Development, also adopted in 2010, among other plans. It contains 36 priority actions with expected results formulated against each action, along with associated activities, indicators, verification sources, and important assumptions on the availability of funding, technical capacity and political will, among other requirements. The costs of the Plan's implementation have also been calculated on an annual basis. A decentralized approach to biodiversity management involving local communities (especially women) is particularly emphasized, as is improving knowledge on the conservation and use of biological resources (especially genetic resources) and ensuring that the benefits arising from their use are equitably shared, as prescribed in the Nagoya Protocol.

Italy

The 'Strategia Nazionale per la Biodiversità' was adopted by the Italian Permanent Conference for Relationships between State, Regions and Autonomous Provinces in October 2010.

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