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Latest NBSAPs

NBSAP Status

  • Since COP-10, 101 Parties have submitted NBSAPs: 87 Parties submitted revised versions (among these, 2 Parties completed their revisions prior to COP-10 however with consideration given to the draft Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and are therefore included in this number); 11 Parties submitted their first NBSAPs; 2 Parties submitted both their first NBSAP and a revised version; and 1 Party submitted an Action Plan to 2020 for enhancing implementation of its Strategy adopted before COP-10.

  • These NBSAPs reflect varying degrees of compliance with the Nagoya outcomes. They are accessible below (their date of receipt by the Secretariat or the date on which the NBSAP was officially launched is indicated in brackets).

Cambodia
A summary will be posted here shortly.

Malaysia
A summary will be posted here shortly.

Bosnia and Herzegovina
A summary will be posted here shortly.

Lao PDR
The country’s revised NBSAP (2016-2025) has been prepared in response to decision X/2. Adopted by decree, it builds upon the first NBSAP (2004) and is consistent with Lao PDR’s Socio-Economic Development Strategy to 2020. It is also mainstreamed with the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment’s 2030 Vision which advocates a green growth path for achieving economic development. Moreover, to ensure that the NBSAP is effectively mainstreamed into relevant sectoral and cross-sectoral strategies and plans, guidance will be drawn from the National Sustainable Development Framework. Decentralized biodiversity planning is strongly encouraged, with Provincial Biodiversity Strategies and Action plans (PBSAPs) for the provinces of Xieng Khouang, Attapeu and Luang Prabang having been prepared to date. The NBSAP contains five key strategies, including cross-cutting themes and sub-strategies, which aim to: protect the country’s diverse and economically important ecosystems, including species and genetic diversity; integrate the value of biodiversity into socioeconomic decision-making to ensure sustainable use and funding; strengthen the knowledge base for strategic decision-making; inspire and enable actions through better CEPA; and enable effective preparation and implementation of plans and programs. A total of 32 national targets are mapped to relevant global targets, baselines and outcome indicators; agencies responsible for implementing a total of 69 timebound actions have been identified. Through its five strategies, relevant targets and actions, the NBSAP also aims to address three levels of capacity development: systemic or policy; institutional or organizational; and human or individual. An indicative outline of components of an overall communication plan has been developed. Although a financing framework has also been worked out, specific actions are required to tap the resources identified. The establishment of a national coordination mechanism (including a CBD committee) has been proposed to facilitate coordinated action to achieve the objectives of the NBSAP and those of the biodiversity-related conventions. The country is participating in global dialogues to increase appreciation of the value of ecosystems and biodiversity, including the valuation of ecosystem services, such as carbon sequestration and water generation, through mechanisms like REDD+ and Payment for Environmental Services (PES). Several pilots on REDD+ and PES have been launched in the country.

Bahrain
The 2030 vision of Bahrain’s revised NBSAP (2016-2021) strives to improve the resilience of the country’s four ecosystems (marine and coastal, desert, agricultural) and sustainably manage ecosystem services to ensure the well-being of Bahraini citizens. The Ecosystem Approach has been adopted at national and regional levels. The NBSAP’s five strategic goals address: biodiversity governance in national development strategies; CEPA (Bahrain is the first country in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region to establish its CHM); bridging the gaps between scientists, citizens and decision-makers; strengthening existing ecological functioning and improving ecosystem resilience; and international and regional cooperation. Phase 2 in the NBSAP development process focused on stocktaking and assessment which notably produced seven reports, including a biodiversity baseline assessment and an assessment and mapping of the potential values of ecosystem services. Bahrain has set 12 national targets (mapped to relevant Aichi Biodiversity Targets) with consideration given to emerging national needs, priorities and the conservation status of the country’s ecosystems. Milestones to be achieved over the implementation timeframe to 2021 have also been defined. National targets are associated to a particular ecosystem and linked to priority actions, outputs, indicators, costs, leading agencies and partners, and timelines. The NBSAP also addresses the potential for mainstreaming biodiversity conservation into national policy instruments, such as the Economic Vision 2030 and the Government Action Plan 2015-2018. Established in 2011, the National Biodiversity Steering Committee is responsible for ensuring biodiversity mainstreaming in all sectors. Moreover, the mission statement of the NBSAP declares that, by 2021, biodiversity will be assessed, mapped and valued, and its conservation integrated into all national policies and accounted for in national budgeting. The NBSAP also seeks to empower women in biodiversity conservation, particularly with respect to agriculture. The Royal University for Women is included among the stakeholders involved in biodiversity planning, provision of expert advice, awareness-raising and communication (the Supreme Council for Women is also involved in CEPA matters). Bahrain has identified potential funding sources, including the private sector and High Net-Worth Individuals, to bolster the National Environmental Trust Fund. Completed in 2007, implementation of the first NBSAP was constrained by the lack of Parliamentary endorsement and non-operationalization of this Trust Fund.

Morocco
Morocco’s revised and updated NBSAP (2016-2020) was developed with the global biodiversity framework taken into account, and puts forward biodiversity as a pillar for sustainable development and the well-being of Moroccan society. Over the last five years, the country has achieved significant progress in developing a constitutional, legal and institutional framework to effectively support action for sustainable development. The right of every citizen to a healthy environment and sustainable development is enshrined in the new Constitution adopted in 2011. In the same year, the Economic, Social and Environmental Council was established. Furthermore, the National Charter on Environment and Sustainable Development was adopted into law in 2014. These events are seen as a turning point in the country’s approach to integrating environmental concerns into development policies at all levels. Six strategic directions endeavour to: strengthen the conservation of species, ecosystems and the services they provide; ensure the sustainable use of biodiversity and biological resources; contribute to improving the living conditions of the Moroccan people; strengthen biodiversity governance; improve, enhance and share national biodiversity knowledge; and promote among citizens the will to change attitudes towards national biodiversity heritage. The NBSAP includes 26 national targets mapped to relevant global targets, and which touch upon the three dimensions (environmental, social and economic) of sustainable development. There are 156 actions in total addressing four key thematic areas: the forestry, agriculture and marine sectors, and climate change. Sectoral strategies currently under implementation, such as the Green Morocco Plan, the Halieutis Plan, the National Strategy for Forestry Development, the Master Plan for Reforestation, the Program of the National Agency for the Development of Aquaculture, and the National Charter for Sustainable Tourism, are integrated in the NBSAP. Programmes are currently being elaborated to develop and value the camel breeding sector which constitutes a major source of prestige and income for the people of southern Morocco; measures include the organization of farmers from a sustainable development perspective. NBSAP implementation will be overseen by the National Biodiversity Committee and supported by a substantial capacity development plan developed in tandem with the NBSAP. Gender considerations are integrated in the NBSAP. Decentralized (regional and local) biodiversity governance is promoted through new regional divisions instituted in 2015. The development of a Resource Mobilization Strategy is scheduled. In June 2015, the country adopted a law to protect its coastline, and is currently carrying out actions to develop legislation for implementing the Nagoya Protocol to which it is a signatory. Morocco adopted its first NBSAP in 2004.

Albania
Approved by a Decision of the Council of Ministers on 20 January 2016, Albania’s new NBSAP is formally known as the Document of Strategic Policies for the Protection of Biodiversity to 2020. It was formulated taking into account the Nagoya outcomes, the Document of Strategic Policies for Environmental Protection, as well as the National Strategy for Development and Integration for the period up to 2020. The Action Plan presents national objectives (and associated operational objectives, measures, monitoring indicators, responsible institutions, timeframes and costs) aimed at: transposing and implementing the EU acquis on nature protection by 2020; adopting a revised NBSAP (achieved); designating 17% terrestrial protected areas and 6% marine and coastal protected areas, sustainably managed through the adoption of an integrated approach, by 2020; establishing the national ecological network as an integral part of the Pan European Ecological Network by 2020; rehabilitating at least 15% of degraded areas through conservation and restoration activities, including through implementation of management plans for protected areas, and action plans for species, and especially for habitats; increasing activities in the areas of sustainable agriculture and forestry; implementing the Nagoya Protocol on ABS (Albania is a Party to the Protocol); and raising awareness of biodiversity. Success stories produced from the implementation of the first NBSAP (2000) are linked to the formulation and enforcement of institutional and legislative frameworks, expansion of protected areas coverage, and conservation projects carried out in cooperation with neighbouring countries, to name a few. Albania adopted the Law on Biodiversity Protection in 2006 and amended the Law on Protected Areas in 2008, as well as adopted other relevant laws in the same period. Activities are ongoing with Greece and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia regarding the implementation of the Prespa Lake Basin Integrated Management Project. In 2014, UNESCO’s International Coordinating Council of the Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme proposed that the region of Ohrid and Prespa be considered a cross-border biosphere reserve. Albania continues to participate in European and regional CBD initiatives, particularly activities related to the PAN-European Strategy on Biological Diversity and Landscape Diversity. The country has also produced a Manual for Monitoring Biodiversity which includes standard methodologies to employ when conducting monitoring activities.

Sweden
In June 2014, the Swedish Parliament adopted a bill on biodiversity and ecosystem services, which includes a revised NBSAP. An English summary of this NBSAP is provided below (the full English text is expected in September).

Ethiopia
The mission statement of Ethiopia’s new NBSAP (2015-2020) declares that, “By 2020, awareness of the general public and policy makers on biodiversity and ecosystems services is raised; biodiversity and ecosystem services are valued; pressures on biodiversity and ecosystems are reduced; the status of biodiversity and ecosystem services is improved; and access to genetic resources and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from their use is ensured”. The NBSAP includes 18 national targets for implementation by 2020, distributed under the five strategic goals of the global Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and mapped to relevant Aichi Targets. Indicators, actions, implementation period, implementing agencies, milestones and a technical rationale are assigned to each target. Implementation will be supported by various strategies and plans, such as the Ethiopian Climate Resilient Green Economy Strategy (2011) advocating a sectoral “green growth” path for development and sustainability (Ethiopia is also a UN-REDD partner), the Growth and Transformation Plan (2010) which is the successor plan to the Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty, and the Ethiopian Sustainable Land Management Investment Framework (2010) under which all stakeholders and actors can join forces to advance sustainable land management. An underlying principle of the NBSAP asserts that due attention be paid to gender equity in biodiversity activities. Furthermore, Ethiopia’s Target 12 aims to improve women’s access to and control over biodiversity resources and ecosystem services by 2020. As a Party to the Nagoya Protocol on ABS, Ethiopia has to date formulated a Code of Conduct to access genetic resources and community knowledge and benefit-sharing; these developments also support implementation of the Proclamation on Access to Genetic Resources and Community Knowledge, and Community Rights (2006) and Regulation (2009). The Ethiopian Biodiversity Institute (EBI) is the Focal Institute to the CBD and has overall responsibility for coordinating NBSAP implementation, and will also facilitate the establishment of the National Biodiversity Technical Committee and National Biodiversity Council. Regional Biodiversity Units and Biodiversity Centres already exist to ensure effective implementation at the grass roots level. Responsibility for developing formats for conducting NBSAP monitoring and evaluation activities lies with the EBI. A key lesson learned from implementing the first NBSAP (2005) was the need to have a mechanism or system in place to realize the timely mobilization of expected resources from both internal and external sources; these matters will be taken into account by the EBI also responsible for developing an NBSAP funding strategy to 2020.

Lebanon
Aligned with the global biodiversity agenda, a key objective of Lebanon’s revised NBSAP (2016-2030) is to mainstream biodiversity into sectoral and cross-sectoral strategies, plans and programmes. Its formal adoption by the National Council for the Environment (headed by the Ministry of Environment) is anticipated to mainstream biodiversity into the respective work programmes of the Council’s member institutions, as well as enhance coordination among them. The NBSAP identifies 13 priority areas: threatened species; genetic diversity; protected areas; sustainable management and use of natural ecosystems and resources; ecosystem restoration; ABS; IAS; CEPA; biodiversity mainstreaming in national and sub-national policies and plans; climate change; research and knowledge transfer; the institutional and legal framework; and resource mobilization (the overall cost of implementation is estimated at USD 40 million). Eighteen national targets and 91 national actions (including responsible entities/partners and timelines) are distributed among the priority areas. Furthermore, as part of the monitoring and evaluation process, available impact indicators are presented (and those requiring establishment noted), along with details on monitoring frequency and data sources. Lebanon intends to review its 2030 targets to ensure alignment with the global post-2020 biodiversity targets which are expected to be closely aligned with the Sustainable Development Goals. A draft Framework Law on Protected Areas and a draft National Law on ABS both await formal adoption. A decree on biosafety was approved by the Council of Ministers in 2014; in the same year, a decree related to hunting insurance, to cover damages that may occur to a third party from hunting practices, based on the proposals of both the Ministers of Environment and Economy and Trade, was also approved. Seven key capacity-building areas have been identified: human resources; coordination between ministries; ecosystems and biodiversity valuation; awareness, education and public relations; legislation and enforcement; ABS; and ecosystem assessment and management. A holistic approach to capacity-building efforts, targeting systemic, institutional and individual levels, is advocated. Under Target 18, actions will be carried out to introduce biodiversity valuation in SEAs and EIAs, develop a national framework to enable the proper evaluation of the economics of ecosystems and biodiversity, introduce the concept of biodiversity valuation and its importance to decision-makers and concerned stakeholders (public sector, private sector, research), among others. An assessment of the first NBSAP (1998) revealed that positive progress had been achieved regarding in situ conservation, research, training, awareness and education, environmental legislation, international cooperation, and mainstreaming biodiversity in SEA and EIA.

Guinea-Bissau
The country’s new Strategy and National Action Plan for Biodiversity (2015-2020) is based on the principles of the Basic Law on the Environment (2011) which aim to achieve sustainable socioeconomic development through proper management of the environment and its components. Its 20 national goals are closely aligned with the global targets, and associated to actions, indicators, lead implementation agencies/partners, timeframes and costs. Among the principles that will guide implementation is respect and reinforcement for the principles of democracy, inclusion and participation; particular reference is made to the involvement of representatives of traditional power, youth, women, decision-makers, the private sector in training, decision-making and policy implementation processes. As a Party to the Nagoya Protocol on ABS, activities have been carried out to raise awareness of the Protocol’s objectives, including its importance to traditional healers (traditional pharmacopoeia is a deeply-rooted practice in rural communities). Furthermore, a draft decree on biodiversity valuation, including matters related to ABS, has been validated. In the last ten years, the Institute for Biodiversity and Protected Areas (IBAP), the Environmental Impacts Evaluation Cell (CAIA) and the first State Secretariat for Environment and Sustainable Development have been established. As a REDD partner country, Guinea-Bissau is also in the process of a preparing a project which seeks access to the international carbon credit market. All protected areas with management plans are currently co-managed with the local community. Local communities are moreover represented in the management council for the community marine protected areas programme (UROK) created by the Government in 2005. The creation of the BioGuiné Foundation in 2011 has also enabled implementation of activities related to sustainable protected areas management and the development of sustainable financing mechanisms for protected areas. The potential of ecotourism development is under consideration, including the important role it can play in determining the values of ecosystem services and goods in protected areas, while ensuring biodiversity conservation and the provision of economic benefits for local communities as well as for the economy in general. At present, cashew production occupies a decisive role in the country’s economy; since 2000, monoculture production of the cashew nut has represented 88% to 98% of the country’s total export revenue. A Working Group on Petroleum and other Extractive (e.g. phosphate, bauxite) Industries has been established, coordinated by the Director of IBAP and integrating various state institutions, and national and international NGOs. A recommendation from the first national conference held in 2010 on the extractive industries was to carry out SEA at all levels of development of mining and oil projects.

Mozambique
The country’s new NBSAP (2015-2035) was developed in compliance with decision X/2. The first NBSAP was approved in 2003 for the 2003-2010 period. The current Action Plan focuses on 4 strategic objectives: to reduce the direct and indirect causes of biodiversity degradation and loss; to improve the state of biodiversity and preserve the diversity of ecosystems, species habitats and genes; to enhance the sharing of benefits from biodiversity and ecosystem services for all sectors of government and society; and to improve implementation through participatory planning, knowledge management and training. Other components of the Plan include: 21 national targets; priority actions; time horizons; performance indicators; budget (tentative); and responsible institutions. Synergies with the National Strategy for Adaptation and Mitigation of Climate Change and the Strategy and Action Plan to Combat Against Drought and Desertification, among other instruments, have been identified. Implementation will be coordinated by the Ministry of Land, Environment and Rural Development (MITADER) and assisted by the National Biodiversity Unit established in 2000. Rapid economic development in the country over the last five years has dictated a strong pressure on biodiversity. In fact, the investment in the infrastructure sectors, mining (coal and minerals), oil and gas, agriculture (mainly commercial large-scale), forests (forest plantations of exotic species and selective logging of native species) and fisheries has resulted in considerable changes in natural ecosystems and biodiversity, which are still little known and reported. While a new Mining Law was adopted in 2014, it falls short of adequately addressing issues on environmental protection and those explicitly related to biodiversity. At present, 26% of the country is covered by Conservation Areas (CAs), comprised of 13 inland CAs and 2 marine CAs, managed by the National Administration of Conservation Areas created in 2011, and supported by the Conservation Areas Law adopted in 2014. The REDD+ Technical Unit has recently been reactivated to promote and coordinate activities related to the REDD+ mechanism in Mozambique. Furthermore, Mozambique has recently adopted a Green Economy Action Plan and a Strategic Plan for the Tourism Sector, among other relevant policies and strategies. The present NBSAP will also address needs related to biodiversity, differentiated by gender, and enhance gender units at the local level, among other actions. A plan for NBSAP implementation, monitoring and evaluation has been outlined which proposes the use of various mechanisms and tools, including the establishment of a capacity building program and a strategy for resource mobilization for biodiversity.

Chad
The development of the second edition of Chad’s NBSAP (2014-2020) was based on the terms of the current global biodiversity agenda. The country’s new Strategy focuses on 24 priority themes: energy resources; in situ and ex situ biodiversity conservation; faunal resources; forestry; fisheries; apiculture; agriculture; livestock breeding; modern and traditional industries; land management; biotechnology and biosafety; water resources; environmental emergencies; participation of the population, civil society and the private sector; environmental assessments; awareness-raising, information and education; training and research; institutional and legal aspects; traditional knowledge and spiritual values; invasive alien species; technology transfer; tourism; commerce; and fiscal and credit policies. A total of 125 actions have been defined to address these themes. All actions are costed, assigned lead implementation entities and partners, and distributed among the three specific objectives of the Action Plan aimed at: 1) strengthening the conservation of ecosystems, endangered species and/or species marked with importance; 2) promoting the sustainable use of biological resources of known or potential value; and 3) ensuring the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of biological resources (primarily genetic). Chad achieved the 2010 protected areas target with 11% of its territory protected at that time, and has since increased its protected areas coverage to 12%. As a partner in the REDD+ programme, the country is currently in the process of developing REDD+ national and environmental standards and a REDD+ benefit-sharing mechanism. Oil production provides the bulk of the country’s export revenue today, followed by livestock, cotton and gum arabic production (Chad is responsible for 6.7% of global gum production which represents 7% of its GDP). Prepared in 1999, the country’s first NBSAP was implemented to 2014 and was very instrumental in mobilizing efforts to protect and determine the values of biodiversity.

Egypt
Egypt’s revised NBSAP (2015-2030) is an update to the first NBSAP (1998-2017) and contains 6 strategic goals aimed at: conserving and managing terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity to ensure sustainable use and equitable benefits for the Egyptian people; the sustainable use of natural resources; access to genetic resources and benefit-sharing (Cartagena and Nagoya Protocols); combating the impacts of climate change and desertification; improving the understanding of biological diversity and ecosystem functioning; and building partnerships and integrating biodiversity into all national development frameworks. Each strategic goal addresses specific themes that are accompanied by baselines and identified challenges. For each theme, Egypt has set a national target (there are 20 in total which have been mapped to relevant Aichi Targets), including priority actions, indicators, responsible institutions and implementation deadlines. The proposed overall budget for NBSAP implementation is USD 273 million and Egypt intends to have developed a resource mobilization strategy and mechanisms for this purpose by 2020. The socioeconomic significance of biodiversity for the country is especially noteworthy. For example, total agricultural production accounted for 13.2% of the GDP and employed 32% of the total work force in 2012. Aquaculture and mariculture production is on the rise (the aquaculture sector produced 986,820 tons equivalent to 81.5% of the total fish production in 2011). Tourism is another main source of national income however is predicted to be affected in the future by climate change (the annual number of tourists visiting Egypt’s coasts is expected to decline because of the potential impact of climate change on coral reefs). Special attention is being given to protect and document local communities’ traditional knowledge and associated uses. It is hoped that Parliament will soon approve the draft law on the regulation of access to genetic resources, related traditional knowledge and the equitable sharing of benefits derived from their use. Examples of the achievements of the first NBSAP include protected areas establishment (by 2013, 14.9% of the country’s total terrestrial area was under protection) and management, and the development of capacity for the Nature Conservation Sector/Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (NCS/EEAA). Its shortcomings are linked to low awareness of the values and importance of biodiversity and limited integration of biodiversity issues in sectoral policies and regulations. These issues are addressed in the updated NBSAP whose activities will be coordinated by the EEAA, with full participation and guidance from the cross-sectoral NBSAP 2030 Steering Committee.

Qatar
Most of the elements of Qatar’s original NBSAP (2004) have been retained in the updated NBSAP (2015-2025). The main purpose of Qatar’s new NBSAP is to revisit the eleven strategic goals contained in the original NBSAP, while setting out a more focused path for implementation through the establishment of strategic goals, national targets, priority actions and outcomes that are more specific, realistic and time-bound. The update contains seven strategic goals to be achieved by 2025 focused on: increasing knowledge; increasing awareness and participation; protecting marine and coastal biodiversity; protecting key terrestrial biodiversity through effective management of protected areas; sustainable development through incorporation of biodiversity conservation in national planning; enhancing local capacity; and identifying the main biosafety issues and ensuring equitable access to genetic resources. Qatar’s revised national targets have been aligned with the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity (2011-2020) and its Aichi Targets, and harmonized with recently developed national strategies, including the Qatar National Vision 2030 and the Qatar National Development Strategy (2011-2016). Qatar’s National Vision 2030 (2008) rests on four key pillars: human development, social development, economic development and environmental development. The fact that biodiversity conservation relates to all four key pillars underscores the need for cross-sectoral mainstreaming of biodiversity, including the establishment of cross-sectoral partnerships. The NBSAP was revised with this in mind. Moreover, Qatar intends to have established a cross-sectoral committee on biodiversity by 2016, and have integrated biodiversity considerations in all relevant government sectors and national plans by 2025. Since 2005, Qatar has increased its protected area coverage from 11% to 29%. Considering the country’s total surface area, this percentage represents one of the highest in the world. However, none of the terrestrial or marine protected areas in Qatar have management plans at the moment. In response, by 2025, the country intends to have developed management plans and monitoring programmes for all protected areas, with the participation of local communities, relevant stakeholders and local and international expertise.

Nicaragua
The general objective of Nicaragua’s new NBSAP (2015-2020) is to contribute to biodiversity knowledge, conservation and sustainable use, based on a participatory and inclusive approach, and strategic planning established under the National Plan for Human Development, the National Strategy on Environment and Climate Change, and in accordance with the objectives of sustainable development and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. Its specific objectives are: to promote biodiversity conservation in all areas of Nicaraguan society, at both national and local levels, focusing on participation and inclusion; to establish the necessary mechanisms for the sustainable use of biodiversity, integrating measures for mitigating and adapting to climate change and also guaranteeing food security and sovereignty for communities and Indigenous Peoples; to ensure the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of genetic resources, establishing standards and procedures for appropriate access to these resources; implementing policies, strategies and action plans, with prominent civil society participation, allowing for growth in caring for and conserving natural resources and increased prosperity for families; to implement plans for environmental restoration in degraded areas, fragmented forests, wetland systems, nature reserves, biosphere reserves and recover areas of biological interconnectivity for natural resources; to promote activities in the study and scientific research on changes in natural environmental cycles and associated natural resources in the light of climate change and climate variability; and to promote actions for the environmental restoration of agricultural biodiversity of major export crops, such as coffee, peanuts and sugarcane. Nicaragua’s Law on the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity (2012) is based on 12 principles, which also govern the NBSAP, among which include the Principle of Gender Equality, Principle of Social Justice and the Principle of Internalized Environmental Costs. The NBSAP also defines 8 strategic directions, under which 15 strategic targets and associated actions, indicators, actors, and estimated costs totaling USD $16,960,000, are distributed. Also, as mandated in the Law on the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity, the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (MARENA) shall establish a monitoring and tracking system to systematize actions taken by different local actors towards biodiversity conservation. The National System of Protected Areas (SINAP) consists of 74 protected areas (66 terrestrial and 8 coastal marine) and 62 wildlife private reserves which, in total, cover 18% of the national territory.

South Africa
South Africa’s second NBSAP (2015-2025) is aligned with the priorities and targets in the global agenda, as well as national development imperatives. Six strategic objectives, associated to outcomes and activities, aim to: 1) enhance the management of biodiversity assets and their contribution to the economy, rural development, job creation and social well-being; 2) enhance resilience and ensure benefits to society through investments in ecological infrastructure; 3) mainstream biodiversity considerations into policies, strategies and practices of a range of sectors; 4) mobilize people to adopt practices that sustain the long-term benefits of biodiversity; 5) improve the conservation and management of biodiversity through the development of an equitable and suitably skilled workforce; and 6) support the management, conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity through effective knowledge foundations, including indigenous knowledge and citizen science. Indicators and targets are identified at the outcome level and, as far as possible, have been drawn from existing national or organizational strategic plans. NBSAP preparation, coordination and monitoring is led by the Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) and supported by the South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) in the areas of research, monitoring, knowledge and information, planning and policy advice, among others. NBSAP costing and the development of a resource mobilization plan will be pursued through BIOFIN. The new NBSAP was built on the outcomes of the first NBSAP (2005) and informed by SANBI’s second National Biodiversity Assessment (NBA) (2011) on the state of biodiversity across terrestrial, freshwater, estuarine and marine environments, with emphasis on spatial (mapped) information for ecosystems and species. Unlike the first assessment prepared in 2004, NBA (2011) includes non-spatial thematic elements, such as the state of species of special concern and invasive alien species, among other new work on geographic areas that contribute to climate change resilience. The latter assessment also provides a summary of spatial biodiversity priority areas that have been identified through systematic biodiversity plans at national, provincial and local scales. Furthermore, in accordance with the terms of the Biodiversity Act (2004), the National Biodiversity Framework (NBF) was published in 2009 which aims to coordinate and align the efforts of many organizations and individuals involved in biodiversity management and conservation. South Africa has adopted a landscape approach for managing biodiversity and achieved significant gains through biodiversity mainstreaming initiatives, including the integration of biodiversity into the national development agenda, including the National Development Plan. Activities prioritized for the current NBSAP include, among others, relevant amendments, revisions and updates to the biodiversity sector’s own legislation, including the revision of the Biodiversity Act, and updating the country's legislation on access and benefit sharing.

Germany
The “Nature Conservation Action Programme 2020” has been prepared to enhance the ongoing implementation of the National Strategy on Biological Diversity adopted in 2007, and to address a current negative trend in biodiversity due to the failure to implement key policy changes. It is anticipated that implementation of this ambitious Programme will finally reverse this trend. The process for its development included prioritizing targets contained in the Strategy (with consideration also given to implementing the global and EU biodiversity targets), from which the following 10 priority action areas were established and 40 urgent measures to 2020 set: 1) Fields and Meadows - Cultivated Landscapes for Man and Nature 2) Coasts and Marine Waters - More than an Economic Zone 3) Floodplains - More Space to Support Life between Water and Land 4) Forests - Woodland Management in Harmony with Nature 5) Wilderness - Freedom for Natural Adventures 6) Protected Areas, Natura 2000 and Interlinked Biotopes - Habitats and Lifelines for Fauna and Flora 7) Greening our Cities - Engaging with Nature at Home 8) International Responsibility - Nature knows no Borders 9) Knowledge and Understanding - Preserving and Sharing our Knowledge of Nature, and 10) Financing - Nature is a Profitable Investment. Particular attention is devoted to addressing species diversity and landscape quality, areas where the gap between the current status and target value is constantly widening. The Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) will implement the necessary steps for the Programme’s implementation without delay. Where other departments within the German Government are responsible, the BMUB will present specific proposed measures to those departments, and call for corresponding decisions. Where other levels of government, such as Länder and municipalities, are responsible, the BMUB will present new initiatives to bodies such as the Conference of Environmental Ministers and the Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs, or use its own programmes to support model projects so as to drive the implementation of measures forward and achieve progress by 2020. Above and beyond this, the BMUB will take every opportunity to persuade decision-makers in other affected policy-making areas to make long-overdue changes to their policies and encourage them to give higher priority to the effects on biological diversity.

Botswana
The country’s NBSAP (2016) is an update of the earlier version (2007) and was prepared to align the document with the global Strategic Plan and its Aichi Targets. Botswana prepared its first NBSAP in 2004. The vision of the present NBSAP states that, by 2025, ecosystem, species and genetic diversity is valued, protected, and used sustainably and equitably, through the involvement of all sectors of society and the provision of sufficient resources for its sound management. Under its five goals, which follow those of the global Plan, 20 national targets have been set and mapped to relevant global targets. Strategies for implementation of each target are put forward as a set of strategic actions tied to lead institutions, implementing partners, non-government participants, estimated costs, indicators and implementation timeframes. A Capacity Building Plan is also presented, along with detailed capacity-building actions for implementing each target. Furthermore, a Communication Plan has been developed aimed at ensuring effective communication, dialogue and information exchange between stakeholders across different levels of NBSAP implementation. The total cost of implementing NBSAP activities is estimated at BWP 316.6 million (in 2014 Pula values) for the 2014-2025 period. Due to current government funding constraints and to the fact that as an upper middle income country Botswana has become less eligible for ODA, the country’s Resource Mobilization Plan highlights the importance of tapping into opportunities for increased funding from the private sector and communities (e.g. through partnerships and private sector investments), and strengthening the relationship with development partners. A Monitoring and Evaluation Plan will track the Resource Mobilization Plan as well as the indicators relating to the implementation of each of the strategic actions. Monitoring will be done by the lead departments at the strategic action level. Institutional coordination will be through the Ministry of Environment, Wildlife and Tourism (MEWT), National Biological Diversity Authority (NBDA) and the MEA Coordinating Committee. Opportunities for synergies with other MEAs have been addressed, with relevant strategic actions linked to each MEA. Successes of the NBSAP (2007) relate primarily to coping with environmental change and biodiversity threats (Strategic Objective 5), and to safe industrial and technological development based on national biodiversity resources for future prosperity (Strategic Objective 8). Botswana encompasses seven of the global ecoregions; all, with the exception of the Southern African bushveld, are reasonably well protected.

Benin
Benin’s new Stratégie et Plan d’Action pour la Biodiversité 2011-2020 was formulated with consideration given to the Strategic Plan and its Aichi Targets. It also builds on the accomplishments of the first NBSAP (2002), such as the publication of the Atlas on West African Biodiversity (2010), covering Benin, Côte d’Ivoire and Burkina Faso, the National Red List of Threatened Species (2011) and the National Forest Inventory (2007), while addressing its shortcomings. Seven principles have been adopted to guide implementation that call for: membership of all stakeholders in support of a common vision of biodiversity; a real commitment and involvement of all stakeholders (public institutions, decentralized local communities, private entities, civil society, NGOs, among others) in a dynamic and synergistic planning process; systematic consideration of the NBSAP as a tool for mainstreaming biodiversity in national and local development programs; consistency between the NBSAP and national and sectoral strategies; identification of national and regional synergies among the CBD, biodiversity-related conventions and other MEAs; promotion of public-private partnerships; and the consideration of the Ecosystem Approach in implementation. The Strategy focuses on five key areas: information, education, communication and awareness-raising of all stakeholders to build a commitment to action; conservation of ecosystem resources and the strengthening of biodiversity potential; biodiversity planning, monitoring and evaluation, knowledge management and capacity-building; strengthening the contribution that biodiversity can make to the well-being of the population and to generating revenue; and strengthening the policy, institutional, legislative, regulatory and financial frameworks. Under these five key areas, eight strategic goals and twenty strategic targets have been formulated, the latter of which are respectively linked to expected outcomes, actions, principal indicators, implementation period, responsible actors, partners and estimated costs. The cost of implementing the NBSAP over the 2014-2020 period is estimated at 35,892 billion FCFA. As a Party to the Nagoya Protocol on ABS, Benin is currently carrying out activities to fulfill its obligations under the Protocol, including raising awareness of the Protocol and developing domestic legislation for its implementation.

Madagascar
Madagascar’s revised Stratégie et plans d’actions nationaux pour la biodiversite (2015-2025) was adopted by the Government Council on 23 February 2016. The country’s first NBSAP was adopted in 2002 and implemented between 2002 and 2012. The development of the revised NBSAP was guided by the current global Strategic Plan for Biodiversity, with consideration also given to the National Environment Management Plan, National Development Plan, and the National Environment Programme for Sustainable Development, among other strategic planning documents. Under five strategic goals, matching those of the global plan, twenty strategic national targets have been set, supplemented by strategic directions, actions, justifications, indicators, timeframes, responsible bodies, and partners which include local communities, NGOs, the private sector and civil society, among others. The country intends to develop an NBSAP implementation mechanism focused in four broad areas: institutional arrangements; financing; information management and communication; and monitoring and evaluation. In this light, examples of respective planned activities include: the creation of a National Biodiversity Committee and Regional Units; the development of a Resource Mobilization Strategy; the strengthening of the national CHM network; and annual systematized monitoring and evaluation of implementation through established indicators, benchmarks and verification sources to refocus and prioritize interventions. The cost of NBSAP implementation to 2025 is currently estimated at USD 203 million, with almost 50% of this total required for the creation and maintenance of terrestrial and marine and coastal protected areas. The results of the project on the global partnership on wealth accounting and valuation of ecosystem services (“WAVES”), which Madagascar has completed, are assisting in integrating the values of biodiversity and ecosystem services in national accounts. There are positive trends regarding implementation of programmes on conservation and valuation of biodiversity and forest ecosystems (in relation to climate change, carbon sequestration and REDD+). Also, as a Party to the Nagoya Protocol on ABS, Madagascar expects to have developed a national implementation strategy for ABS by 2017. The Gender Approach has been adopted as a core element to consider in NBSAP implementation.

Zimbabwe
The country’s revised NBSAP (2014) has a vision to achieve a country “with resilient ecosystems and biodiversity values for social, political and economic development” through the utilization of traditional knowledge, research, technology, innovations and best practices. In this light, the NBSAP will provide an important contribution to achieving the national development targets contained in Zimbabwe’s current Agenda for Sustainable Socio-Economic Transformation. The NBSAP development process was guided by the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity, the Constitution of Zimbabwe, the National Environmental Policy (2009) and three national studies. The thematic issues addressed by the latter included ecosystem valuation, sectoral mainstreaming of biodiversity, and ecosystem-based adaptation to climate change through the development of a robust PoWPA action plan and sustainable land use plan. The Ecosystems Approach also guided the development of the Strategy. Focused on ten high-priority biodiversity issues, the NBSAP comprises five strategic objectives (which match the five strategic goals of the global Plan), eighteen national targets and associated strategies, indicators, responsible bodies, timeframes and costs. Implementation will be coordinated by the Biodiversity Office in the Ministry of Environment, Water and Climate (MEWC) and guided by the National Biodiversity Forum. Strategic input and guidance from key ministries will be obtained through an inter-ministerial committee. Establishment of biodiversity review platforms at provincial, district and ward levels will ensure consistent participation and information-sharing from the national to community levels. Monitoring, evaluation and reporting progress will be coordinated by the MEWC, with input from the thematic working groups under the National Biodiversity Forum. Baselines will be established and reviewed in the first year of implementation. Implementation will also be supported by overarching strategies on biodiversity mainstreaming, CEPA, capacity-building, research and development, and technology transfer. While current financing opportunities have been identified, it is anticipated that, by 2020, mechanisms for resource mobilization and accounting are established and financial resources from national budgets and other sources for NBSAP implementation increased from current levels. The Ministry of Women's Affairs, Gender and Community Development participated in NBSAP development, as stipulated in the National Gender Policy (2013-2017), and will also be responsible for implementing actions under various 2020 national targets. An independent mid-term review in 2017 and final evaluation will be conducted to measure progress and contribution towards the global targets. By 2020, Zimbabwe expects to have mainstreamed biodiversity into all seven sectors (mining, agriculture, health, manufacturing, transport, energy and tourism) and incorporated biodiversity into national accounting and reporting systems. Zimbabwe developed its first NBSAP in 1998 which covered the 2000-2010 period; challenges to its implementation are taken up in the revised NBSAP.

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Côte d'Ivoire
The revised NBSAP (2016-2020) focuses on six strategic directions: protection of natural environments and their functions and services; preservation of species diversity and genetic diversity; strengthening of conservation infrastructure; valuation and sustainable use of biodiversity; mobilization of civil society and diffusion of knowledge on living organisms; and strengthening national coordination and international cooperation. Côte d’Ivoire has set 21 general national targets mapped to relevant Aichi Biodiversity Targets. Under each national target, specific targets have also been set which contain priority actions each linked to performance indicators, entities responsible for monitoring indicators, implementation timeframes and contributing entities. Côte d’Ivoire has adopted five essential principles (Precaution, Prevention, Polluter Pays, Subsidiarity, Compensation), along with approaches and concepts that require, for example, adapting biodiversity conservation to the effects of climate change, using the Ecosystem Approach and ensuring sectoral and inter-sectoral mainstreaming. Outlines of strategies for financial resource mobilization and communication have been prepared. Activities will be undertaken to assure the promotion of biodiversity among key targets groups, including decision-makers. The National Council on Nature Protection provides support to the National Agency for Sustainable Development, as well as provides a platform for coordination and consultation with various actors, CBD National Focal Points, and for identifying synergies among the related conventions and multilateral agreements. As a Party to the Nagoya Protocol on ABS, the country intends to have mechanisms in place by 2020 for regulating access to genetic resources, knowledge and practices relevant to biodiversity and for ensuring the sharing of benefits derived from their use. Also, by 2020, Côte d’Ivoire intends to have 100% of protected areas under effective management, as well as 100% of ecosystems and habitats represented within the protected areas network. Côte d’Ivoire’s first NBSAP was implemented between 2004 and 2014.

Armenia
In December 2015, Armenia adopted a revised National Strategy and Action Plan on the Conservation, Protection, Reproduction and Use of Biological Diversity, and associated Action Plan for 2016-2020, in accordance with Aichi Biodiversity Target 17. The document focuses on 5 strategic directions: improving legislative and institutional frameworks; enhancing biodiversity, ecosystem conservation and restoration of degraded habitats; reducing direct pressures on biodiversity and promoting sustainable use; eliminating the main causes of biodiversity loss through regulation of intersectoral relations and public awareness-raising; and enhancing related scientific research, knowledge management and capacity-building. Distributed among the strategic directions are national targets and associated activities, aims, implementers, timeframes, funding sources and expected outcomes. Two entities, namely, the Division on Biodiversity Policy and the Bioresources Management Agency, under the Ministry of Nature Protection, are responsible for biodiversity management. The Interministerial Coordination Council is tasked with monitoring and assessing implementation. Achievements of the first NBSAP (1999) included: improving legislative and governance frameworks; creating new Specially Protected Nature Areas (SPNAs); establishing preconditions for biodiversity inventorying and monitoring; promoting scientific research; and implementing activities on public awareness-raising and ecological education. Obstacles to implementation related to the underestimation of the importance of biodiversity and ecosystem services (their values and benefits have yet to be assessed and considered in economic development programs); insufficient stock-taking and monitoring of biodiversity components; insufficient cooperation between various state structures and local self-governing bodies; insufficient development of intersectoral relations and weak integration of biodiversity issues in respective sectoral policies; and insufficient mechanisms for enforcing environmental legislation. As a result of an increase in the level of international cooperation, a number of projects were implemented between 1995 and 2014 mainly aimed at: the sustainable management of forest ecosystems, forest rehabilitation, involving local communities; the establishment of new SPNAs, including transboundary SPNAs, and ecological corridors; the protection and sustainable use of freshwater ecosystems; and the conservation of key flora and fauna species and their habitats. In 2013, the Khosrov Forest State Reserve was awarded with the European Diploma on Protected Areas by the European Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, representing the first such case in the region.

Iraq
The preparation of Iraq’s first NBSAP (2015-2020) responds to the obligations of Parties under decision X/2 to implement the global Strategic Plan for Biodiversity. It also complies with Article 33 of Iraq’s Constitution (2005) which requires the State to protect and preserve the country’s environment and biodiversity. The NBSAP highlights five focal areas covering themes addressed by nine Aichi Biodiversity Targets: awareness; habitat loss; pollution; invasive and alien species; protected areas; species extinction; ecosystem services; traditional knowledge; and financial resources. Under these five focal areas, 23 strategic targets have been set and mapped to achieving relevant global targets, supported by 35 actions with specific implementation timeframes and bodies responsible for each action. A number of stakeholders, including, among others, the State Ministry for Women’s Affairs, Ministry of Oil, Ministry of Planning, Provincial Councils, media and communications agencies, private sector, celebrities, indigenous and local communities, and religious leaders, were selected to participate in the NBSAP consultation process in a particular capacity. A Stakeholder Matrix was also developed summarizing the stake level (high, medium, low) of these stakeholders and the potential impacts or benefits they can generate with respect to biodiversity. The country has also taken efforts to mainstream the NBSAP with existing national strategies, policies and plans in order to avoid duplication of effort and resources and, where possible, harmonize implementation. This relates in particular to the National Development Plan (2013-2017), National Environmental Strategy and Action Plan, Poverty Eradication Strategy, Higher Education Strategy (2011-2020) and the National Energy Strategy. Notably, in compliance with its Target 12, the Law on the Protected Areas System entered into force in 2014. By 2016, Iraq intends to have established and implemented a Resource Mobilization Plan for implementation. In addition, the country intends to have established, by the end of 2018, a national strategy/subnational strategies for the sustainable management of ecosystems to supply important ecosystem services for rural and urban people. Iraq recognizes the need to further develop sound indicators to support the establishment of a mechanism for monitoring and evaluating implementation.

Saint Kitts and Nevis
The revised NBSAP (2014-2020) was prepared in recognition of the fact that the targets, principles and priorities of the first NBSAP adopted in 2004 would have changed given the closure of the sugar industry in 2005 and the transformation of the country’s physical and economic landscapes. The new NBSAP also provides an opportunity for SKN to mainstream biodiversity in the overall development process by setting new targets, principles and priorities which are in line with the global framework. The document will focus on stronger institutional integration and identifies and examines how various provisions of key legislative, regulatory and policy instruments can better influence biodiversity management. It will also focus on broad sectoral participation (including public-private partnerships); strengthening the overall Implementation Plan; providing an enabling/facilitative environment on matters related to conservation, sustainable use, resource access and benefit-sharing; combining species management principles related to both invasive and alien species; raising awareness of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge and related access and benefit-sharing issues. Guidelines on mainstreaming biodiversity conservation into national development were developed as part of the 2014-2020 preparatory process for the following themes/sectors: poverty reduction, agriculture and rural development, environmental protection, land degradation, water resource management, marine resources management, land use planning and infrastructure, gender, health, and climate change adaptation. Twelve national targets have been set and are mapped to relevant Aichi Biodiversity Targets with indicators developed for each. Notably, during the 2013 National Consultation on the Economy, under the theme “The Green Economy as a viable pathway towards a sustainable future”, the Government of SKN indicated that it was determined to make the country the World’s First Sustainable Island State and, to this end, called for the 2013 Rio +20 Conference to focus on the Green Economy. The country is also in the final stages of a process for declaring Sandy Point Reef its first Marine Protected Area, in close consultation with the local community and various user groups. SKN enacted its Biosafety Act in 2012.

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Malawi
NBSAP II (2015-2025) has been prepared in response to Malawi’s Growth and Development Strategy II (2011-2016) which prioritizes biodiversity management programs, among other socio-economic and environmental issues. It is envisaged that NBSAP II will provide an avenue for implementing decision X/2 and achieving long-term goals on biodiversity conservation and sustainable use, as prescribed in the Constitution of Malawi, among other national and sectoral policies, strategies and plans. NBSAP II contains five strategic goals which aim to: a) improve capacity and knowledge on biodiversity issues; b) increase mainstreaming of biodiversity management into sectoral and local development planning; c) reduce direct pressures on biodiversity; d) improve the status of biodiversity by safeguarding ecosystems, species and genetic diversity; and e) enhance access and benefit sharing from biodiversity and ecosystem services. To attain these strategic objectives, 16 targets have been set and mapped to relevant global targets, to which actions, timeframes and responsible institutions are assigned. It is estimated that USD 117,000,000 are required to successfully implement NBSAP II. A resource mobilization plan has been developed highlighting possible sources of funding, which include the Government of Malawi, local and international donors and the private sector. Monitoring and evaluation plans have also been developed, as have capacity-building and public awareness plans. Malawi’s institutional arrangement is aimed at creating an enabling environment for implementing the Convention and biodiversity-related conventions, including central and local government levels, through which relevant statutory corporation and NGOs participate. Through its Target 14, Malawi intends to, by 2025, strengthen the level of protection on the safe handling, transfer and use of LMOs resulting from modern biotechnology that may have adverse impacts on biodiversity, taking into account risks to human health. In this regard, Malawi will undertake actions to revise the Biosafety Act (2002) and Biosafety (GMOs) Regulations (2008). Adopted in 2006, NBSAP I was successful in implementing a number of conservation programmes and projects for specific biodiversity components and advancing public-private partnerships in national parks, which has led to the quick reintroduction and restocking of important animal species. For example, the concession of the Majete Game Reserve to African Peace Parks has led to the introduction of nearly extinct species, such as the rhino. Most of the targets contained in NBSAP I that were not met (for example, the Red Data list was not updated as planned) have been revised and incorporated into NBSAP II. In 2010, the forestry, fisheries and wildlife sectors contributed 12.8% to the GDP.

Gambia
The NBSAP (2015-2020) is a revision and update of the NBSAP (1999). Twenty national biodiversity targets are outlined under the 5 strategic goals of the global plan, along with respective indicators, prioritized actions and timeframes, lead agencies and collaborators and budgetary allocations. A Biodiversity Inter-ministerial Steering Committee has been established and will be instrumental in encouraging linkages between sectoral programmes that impact on biodiversity. The new NBSAP has a strong focus on mainstreaming and integration, institutional effectiveness, cooperative governance and partnerships. It has also been designed to be in synergy with relevant national plans, laws and programmes, as well as take into consideration the MEAs and other international agreements. In the quest for sustainable financing for protected areas, The Gambia has successfully developed guidelines for private-sector involvement which paved the way for the establishment of the Abuko Nature Reserve, a private game reserve whose management is led by the Gambian Government, with the full involvement of the Eagle Heights Conservation Centre (a UK charity organization). Moreover, a National Biodiversity Trust Fund has been established into which 50% of all revenues generated from biodiversity conservation is deposited and subsequently used for conservation activities. Development of local capacity is supported by the Decentralization Act adopted in 2002. Protected areas conservation includes providing alternative livelihood for communities, including village banking for women, currently benefitting more than 800 women. Gender and Biodiversity has been identified as one of four cross-cutting issues in implementation, along with Education, Health and Biodiversity and Information, Education and Communication. To date, inadequate ability to use cost-benefit analysis to make a case for biodiversity has often led to low national budgetary allocation and its relegation to a lesser important department compared to agriculture, education or health. The Gambia intends to complete and publish valuation studies on biodiversity and ecosystem services by 2017 to give greater visibility to issues. A monitoring and evaluation plan is also integrated in the document to assist in determining the extent of progress in NBSAP implementation. The Biodiversity/Wildlife Act (2003) is currently under review. By 2016, The Gambia intends to have mainstreamed ABS issues in this existing (revised) legislation. The present NBSAP also provides an orientation for the subsequent development of a Capacity Development Plan, a CEPA Plan and a Resource Mobilization Plan.

Norway
A summary will be provided upon receipt of the English version of Norway's revised NBSAP. The document is currently available on the Government's website (see below) in Norwegian only.

Uruguay

Uruguay’s new Estrategia Nacional de Biodiversidad for 2016-2020 addresses the main problems and drivers associated with biodiversity loss and degradation in the country. It was developed with consideration given to the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and its Aichi Targets, and with particular attention given to the incorporation of climate change, invasive alien species, biodiversity valuation and the implementation of the Nagoya Protocol. Uruguay has developed national targets linked to relevant global targets. The Strategy identifies eight themes (comprised of two central themes on biodiversity conservation and biodiversity mainstreaming in sectors, and six themes addressing cross-cutting issues) and specific lines of action. The eight themes are: conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity; sectoral incorporation of biodiversity considerations; education, communication and dissemination of information regarding conservation; knowledge generation; information management; regulatory framework updating; strengthening of participation and access to benefits; and resource mobilization. In view of the expansion and intensification of economic and productive activities in the country in recent years, with trends indicating that activities will continue in this direction, sustainability scenarios are promoted through the integration and coordination of such activities with biodiversity conservation. Key achievements of Uruguay’s first NBSAP (1999) include, among others: the adoption of the Law on the National Protected Areas System (2000); preparation of a list of ecosystems and species prioritized for conservation; biodiversity integration in the curricula of primary, secondary and technical (professional) education; and the development of a regulatory framework for land use planning, including environmental and biodiversity variables. Uruguay has developed its national Clearing-house Mechanism to enable the effective exchange of information at the national and global levels, and among different categories of users. It will also serve as a tool for monitoring and reporting on the status of biodiversity and the progress made within the framework of this Strategy. By 2020, Uruguay intends to have 80% of its agricultural land following guidelines so as to contribute to the maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem services.

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Myanmar
Myanmar’s revised NBSAP for 2015-2020 was adopted in December 2015. The most significant change in relation to the first version adopted in 2012 is the use of the 20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets to structure the analysis. The revised NBSAP provides a strategic framework to address new and emerging challenges arising from political, economic and social reform in the country, as well as takes into account new data, information and opportunities. Targets and actions are aligned with the global framework. Moreover, the targets (which include indicators) have been designed to be specific and realistic given the five-year implementation timeframe and available human resources. Key targets relate to, among other matters: i) the launching of an initiative to restore millions of hectares of forest that are commercially exhausted and subject to conversion to plantations or agriculture; ii) expanding the protected area network to cover 15% of the country's coral reefs and key gaps in the terrestrial system, including mangrove forests, through both government and community-based approaches; iii) developing an ecosystem-based fisheries management plan with the private sector and civil society participation and endorsement and developing an inter-agency system to control illegal and destructive fishing in the Myeik Archipelago; and iv) ensuring that national law recognizes customary tenure as a way to protect indigenous knowledge and genetic plant resources, and provides a practical incentive for community participation in biodiversity conservation. Myanmar has embarked on a programme of economic liberalization and re-integration with the global economy and is expected to continue to grow rapidly which will inevitably increase pressure on natural resources and biodiversity. The revised NBSAP provides a detailed framework to address these pressures and guide and direct activities. Its provisions are linked to the National Environmental Policy, Forest Policy, Myanmar Agenda 21 and the National Sustainable Development Strategy.

Kyrgyzstan
Approved by Government Decree, Kyrgyzstan’s biodiversity conservation priorities for 2014-2024 have been formulated with the current Strategic Plan for Biodiversity taken into account. These priorities have been translated into four strategic targets focused on: 1) integrating biodiversity conservation issues into the activities of State bodies and public organizations by 2020; 2) reducing the impact on biodiversity and promoting its sustainable use; 3) improving the protection and monitoring of ecosystems and species diversity; and 4) improving the social importance of biodiversity and ecosystem services, increasing the benefits of sustainable ecosystem services and traditional technologies. Under these strategic targets, 13 objectives are distributed, together with associated actions, implementation timeframes, parties responsible for implementation (including local self-governance authorities, local state administrations, and city administrations on agreement), costs, funding sources, implementation arrangements and expected outputs. The total cost of implementation is estimated at 1076687,8 Soms. A short-term evaluation of implementation of the Action Plan will be carried out in 2020 and 2024. A group of independent experts will be convened to determine the effectiveness of implementation. In general, biodiversity loss in the country is occurring at the ecosystem level, with most ecosystems impacted by human activity to a greater or lesser extent. There is a positive trend regarding the expansion of the network of specially protected natural areas (SPNA) which today covers 1.2 million hectares or 6% of the national territory; under Strategic Target 3, Kyrgyzstan intends to further increase coverage to 10% by 2024. However, deterioration in the conservation status of SPNAs is common due to the location of human settlements within their boundaries, the absence of a mechanism for ecotourism development, among other factors, which could soon lead to the loss of the country’s most valuable natural sites. Although completed in 1998, Kyrgyzstan’s first NBSAP was not adopted. A second NBSAP was adopted in 2002 for the 2002-2006 period whose achievements can be linked to: SPNA expansion; the annual planting of 3000 hectares of forests; the publication of the first national forest inventory for 2008-2010, including the creation of a database; the enhancement of the legal framework for biodiversity protection; and, since 2005, the integration of the principles of sustainable development in the country’s educational system.

United Republic of Tanzania
The country’s revised NBSAP (2015-2020) seeks to address national targets based on national priorities that contribute to the global targets. It also addresses emerging issues such as climate change and variability, invasive species, GMOs, biofuel development, mining, oil and gas exploration and continuous anthropogenic impacts that were insufficiently addressed in the first NBSAP (2001). Guidance for developing this document was provided by the NBSAP Forum. Although various sectoral and cross-sectoral mainstreaming activities have been carried out to date, it is recognized that more effort is required, especially given regressive trends in biodiversity occurring in the country. In the last few decades, Tanzania has lost at least one-third of its important ecosystems despite the fact that 40% of the total land area is designated as forest and wildlife protected areas and 6.5% as marine protected areas (there are plans to increase this coverage to 10% by 2020). This NBSAP contains 5 strategic goals, 20 national targets mapped to relevant global targets, priority actions, implementation timeframes, performance and verifiable indicators and allocates responsibilities for implementation to government ministries, departments and agencies, local government, private sector, research and academic institutions, NGOs and CBOs. It also fosters the development and implementation of Sub-national Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans. An Implementation Plan focuses on arrangements for implementation and proposes the establishment of an administrative mechanism to support the National Focal Point; it also focuses on capacity development, communication and outreach, resource mobilization, national CHM development and monitoring and evaluation. Tanzania also recognizes the need to formulate new policies for new and emerging policy issues, and review others, as well as the need to strengthen implementation of existing policies, plans and strategies. The goals of the NBSAP consider gender as a cross-cutting issue. Also, key areas for synergies with the biodiversity-related conventions have been identified. The national economy depends significantly on agriculture, livestock, forestry and fisheries, which in total account for approximately 65% of the GDP, 60% of the total export earnings and employ over 80% of the population. Ecotourism and sport tourism are other important sources of revenue and heavily dependent on the country’s biodiversity wealth.

Maldives
Maldives revised NBSAP (2016-2025) responds to the country’s commitment under decision X/2 to implement the global biodiversity framework. The document is also a response to Maldives new Constitution (2008) which underscores the importance of conserving and sustainably using biological resources for the benefit of present and future generations, and that protection of the environment is both a duty of the State and local councils. It addresses six broad areas for which separate strategies are presented to: strengthen governance, policies and strategies for biodiversity; enhance communication and outreach through awareness programmes and capacity-building; work together globally for biodiversity conservation; ensure the sustainable use of biological resources; address threats to biodiversity; and strengthen information management and resource mobilization. Each strategy is complemented by SMART targets and suggested actions (with each action assigned a separate indicator, baseline, lead implementation agency, stakeholders and implementation timeframe). Implementation Plans have also been formulated for the following key areas: capacity development, technology needs assessment, communication and outreach, resource mobilization (it is estimated that NBSAP implementation will cost at least MVR 342 million), and for national governance and a structure for coordinating implementation. Over the years, substantial progress has been made to mainstream biodiversity in national development planning. The new NBSAP stresses further efforts regarding sectoral mainstreaming, at all levels of government, while also taking into account synergies among the biodiversity-related conventions. Though mainstreaming biodiversity in the private sector remains a challenge, Maldives intends to address this matter through awareness-raising programmes and promoting private-sector initiatives through collaborative partnerships. According to the Valuing Biodiversity Report (2009), Maldivian biodiversity contributes 71% of employment, 89% of the GDP and 98% of exports. Among those sectors entirely dependent on biodiversity, the tourism sector contributes the largest amount towards the country's GDP, with eco-tourism being promoted nowadays as a means for the sustainable management of protected areas. Shortcomings of the first NBSAP (2002) included, among other factors, a lack of targets related to traditional knowledge on biodiversity and an adequate monitoring mechanism, both of which are covered in the revised document. A significant development with regard to biodiversity was the pledge by the President of the Maldives to make the entire country a Biosphere Reserve by 2017 (an implementation plan for this was subsequently endorsed by Cabinet in January 2013).

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Poland
The Programme of Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity and Action Plan for the 2015-2020 period was adopted by a Resolution of the Council of Ministers on 6 November 2015. It is a continuation of the earlier document prepared for 2007-2013. Its development was motivated by the obligations of countries under the global Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. The Programme’s main challenge will be to contribute to achieving Target 1 of the EU Strategy on implementing the Birds and Habitats Directives. Its seven specific objectives include: improving the level of knowledge and increasing the activity of society insofar as biodiversity actions are concerned; improving the nature protection system; preserving and restoring natural habitats and the populations of endangered species; maintaining and reconstructing ecosystem functions; increasing the integration of the operations of the economic sectors in biodiversity protection targets; limiting hazards resulting from climate changes and pressures from invasive species; and increasing Poland’s participation in the international forum. For each specific objective, tasks (and their justification), leading institutions and indicators have been established. A systematic review of implementation will be conducted in 2018 and 2021, with base and target implementation levels and evaluation methods established for this purpose. The Programme has been designed with consideration given to the natural resources of the whole country, however the majority of actions will be carried out in protected areas and so-called green infrastructure, part of which are ecological corridors spatially connecting the protected areas system. A wide group of parties will be involved in implementation including, among others, central and local government units, scientific research units, business, NGOs and citizens. Legal instruments, market instruments and horizontal actions on scientific research, environmental education, information, and sectoral and spatial planning, among other actions, will be further developed as necessary. The National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management (and similar provincial funds) and the EU LIFE Fund will provide important financial contributions for implementation. Financing for biodiversity protection increased significantly during the implementation period of the earlier NBSAP (2007-2013), with roughly 1 billion Euro allocated to carry out at least 500 projects during this timeframe. In spite of this, only 16% of the tasks of the earlier NBSAP have been realized (some are being continued), due to limited financing of actions, inadequate integration of biodiversity in sectoral policies, or to the scale of scheduled activities.

Nigeria
Closely linked to the five goals of the global agenda, the most important element of Nigeria’s revised NBSAP (2016-2020) is to mainstream biodiversity into development planning to enhance sustainable development. The first NBSAP was launched in 2006 however not adequately implemented. Key lessons learned have been considered in the revised document which includes a plan for capacity development and technical capacity needs assessment, a communication and outreach strategy (including the development of the National CHM) and a plan for resource mobilization. Fourteen SMART targets have been established and mapped to relevant Aichi Targets, accompanied by actions, impact indicators and performance indicators. National programmes, institutions and timeframes to support implementation have been identified as has the application of actions to sub-national entities. The Biodiversity Steering Committee comprised of relevant multi-stakeholder institutions will be responsible for implementation and report to the Federal Executive Council (Council of Ministers) and the House Committee on Environment (Parliamentary Committee). The Biodiversity Steering Committee will keep implementation under review based on regular reports from the National Biodiversity Monitoring, Evaluation and Coordinating Unit. A monitoring plan has been developed which includes a matrix that is applicable to both impact indicators and performance indicators. Although crude oil accounts for about 90% of Nigeria’s exports and more than 80% of government revenue, the agricultural sector (in spite of having suffered from years of mismanagement, inconsistent and poorly conceived government policies, among other issues) still accounts for over 26.8% of the GDP and two-thirds of employment. The major focus of the country’s long-term vision for biodiversity management is the consideration of genetic materials as a strategic but fragile resource to be conserved, sustainably utilized and perhaps, more importantly, to be deployed as natural capital for Nigeria’s socio-economic development. Ethno-botanical studies have revealed the importance of hundreds of different kinds of herbs used for curing different kinds of diseases in different parts of Nigeria. Accordingly, trade in medicinal plants and animal parts has grown and now forms a major category of merchandise in village markets in rural and peri-urban settlements. Reliable data on the medicinal plant resources in Nigeria is held by the National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development. Gender considerations are addressed in the revised NBSAP, with Nigeria’s Target 14 indicating that, by 2020, the country intends to build the capacity of key actors and carry out gender mainstreaming for the achievement of its biodiversity targets.

Timor-Leste
Approved in 2012, Timor-Leste’s first NBSAP is closely linked to the National Strategic Development Plan of Timor-Leste for the next two decades and consistent with other policy frameworks, such as the National Adaptation Programme of Action on Climate Change, National Action Programme to Combat Land Degradation, Fisheries Sector Plan and the Forestry Sector Plan. It also serves as a guiding policy framework for district and sub-district authorities, civil society and the private sector. The development of the NBSAP was guided by the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. It contains 5 Priority Actions, 5 Priority Targets and 21 Strategic Actions, as well as additional detailed sub-actions for implementing the Nagoya outcomes over the decade. In 2015, Timor-Leste completed a revised edition of the NBSAP to reflect the establishment of further sub-actions distributed among the NBSAP’s 21 Strategic Actions. The NBSAP uses the Ecosystem Approach and notably contains both a CEPA Strategy and Action Plan as well as a Partnership Strategy for addressing financing needs. A priority target of the NBSAP is to establish, by 2015, a national biodiversity monitoring and reporting system using the CHM as an operational tool. The NBSAP also outlines the strategy to ratify and implement the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-sharing.

Uganda
Uganda’s revised NBSAP 2015-2025 (NBSAP2) addresses both the decade’s Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and the Strategic Plan for the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. The new document is linked to Vision 2040, the National Development Plan and the Sustainable Development Goals. Seven strategic objectives have been defined, each tied to an Action Plan, including national targets for biodiversity and biosafety mapped to relevant Aichi Targets, with associated key outcome indicators, 2014 baselines, output indicators, lead implementation agencies referred to as “Target Champions”, partner institutions and implementation costs. Two new strategic objectives are included in NBSAP2: to harness modern biotechnology for socioeconomic development with adequate safety measures for human health and the environment (Strategic Objective 6); and promote innovative sustainable funding mechanisms (Strategic Objective 7). The estimated cost of NBSAP2 implementation is USD $80 million; Uganda is also a participant in BIOFIN. Although not a strategic objective per se, a separate Action Plan has been prepared for critical new and emerging issues related to oil and gas discovery and production, biofuel production and natural disasters. By 2015, Uganda expects to develop and operationalize an effective Monitoring and Evaluation Strategy for NBSAP2 implementation. In accordance with the National Environment Act (1995) and the Local Governments Act (1997), environmental management, including biodiversity, is a decentralized function, with considerable capacity having been built in this regard at the district and local levels through the National Environment Management Authority (NEMA). Uganda also intends to harmonize NBSAP2 implementation as far as possible with that of the two sister Rio Conventions and other relevant international agreements. A key obstacle to the implementation of NBSAP1, adopted in 2002, was identified as the lack of Clearing House Mechanism (CHM) to facilitate information-sharing among institutions involved in biodiversity conservation. This obstacle has been overcome, with Uganda’s National CHM now operational and very active in NEMA. Despite limited data on biodiversity valuation in Uganda, past estimates put the gross economic output attributable to biological resource use in the fisheries, forestry, tourism, agriculture and energy sectors at USD $ 546.6 million a year and indirect value associated with ecosystem services and functions at over USD $ 200 million a year.

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Mongolia
Adopted on 29 June 2015, the second Mongolian National Biodiversity Program (2015-2025) takes the Aichi Biodiversity Targets into consideration and is coordinated with national and sectoral environmental policies. It contains 14 goals that have been mapped to the relevant global targets, 29 objectives and 74 outputs distributed among 4 strategies focused on: 1) increasing awareness and knowledge on biodiversity conservation and sustainable use among both decision-makers and the general public; 2) developing and implementing science-based policy on conservation and sustainable use of biological resources; 3) sustainable use of biodiversity; and 4) improving policies and the legal environment for the conservation and use of biological diversity and ecological services. Each goal is supported by indicators, with an assessment of the current state and points of justification also provided. The degree of implementation of the first NBSAP adopted in 1996 is particularly noteworthy; studies estimate that 96% of the total actions were achieved. Mongolia has also achieved a steady increase in the number of protected areas over the years. As of 2014, 99 protected areas comprising 27.2 million hectares, or 17.4% of the total area, have been established. A report on implementation of the current Biodiversity Program (2015-2025) shall be submitted by the government entity responsible for environmental affairs to the Mongolian Government once every three years, and every five years to the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity.

Viet Nam
Viet Nam’s new National Biodiversity Strategy to 2020, with a vision to 2030, is an integral part of the country’s Socio-Economic Development Strategy (2011-2020). The country intends to protect and sustainably use biodiversity resources to provide the basis for Viet Nam's sustainable development in the current context of climate change. Three specific targets are identified in this document which aim to contribute to achieving Strategic Goal B (reduce direct pressures and promote sustainable use), Strategic Goal C (improve biodiversity status by safeguarding ecosystems, species and genetic diversity) and Strategic Goal D (enhance benefits to all from biodiversity and ecosystem services) of the current global Plan. Major tasks to be undertaken towards this end are outlined, as are solutions and arrangements for implementation. Some 20 million Vietnamese people depend on fisheries for most or part of their income, while approximately 25 million people live in or near forests and derive 20-50% of their income from non-timber forest products, including hundreds of species of medicinal plants and latex plants. Eco-tourism is also becoming popular in protected areas which brings benefits to the local people providing related services. Many species of plants and animals are associated with Viet Nam’s history and culture, and considered sacred objects of worship among the Vietnamese people. In 2010, agriculture contributed to over 18% of the GDP and 28% of total exports. Viet Nam’s Biodiversity Law (2008) marked an important milestone for conservation that identified the principles and priorities of biodiversity conservation at all levels, from national and ministerial to local levels, creating the legal basis for local community involvement in the conservation of natural resources through new mechanisms of co-management and benefit-sharing.

Niue
Niue’s second NBSAP was adopted in 2015, and developed with consideration given to the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and its Aichi Targets. Its development was also guided by the information contained in the package of NBSAP Capacity Building Modules. Niue completed its first NBSAP in 2001. The new NBSAP is mainstreamed in the ‘Environment’ section of the country’s key planning document, Niue National Strategic Plan 2014-2019 (NNSP), soon to be completed, which also contains indicators to measure progress. The Government has also recently changed its departmental structure to enhance delivery of its Strategy which included the merging of the three agencies with particular involvement in biodiversity conservation (Department of Environment, Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries and Niue Meteorological Service) into a single agency (Ministry of Natural Resources). Niue’s Biodiversity Action Plan is grouped under eight themes: 1) conservation and sustainable management of terrestrial habitats 2) conservation of terrestrial species 3) conservation and sustainable management of marine ecosystems and species 4) management of invasive species 5) management of waste and pollution 6) management of water resources 7) climate change and 8) traditional knowledge and access to benefit sharing. Under each theme, objectives have been established, along with associated actions, activities, targets, means of verification and responsible entities. Four brief strategies on Mainstreaming, Communication and Outreach, Resource Mobilization and Capacity Development have also been produced to assist with implementation. Niue is primarily an agriculturally-based economy. However, there is currently an increased effort to develop a tourism industry for economic development, particularly focused on eco-tourism/adventure tourism. Visitor numbers increased between 2003 to 2013 and are projected to further increase. By December 2016, Niue intends to have developed Eco-Tourism Guidelines promoting activities that use coastal and inshore resources in a sustainable manner. Niue has also proposed that a supplement to the NBSAP be produced every two years, tied to the reporting to the COP cycle, as new information is obtained, projects proceed and new issues emerge.

Eritrea
Eritrea’s revised NBSAP (2014-2020) is aligned with existing national policies and legislation as well as with the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and its Aichi Targets. It presents Eritrea’s overall policy position on biodiversity, and attempts to position this policy in the context of its major development objectives for the next six years. Its mission is to reduce biodiversity loss by 2020 and stabilize the state of the natural environment by 2040. In order to accomplish this, Eritrea recognizes the critical importance of multi-sectoral involvement and the role of decentralized and international institutions in implementation. Twenty general targets and eighteen ecosystem-specific (terrestrial/ coastal, marine, islands/agricultural) targets have been developed, complemented by priority actions, timeframes, performance indicators, implementing institutions, information sources and costs (in USD). The establishment of a mechanism for monitoring and evaluation will be given priority in the early stages of NBSAP implementation. The National Union of Eritrean Women (NUEW) is a major player in mobilizing local communities, especially women, in activities that contribute to development and conservation issues (including participation in policy planning and monitoring) and promote income-generating activities. The National Union of Eritrean Youth and Students (NUEYS) is one of the largest national CBOs in the country with wide networks and rich experience in implementing projects related to the conservation and development of biodiversity resources, among other types of development projects. As a pilot country for the Global FNR_Rio Project on integrated processes and approaches to facilitate national reporting to the Rio Conventions, the Department of Environment has developed a manual on integrated reporting at a national level based on the current reporting formats of the CBD, UNCCD and UNFCCC. Eritrea is also a participant in The Great Green Wall initiative focused on combating desertification and its consequences in countries bordering the Sahara Desert (Senegal, Niger, Nigeria, Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, Chad, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Djibouti).

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Zambia
Zambia’s vision for biodiversity conservation is driven by Vision 2030 which promotes economic development that takes into account social and environmental safeguards and is operationalized in the country’s five-year national development planning cycle (soon to enter its 7th phase). Considered highly relevant to Zambia’s priorities, the 5 strategic goals of the current global plan and its Aichi Targets provide the overarching framework for Zambia’s second NBSAP for 2015-2025, which includes 18 national targets, accompanied by 45 strategic interventions, key performance indicators, key activities, responsible entities, narratives and assumptions. NBSAP-2 is underpinned by 11 principles promoting sustainable use, responsibility, equity, participation, awareness-raising, co-existence, knowledge, informed decision-making, strategic partnerships, enhanced conservation and financial sustainability. The document has been developed as a transformative strategy emphasizing evidence-based interventions, fully participatory processes, the important role of protected areas, incorporation of climate change resilience principles, restoration activities, the need for diverse financing mechanisms and a supportive policy, legal and regulatory framework. In the last five years, Zambia has undertaken other important initiatives supportive of biodiversity conservation. Key among these include completion of its Strategy on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) (2015), Forestry Policy (2014), Forestry Act (2015), Water Resources Management Act (2011), and the ongoing development of a Wetlands Policy and revision of the Wildlife Policy and Act. Among its other targets, by 2020, Zambia expects to have integrated biodiversity values into its Seventh National Development Plan (SeNDP), provincial and district development plans and planning processes, as well as incorporated reporting systems in national accounting, as appropriate. NBSAP-2 will also address the establishment of a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation framework, however there will still be a need to establish baselines for the various biodiversity components where gaps have been identified in the monitoring and evaluation plan.

Belarus
In November 2010, the Council of Ministers adopted the revised Belarusian Strategy and Action Plan on the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biological Diversity for 2011-2020. Two editions of this document have been developed for the respective 2011-2015 and 2016-2020 time periods. Of particular note is that the latter edition takes the global biodiversity framework into account (the previous edition did not), and contains 13 national targets mapped to the Aichi Targets, along with 70 measures, responsible organizations, implementation timeframes and anticipated results. A positive development is that the stability of forest ecosystems and preservation of associated biodiversity can be predicted following an increase in total forest area, high resistance to various factors and the adoption of ecologically-oriented measures. However, as a result of both natural processes (e.g. forest diseases, drying out) and the felling of old-aged forests, an overall decline is observed in populations of wild animal and plant species inhabiting mature broad-leaved forests. Among the species affected are birds (e.g. Stock dove Columba oenas), mosses (e.g. Neckera pennata) and lichens (e.g. Calicium adspersum). In addition, the area represented by mires has shrunk significantly over the last 40 years due to drainage and other causes, which has necessitated including several associated wild animal and plants in the Red Data Book of the Republic of Belarus. Among other targets, Belarus expects to, by 2020, establish a regulatory and legal framework for organic agriculture, create mechanisms to stimulate organic production, and optimize the structure of cultivated areas (including increasing the area under perennial grasses to 1 million hectares). By 2020, Belarus also intends to develop biodiversity-friendly management plans for the basins of the Dnieper, Western Dvina, Western Bug, Neman and Pripyat rivers, decrease the inflow of biogenic contaminants to water bodies by 30%, as well as restore 15% of degraded and inefficiently used ecological systems. In 2014, the National Strategy for the Development of the Network of Specially Protected Natural Areas until 2030 was approved by resolution. Considerable success has been achieved over the last decades in regard to the conservation of the European Bison, a globally threatened species.

Senegal
Senegal’s new Stratégie Nationale et Plan National d’Actions pour la Biodiversité was formulated with the guidance in Decision IX/8 taken into account. Its vision to 2030 considers the global biodiversity agenda and the country’s new socioeconomic development plan to 2035, known as “Plan Sénégal Emergent” (PSE), among other plans. Four strategic directions aim to: improve biodiversity knowledge and strengthen institutional and technical capacity; reduce pressures and restore and conserve biodiversity; promote biodiversity accounting in socioeconomic development policies; and promote the sustainable use of biodiversity and mechanisms for accessing biological resources and equitably sharing the benefits derived from them. The current Strategy covers a five-year period (2015-2020). Ten specific objectives, 21 action areas, responsible institutions, timeframes and implementation costs are identified. The NBSAP moreover contributes to implementing the Law on the General Code of Local Government (2013) through promoting the conservation and management of natural resources by local communities, as well as joint management by local communities and Departments. Furthermore, the NBSAP proposes the establishment, by decree, of a new National Biodiversity Committee supported by a permanent secretariat, as well as the establishment of a National Biodiversity Information System and National Biodiversity Observatory. Outline strategies for developing a mechanism for monitoring and evaluation and plans for communication, capacity-building and resource mobilization have been prepared. Senegal’s first NBSAP (1998) succeeding in achieving a new generation of protected areas (marine protected areas, community nature reserves, pastoral units, community biodiversity reserves) and increasing awareness and capacity-building for protected areas in general. Senegal expects to update its draft framework law on biodiversity and protected areas by 2016. Local initiatives to expand the marine protected area network are in process, and should contribute to achieving the global target to protect 10% of national marine and coastal areas by 2020.

Congo
With consideration given to the global biodiversity framework, the Republic of Congo’s new Stratégie Nationale et Plan d’Actions sur la Diversité Biologique (2015) has a vision to 2030 and aims to integrate the values of biodiversity conservation, the sustainable use of its components, and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of biogenetic resources, in national development plans. The NBSAP is closely aligned with the current National Poverty Reduction Strategy. Twenty national targets have been formulated, the majority of which are to be implemented by 2020 (and others beforehand). The NBSAP also identifies 92 actions, indicators and multisectoral entities to intervene in implementation. Considerable efforts have been taken by Congo to date in relation to certification schemes, forest management, protected areas (currently covering 13.2% of the national territory), sustainable resource exploitation (especially forest resources), ecosystem knowledge and the valuation of traditional knowledge. At present, Congo’s economy is essentially based on natural resources, notably oil, followed by wood products. An example of an outcome of the Law on the Forest Code, adopted in 2000, relates to 17 forest concessions that exist today, under sustainable forest management, comprising 52.34% of the surface conceded to exploitation. Congo has also begun activities aimed at exploiting the potential of its rich mineral resources, with a view towards the contribution this sector can make to socioeconomic development. The fisheries and aquaculture sector is also being considered in the latter regard, as well in regard to the role it can play in providing for the country’s nutritional and employment requirements. NBSAP implementation, monitoring and evaluation will be assured by a National Steering Committee and the creation of a biodiversity management body. Congo’s first NBSAP was adopted in 2002.

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Equatorial Guinea
The development of Equatorial Guinea’s revised and updated Estrategia Nacional y Plan de Acción para la Conservación de la Diversidad Biológica was guided by the global biodiversity agenda, COP decision IX/8, the Ecosystem Approach, among other guidance. Its Strategic Vision extends to 2050, while 17 national targets to 2020 address 15 priorities broadly described as: sectoral mainstreaming; social awareness-raising; legislation; sustainable use for poverty reduction; livelihood alternatives; protected areas; pressures on forest ecosystems; traditional knowledge; carbon accreditation; biodiversity and adaptation to climate change; bioprospecting; data collection and access; monitoring; financing; mainstreaming in education (capacity-building). The need for institutional strengthening to enable implementation success is underscored throughout the NBSAP. Furthermore, the Action Plan contains 38 specific objectives and associated actions, responsible entities, participants, timeframes and indicators. The petroleum sector is the main contributor to the national economy at present and notably represented 85.9% of the country’s GDP in 2012. The second largest contributor is the forestry sector whose objectives and actions were not considered in the first NBSAP, adopted in 2005, however this gap is addressed in various 2020 targets. The country has recognized the urgency to sensitize the petroleum industry in biodiversity conservation initiatives, as well as the need for diversification in this production sector and in others, including agriculture, fishing, aquaculture and ecotourism, as addressed in the National Plan for Socioeconomic Development to 2020. Around 18.5% of the national territory is under some of form of protection (this figure increases slightly if marine protected areas adjacent to these areas are taken into account). The participation of women in implementation is highly promoted in the new NBSAP. It is anticipated that a decree to operationalize the National Environment Fund (FONAMA) will be adopted by 2020, thereby increasing opportunities for funding and mobilizing resources for NBSAP implementation.

Togo
Togo’s Stratégie et Plan d’Action National pour la Biodiversité (2011-2020) was adopted in 2014 and developed on the basis of the global framework, stressing sectoral, intersectoral (cross-cutting), participatory and inclusive implementation at national, regional and local levels. Its vision to 2025 seeks to establish a new equilibrium among economic, social and environmental development activities. Twenty national targets have been developed and are distributed among 5 strategic directions aimed at: fostering a common culture; strengthening advantages derived from biodiversity and ecosystem services for all; improving the legal and institutional framework and governance; developing knowledge on national biological resources; and strengthening technical and human capacity. The targets moreover address 9 priority themes. Key actions, baselines, indicators, areas of intervention and key actors have been established. Notably, the Action Plan will be reviewed in 2016 with necessary additional actions included in Phase 2 (2016-2020) of implementation. Having identified lack of communication as a major weakness in implementing its first NBSAP (2003), Togo has prioritized the development of a Communication Plan for the current NBSAP. It is anticipated that a National Biodiversity Committee will be operationalized by 2015 to monitor activities. NBSAP implementation has been costed at USD $32,293,000 however a concrete resource mobilization plan is yet to be worked out. In 1999, Togo began a process to rehabilitate and requalify protected areas, through a joint Government/EU programme and with the participation of local communities, which has produced positive outcomes. The current legal framework is favorable to the development of community forests. The management of such forests by local populations has proven to be a viable alternative for restoring degraded areas and conserving biodiversity, with consideration given to the needs of the populations and the generation of income through rational resource exploitation.

Slovakia
Slovakia adopted a revised NBSAP to 2020 in 2014. An English version of the Strategy is provided below, with a translation of the Action Plan in preparation. A summary of the NBSAP will be provided upon receipt of the latter.

Republic of Moldova
The revised National Strategy on Biological Diversity (2015-2020) and its Action Plan were adopted by Government Decision No. 274 on 18 May 2015, with consideration given to the goals of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and its Aichi Targets, the Strategic Plan for the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety 2011-2020 and the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. The new NBSAP contains five 2020 “Specific Objectives” which aim to: a) ensure sustainable management and institutional efficiency; b) reduce pressures on biodiversity; c) implement measures to stop threats to biodiversity; d) implement measures to increase the benefits derived from natural resources and ecosystem services; and e) provide scientific support for biodiversity conservation, access to information and promote education for sustainable development. The scope of actions to be undertaken towards each Specific Objective has been defined, and the actions themselves are prioritized, costed and assigned monitoring indicators, funding sources and institutions responsible for implementation. The results expected from implementation have also been formulated. A Monitoring Group will be established by order of the Minister of Environment and develop annual reports on implementation progress. Among other outcomes, it is anticipated that NBSAP implementation will result in the integration of biodiversity conservation in the most important policies; development of efficient financial tools and mechanisms for biodiversity and natural ecosystems conservation; extension of State protected natural areas and the creation of a national ecological network from 5.5% to 8% and of afforested areas from 11.1% to 15%; establishment of the first tri-Party (Romania-Republic of Moldova-Ukraine) biosphere reserve; promotion of environment-friendly practices in organic farming; projects for local communities for the sustainable development of genetic resources; promotion of biotechnology for reproducing rare, vulnerable and economically valuable species. The Parliament of the Republic of Moldova adopted the country’s first NBSAP in 2001.

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Seychelles
A revised NBSAP (2015-2020) was endorsed by the Cabinet of Ministers in July 2015. NBSAP 2.0 contains 20 objectives developed with consideration given to the global framework, as well as 31 projects to be implemented over the 6-year duration that have been respectively mapped to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets they will contribute to. This document is to serve as the primary mechanism for CBD implementation and be updated periodically in accordance with COP decisions. The biodiversity component of the National Sustainable Development Strategy (SSDS) (2012-2020) is the primary mechanism for mainstreaming biodiversity into and across development sectors, with tourism and fisheries being the country's main such sectors. A trend of using revenue derived from tourism for mainstreaming biodiversity activities in this sector has achieved notable success with respect to biodiversity conservation, small island ecosystem rehabilitation and the eradication of invasive alien species. Mainstreaming in the fisheries sector has been less successful to date. The terrestrial Protected Areas Network today constitutes 46.6% of Seychelles’ total landmass, and official approval has been given to further increase this to more than 50%. It should however be mentioned that most of Seychelles’ endemic biodiversity is located on its ancient granitic islands where a considerably lower percentage of the landmass (22.3%) is protected. Marine protected areas constitute less than 1% of the EEZ today however a process has been initiated to designate 30% of the EEZ as protected and half of this area (15% of the EEZ) as strict no-take zones. An NBSAP Implementation Unit will be established and integrated into the administration framework for SSDS implementation to facilitate biodiversity mainstreaming. In addition, an NBSAP Partnership Forum will be established whose members will be responsible for reporting to the NBSAP Implementation Unit on the status of implementation of their respective projects, among other matters. Seychelles has developed an initial biodiversity metadatabase and a priority gap analysis on national biodiversity data. Moreover, a project to develop a strategy and action plan to facilitate NBSAP funding has been prioritized and is being facilitated by Seychelles’ participation in the UNDP Biodiversity Finance Initiative (BIOFIN) currently under implementation. The country’s first NBSAP (1997) was considered particularly successful in mobilizing biodiversity stakeholders, identifying priorities and providing civil society with a framework for engagement which has contributed to the emergence of a dynamic and effective biodiversity NGO sector.

Sudan
The Interim National Constitution of Sudan (2005), in its Article 11 (1), states that "the people of the Sudan shall have the right to a clean and diverse environment; the State and the citizens have the duty to preserve and promote the country’s biodiversity". On 25 June 2015, Sudan’s Council of Ministers adopted a revised NBSAP (2015-2020) strategically oriented on the sustainable use of natural resources, maintenance of ecosystem services and biodiversity mainstreaming across sectors and society for achieving socioeconomic development. The Action Plan addresses 5 thematic areas (education, awareness and training; legislation; policies; conservation; sustainable use) for each of the following 7 “biodiversity components”: plant agrobiodiversity; forestry biodiversity; rangeland and livestock biodiversity; wildlife, marine and inland waters ecosystems; biotechnology and biosafety; invasive alien species; climate change impacts. Each biodiversity component contains targets mapped to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, accompanied by costed and timeframed actions, including agencies responsible for implementation. While the Higher Council for Environment and Natural Resources (HCENR) is responsible for overall implementation, a Technical Committee composed of a group of biodiversity experts has been proposed to work closely with and under the HCENR. Sudan has political commitment to mainstream biodiversity components and ecosystems as high development priorities. The new NBSAP takes into account Sudan’s National 25-Year Strategy (2002-2027), Five-Year Plan (2012-2016), Five-Year Program for Economic Reform (2015-2019), National Plan for Poverty Reduction, among other instruments. The Plant Genetic Resources Unit of the Agricultural Research Corporation has achieved notable progress in regard to the establishment of an electronic gene bank documentation system which includes passport data on existing Plant Genetic Resources (PGR) collections, which are uploaded and made available on the Internet through a regional data portal for the Eastern Africa Plant Genetic Resources Network (EAPGREN). Sudan became a Party to the Nagoya Protocol in October 2014.

Latvia
Latvia's Environmental Policy Concept (EPC) 2014-2020, adopted in 2014, covers biodiversity protection issues linked to the implementation of the goals and objectives of the Convention. In this light, the EPC is considered equivalent to a revised NBSAP. It is available in Latvian only at the moment. An English version is forthcoming (a summary of the EPC will be provided upon receipt of this version).

Austria
Adopted in August 2014, Austria’s new Biodiversity Strategy 2020+ promotes implementation through shared responsibility and holistic solutions. It contains 12 targets developed with the Aichi Biodiversity Targets taken into account and distributed among 5 fields of action: (1) knowing and acknowledging biodiversity (2) sustainable use of biodiversity (3) reducing pressures on biodiversity (4) conserving and developing biodiversity (5) securing global biodiversity. The targets’ priorities have been designed to orient the Federal Government, Federal Provinces and municipalities, NGOs, among other stakeholders, in carrying out measures to promote the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services over the long term. For each target, evaluation parameters, implementation (and further) stakeholders have been established. The National Biodiversity Commission is composed of representatives from all societal groups and will assist and review implementation on an annual basis. Based on the Commission’s reporting, adjustments and further strategic planning will be developed from 2020 onward. Funds for implementing the Strategy will be secured from public and private funds as well as through the EU co-financing system. Examples of measures to be implemented through the Strategy include: cross-sectoral platforms on Biodiversity and Health and Business and Biodiversity; adapted education syllabuses across all levels of education; assessment and regular monitoring, primarily of target features defined under EU legislation; expanded organic farming; improved coordination of spatially-effective sectoral planning between and at all levels of planning, with a view on biodiversity and ecosystem services; consideration of biodiversity-related results of Strategic Environmental Assessments; implementation of the Alpine Convention's Tourism Protocol; increased integration of biodiversity aspects in existing corporate social responsibility (CSR) systems. Notable achievements have been made to date in establishing protected areas. Land protected under various nature conservation laws today comprises 27% of the national territory. Of this area, 16% is designated as Natura 2000 area, national park or nature conservation area and thus strictly protected; almost 11% are less strictly protected sites such as landscape conservation areas.

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Hungary
Hungary’s revised National Strategy for the Conservation of Biodiversity (2015-2020) was adopted by Parliament on 9 June 2015. It was developed with consideration given to the terms of both the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020, adopted during the Hungarian EU Presidency in 2011, and the current global Strategic Plan for Biodiversity. Moreover, the objectives of the present Strategy and those of the Fourth National Environmental Programme, Fourth National Nature Conservation Basic Plan and the National Sustainable Development Framework Strategy are mutally supportive. The document addresses the country’s biodiversity situation, as revealed from a SWOT analysis, with emphasis placed in six strategic areas: protection of areas and species subject to nature conservation; maintenance of landscape diversity, green infrastructure and ecosystem services; issues related to agriculture; sustainable forest and game management and protection of water resources; combating invasive alien species (non-indigenous species); and Hungary’s role in fulfilling obligations arising from international agreements related to biodiversity. Within these strategic areas, twenty objectives have been defined, each involving several specific goals whose implementation is supported by measures and monitored by indicators. Actors, responsible institutions and funding sources have also been identified. The status of implementation will be evaluated in 2017 and 2021 (i.e. within one year following the end of the implementation period); activities will be supported by the National Biodiversity Monitoring System introduced in 1998 and which conducts monitoring at national (central) and territorial (local) levels. Hungary is also a proponent of the Green Infrastructure concept which is closely related to the Ecosystem Services approach. At present, the country’s ecological network consists of protected natural areas and Natura 2000 sites that cover more than 36% of the territory and are considered to be the backbone to Hungary’s green infrastructure. Mainstreaming of biodiversity information and awareness-raising is also occurring through the Ecoschool Network established in 2000. In 2012, more than 560 kindergartens were proud holders of the Green Kindergarten title. Hungary was the first EU Member State to ratify the Nagoya Protocol on ABS. The country's previous Biodiversity Preservation Strategy for the 2009-2014 period was approved as an annex to the Third National Environmental Programme.

Guyana
Adopted by Cabinet in May 2015, Guyana’s new NBSAP 2012-2020 contains a vision to 2030 and constitutes the country’s third NBSAP. Developed with consideration given to the global biodiversity agenda, 9 strategic objectives have been established to: (i) improve biodiversity status (ii) mainstream biodiversity in key productive sectors (iii) promote CEPA matters (iv) improve implementation, monitoring and reporting for MEAs, among other commitments (v) enhance national, regional and international partnerships (vi) consolidate and harmonize policy, legal, regulatory and administrative frameworks (vii) improve monitoring, including within productive sectors (viii) strengthen the knowledge base and capacity (ix) secure adequate resources. Priority actions, lead implementation agencies and targets have also been identified. A Communications Strategy to support actions taken to address the NBSAP's priorities has also been developed. Information that was key to informing the revision process related to the contribution of natural resources and biodiversity/ecosystem services to the economy (more than 95% of foreign exchange earnings in 2013 notably related to their use); low carbon development (through the Low Carbon Development Strategy, work is ongoing to establish a REDD+ framework and a monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) system); increased investment in ecotourism, including in collaboration with the private sector (visitor arrivals are increasing and Guyana is receiving regional and international acclaim as a tourist destination); increased projection in the growth of the mining (gold) industry; and the increasing threat of land degradation (it is projected that the rate of degradation will increase to between 200,000 and 250,000 hectares annually over the next 5 to 10 years). With gold production from small- and medium-scale miners having risen by 48% between 2007 and 2011 and investor confidence unshaken, prospects for large-scale gold mining in Guyana are very real. The adoption of innovative technology is unfolding nowadays to deal with issues associated with mercury abatement, improved efficiencies in recovery to offset the cost of production, and to reduce threats to the environment. A national policy on access to genetic resources and fair and equitable benefit-sharing has been developed. In April 2014, Guyana acceded to the Nagoya Protocol on ABS. Guyana and the European Union are currently negotiating a Voluntary Partnership Agreement under the existing EU Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) Action Plan which is expected to contribute to the sustainable management of Guyana's forests, employment and economic development.

Denmark
7 April 2016 - The following NBSAP document "Danish Nature Policy - Our Shared Nature" is currently under revision by the Danish Government.

Adopted in 2014, the Danish Nature Policy – Our Shared Nature contains a long-term vision to 2050 and serves as Denmark’s revised NBSAP, concretizing implementation of both the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and its Aichi Targets and the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. The Policy contains 22 initiatives that have been mapped to achieving the global and EU targets and that are distributed among three main focus areas: (i) to establish more and better interconnected nature (including marine habitats); (ii) to strengthen initiatives for wild animals and plants; and (iii) to improve a sense of community through nature experiences and outdoor activities. What is known as the Danish “Green Map” will serve as the strategic framework and plan for policy implementation, contributing to ongoing and new initiatives, including actions related to international and Natura 2000 sites. Broad stakeholder participation, identification of synergies and establishment of partnerships at all levels is encouraged, with municipalities being particularly responsible for targeted nature management. The Danish Nature Foundation was recently established by the Danish Government, the Aage V. Jensen Nature Foundation and the Villum Foundation to support implementation (DKK 500 million have been allocated as initial capital). Initiatives to better integrate farmers in nature management are under investigation. Denmark has produced a digital collection of nature maps, including one on biodiversity detailing Red List species and other endangered species. At the moment, two large projects are being carried out under the EU LIFE programme to create more coherent natural habitats and support both water and climate measures. A new national forest programme is moreover soon to be launched and will address, among other matters, the protection of important forests on private property. Denmark’s level of development assistance expenditure, which averaged DKK 2.4 billion per year between 2006 and 2012, has been maintained in the Danish Development Assistance Strategy.

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Peru
Peru’s Estrategia Nacional de Diversidad Biológica al 2021 y su Plan de Acción 2014-2018 was developed in accordance with the 1997 Law on Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity and adopted by decree in 2014. Its development featured a broad, regionally-balanced and participatory process, including representatives from five national organizations of Indigenous Peoples, including the National Organization of Indigenous Andean and Amazonian Women, the private sector and civil society. The new Strategy contains 6 strategic objectives to 2021 focused on: biodiversity status and ecosystem services; national development; reducing pressures; strengthening capacity at the three levels of government; improving knowledge and technologies and re-valuing traditional knowledge associated with the biodiversity of Indigenous Peoples; and strengthening cooperation and the participation of all actors in biodiversity governance. Thirteen national targets have been set (and mapped to the global targets), along with 2013 baselines and indicators. In addition, 147 actions are prioritized, scheduled and assigned entities responsible for implementation (a decentralized approach is promoted with regional and local governments assigned responsibilities). NBSAP considerations have been mainstreamed in various instruments, such as the Bicentennial Plan “Peru 2021”, National Environmental Action Plan, Environmental Agenda, and the Ministry of Environment’s Multi-annual Sectoral Strategic Plan. A CEPA Strategy and Resource Mobilization Strategy are currently in development. By the end of the first half of 2015, Peru aims to have adequate incentives, developed and coordinated across sectors and between levels of government, for engaging the private sector in biodiversity conservation initiatives.

Jordan
The development of Jordan’s revised NBSAP (2015-2020) was guided by past experiences and lessons learned from implementing the first NBSAP, adopted in 2003, the guidelines set by the CBD for this process, as well as by the current global biodiversity agenda. Twenty-nine national targets have been established under 5 strategic goals that focus on: good governance and mainstreaming; reducing human-induced pressures; protected areas, priority species and genetic resources; ecosystem services and climate change; knowledge management and monitoring. Each national target is assigned key performance indicators (KPIs), potential lead agency (ies), priority actions (there are over 300 actions all together) and implementation deadlines. The new NBSAP addresses the shortcomings of the previous NBSAP (which as of 2014 had only been 50% implemented) by seeking to adopt a financing framework using internal, external and innovative funding sources; a national outreach and awareness-raising program; a national-capacity-building program for the Ministry and its partners and stakeholders, including local communities and the private sector; a revised governance framework for implementation and its monitoring; improving capabilities for inter-institutional coordination, national mainstreaming and knowledge management; among other matters. Although primary ownership of the NBSAP lies with the Ministry of Environment, the National Biodiversity Committee (NBC) established in 2005 operates as its executive arm and is gradually becoming an active platform for improved involvement of civil society in the decision-making process. Jordan also anticipates amending its Environment Protection Law (2006) by 2017 which will enhance the legal biodiversity framework by including several bylaws specifically on protected areas, genetic resources and biodiversity and species conservation, as well as a revised EIA Bylaw (2005). The National Action Plan (NAP) to Combat Desertification (2006) is also under review.

Burundi
To facilitate implementation of its new NBSAP 2013-2020, which takes into account the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, Burundi has notably developed an associated Resource Mobilization Strategy, Capacity Development Strategy and CEPA Strategy. Moreover, the country adopted a Bill on Biodiversity in 2013. Twenty-two national biodiversity objectives are distributed among the NBSAP’s five strategic goals which aim to: 1) manage the underlying causes of biodiversity loss through the involvement and commitment of all stakeholders at all levels; 2) reduce direct pressures on biodiversity and biological resources; 3) improve the state of biodiversity through safeguarding ecosystems, species and genetic diversity; 4) value and sustain the benefits derived from biodiversity and ecosystem services; and 5) reinforce NBSAP implementation through participatory planning, efficient knowledge management and capacity development. A suite of indicators has been adopted and will be used by the National Biodiversity Committee to monitor and evaluate NBSAP implementation. A National CHM Strategy and Action Plan to 2020 has also been completed. Five regional plans for implementing the NBSAP exist, as do plans for integrating biodiversity into six sectors (Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock; Ministry of Energy and Mines; Ministry of the Interior; Ministry of Transportation, Public Works and Equipment; Ministry of Commerce, Industry, Postal Services and Tourism; and the highest levels of decision-making).

Niger
The preparation of the second edition of Niger’s Stratégie Nationale et Plan d'Actions sur la Diversité Biologique, adopted in 2014, was guided by the objectives of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity (2011-2020) and the National Plan for Social and Economic Development (2012-2015). Niger has undertaken measures to mainstream biodiversity, integrally or partially, in several additional planning frameworks, including the National Environmental Plan for Sustainable Development. Gender consideration is set down as a principle in the new NBSAP. A decentralized bottom-up approach to implementation is being promoted. It is anticipated that the main impact of implementation will be a reduction in the level of poverty for Niger’s population. The revision contains 5 strategic objectives that have been mapped to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets: i) conserve and sustainably exploit ecosystems, species and genetic resources; ii) reduce various forms of pollution; iii) improve and develop tools for managing protected areas; iv) take into account biodiversity in policies and strategies; v) address the effects of climate change. Eighty actions have been formulated, along with associated responsible actors, indicators, verification sources, costs per year (including funding gaps), hypotheses and risks. The total estimated cost of NBSAP implementation to 2020 is FCFA 420 647 660 000. Needs regarding capacity-building and access to technologies for implementing the new NBSAP have been identified, as have activities required to increase levels of communication and public awareness. Niger intends to adopt a system for monitoring and evaluation based on the principles of Results-based Management (RBM).

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Namibia
Namibia’s Second National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (2013-2022) (NBSAP2) was adopted in 2014. The sustainable management of biodiversity is enshrined in Namibia’s Constitution and integrated in its long-term National Development Strategy (Vision 2030). NBSAP2 has 9 key priorities: mainstreaming biodiversity; improving communication of biodiversity-related issues; addressing critical threats to biodiversity; contributing to national development objectives; strengthening the policy-making framework for biodiversity management; generating reliable baseline information; capitalizing on synergies with the Rio and other Biodiversity-Related Conventions; enhancing regional cooperation; and mainstreaming gender considerations. It is aligned with the five strategic goals of the global framework and contains 17 SMART national targets mapped to the Aichi Targets. NBSAP2 is also aligned with the SADC Regional Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. Moreover, it contains 38 strategic initiatives, with associated activities, that have been formulated to guide actions that will lead to the achievement of the 17 targets. Activities have designated lead agencies and partners and associated baselines (where available), key performance indicators, timeframes and costs (a conservative estimate for implementing NBSAP2 is N$ 494 million). Implementation will be led by natural resources management-related ministries and target key groups not typically directly responsible for biodiversity management, such as the Office of the Prime Minister, Ministry of Finance, National Planning Commission, parliamentarians, traditional authorities, regional councils and local authorities, private sector. Notably, a CEPA Strategy for implementing NBSAP2 has also been elaborated. Monitoring and evaluation will be coordinated by the newly established Division of Multilateral Environmental Agreements, under the Ministry of Environment and Tourism, with support from the cross-sectoral NBSAP2 Steering Committee. By 2022, Namibia hopes to have increased mobilization of financial resources from all sources compared to the 2008-2012 period. Among other successes, NBSAP1 implementation led to the proclamation of a first Marine Protected Area, the world’s largest Trans-frontier Conservation Area and 32 community forests. The beneficiation of communities continues to be at the heart of the country’s sustainable development process.

Mali
Mali’s Stratégie Nationale et Plan d’Actions pour la Diversité Biologique (SNPA/DB) was revised in 2014, taking into account the global framework and emphasizing biodiversity conservation as a development concept. It contains five strategic directions: i) integrate biodiversity conservation in government and civil society actions to manage the underlying causes of biodiversity loss; ii) reduce direct pressures on biodiversity and encourage sustainable use; iii) improve biodiversity status by safeguarding ecosystems, species and genetic diversity; iv) reinforce the advantages for all derived from biodiversity and the services provided by ecosystems; and v) reinforce implementation by means of participatory planning, knowledge management and capacity reinforcement. Nineteen national targets have been developed, along with 94 priority actions to be implemented from 2015 to 2020. The Action Plan identifies responsible institutions and partners, and costs and timeframes associated with implementing actions. Indicators for monitoring the achievement of each action have also been established. The estimated total cost of NBSAP implementation over the next 5 years has been placed at FCFA 44 290 000 000. Unlike the first NBSAP, adopted in 2001, the new NBSAP addresses for the first time, or emphasizes, matters such as: gender, poverty reduction, rights of local and indigenous communities, invasive plants, commerce, tourism, transboundary issues, climate change. A mechanism for improving the mobilization of financial resources has been proposed. An analysis has also been conducted regarding the country’s capacity-building needs. Mali also acknowledges the need to establish mechanisms to ensure mainstreaming in development planning processes and to monitor and evaluate implementation.

Antigua and Barbuda
Adopted in 2014, the first NBSAP of Antigua and Barbuda was developed on the basis of the framework provided in the draft prepared in 2001, and with consideration given to the application of the current global targets to the country’s biodiversity status. The Strategy contains four major objectives: (1) develop and establish a national system, including protected areas, for the management and conservation of biodiversity conservation; (2) strengthen the capacity of governmental natural resources management institutions, as well as non-governmental organizations, to support the objectives and achieve the overall aim of the NBSAP; (3) develop, improve, enact and enforce ecological legislation that provides adequate protection of biological diversity; and (4) strengthen public awareness of environmental issues, ecological education and public participation in decision-making. Twenty national targets, accompanied by implementation activities and indicators, have been formulated in alignment with the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, and agencies to engage in implementing activities have been identified. Support activities to be carried out over the 2014-2020 period have also been developed through stakeholder consultations to ensure effective implementation. The NBSAP emphasizes the importance of achieving an integrated, coordinated and inter-sectoral approach to biodiversity policy planning and management. Implementation will be led by the Environment Division, with assistance provided by the National Coordinating Mechanism (NCM) for Environment Conventions which was formally established by the Environment Protection and Management Bill (2014). This new legislation has also enabled the country to initiate work on the creation of a sustainable financing mechanism for biodiversity and particularly for protected areas management known as the SIRF (Sustainable Island Resource Fund).

Greece
Adopted in 2014 as a Ministerial Decision, Greece’s first NBSAP aims to halt biodiversity loss and the degradation of ecosystem services by 2026. The Strategy’s implementation period is 15 years (2014-2029). It consists of 13 general national targets, under which 39 specific targets have been respectively formulated, to address the following themes: (i) increasing scientific knowledge; (ii) preservation of national natural capital; (iii) national system of protected areas; (iv) conservation of genetic resources; (v) synergistic policies to conserve biodiversity; (vi) conservation of landscape diversity; (vii) biodiversity and climate change; (viii) biodiversity and invasive alien species; (ix) international and transnational conservation; (x) public administration and the protection of biodiversity; (xi) integrating biodiversity conservation in the value system of society; (xii) participation of society in biodiversity conservation; and (xiii) valuation of ecosystem services and promotion of the value of Greek biodiversity. Greece’s national targets have been mapped to both the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and EU Biodiversity Targets. The Strategy will be reviewed and amended every five years and action plans prepared for five-year periods. Actions for the achievement of all 39 specific targets have been established for the first five-year period (2014-2019), as have some indicative implementation indicators. During this first period, Greece intends to establish a monitoring system to quantifiably measure the status of implementation of the Strategy. The Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change is the main institution responsible for implementation.

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Mauritania
The primary goal of Mauritania’s new National Biodiversity Strategy (2011-2020) is to maintain the functions of ecosystems over the long term, including their capacity to adapt and evolve in relation to environmental changes, particularly climate change and desertification processes. The document is based on six strategic orientations: the creation of the desire to act on behalf of biodiversity; the preservation of life and its ability to evolve; investment in biodiversity conservation; assuring the sustainable and equitable use of biodiversity; assuring policy coherence and the effectiveness of actions; and the development, sharing and utilization of knowledge. In addition, 14 national targets have been set, together with actions, indicators and costs for implementing actions. Progress achieved to date towards the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and relevant Millennium Development Goals is also outlined in the Strategy. The National Action Plan for the Environment (PANE) and the National Strategy for Sustainable Development (SNDD) together define environmental policy. The PANE serves as a coherent environmental framework for Mauritania and, notably, its second phase (PANE II) for 2012-2016 has mainstreamed biodiversity in all its considerations, promotes a decentralized and synergistic approach to environmental management, including with the participation of local actors. Biodiversity is also integrated in the Strategic Framework for Poverty Reduction (CSLP) and the National Action Plan to Combat Desertification (PAN/LCD), among several other planning documents. Moreover, as a result of an increase in institution building in recent years, there now exists greater opportunities for harmonizing actions and mainstreaming in sectors. Examples of current national priorities include: sectoral reform focused on human, material and financial resources, consideration of inter-sectoral matters, restructuring; Good Environmental Governance promoted in PANE II; preservation and valuation of natural resources; and the promotion of renewable energy sources.

United Arab Emirates
The new (and first) Biodiversity Strategy of the United Arab Emirates includes a series of main orientations and national goals in line with the “Emirates vision 2021”, in addition to the Emirates' Strategy for Green Development, the National Strategy for Coastal and Marine Environment, the Biosafety Strategy and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. The main orientations focus on: 1) mainstreaming biodiversity in all economic and social sectors; 2) reinforcement of knowledge sharing and capacity building for upgrading and addressing biodiversity management; 3) improvement of biodiversity status through habitat protection, genetic diversity and restoration of degraded ecosystems; 4) reducing pressure on marine and terrestrial biodiversity; and 5) enhancing regional and international cooperation on biodiversity cross-cutting issues. Twenty-one national targets with action-driven and outcome-oriented measures, grouped under 5 thematic areas, have been set out. The new biodiversity strategy includes particular engagements on capacity building, communication and public awareness, resource mobilization, and on a national knowledge sharing platform in line with the CHM of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Progress on the implementation of the strategy and action plan will be monitored and assessed and findings will be reported by representatives from each Emirate.

India
Although prepared prior to the adoption of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and its Aichi Targets in 2010, India’s NBAP 2008 is nevertheless broadly aligned with the current global biodiversity agenda. In this regard, India decided that a revision of the NBAP 2008 was not necessary, and instead prepared an addendum in 2014 to the NBAP 2008 consisting of 12 national biodiversity targets developed within the framework of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. These national targets are mapped to the achievement of the latter as well as complemented by indicators and a monitoring framework.

Bhutan

Bhutan’s “National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plan” (2014) is the country’s fourth NBSAP document. Prepared by a National Task Force comprised of key biodiversity stakeholders, under the coordination of the National Biodiversity Centre, it considers key gaps identified from a review of earlier NBSAPs and seeks to, among other matters, strengthen coordination mechanisms, mainstreaming in sectorial development plans and programs, capacity, awareness, and promote ownership of the NBSAP as a guiding document at national, sectorial and local levels. Twenty national targets have been established and are mapped to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. Each target is complemented by a rationale, strategies, actions, indicators, timelines, priority ranking and cost estimates on implementation. Additionally, a framework for NBSAP implementation, monitoring and evaluation identifies responsible thematic groups and stakeholders. Since the first NBSAP was formulated in 1997, Bhutan has adopted 12 acts, policies and strategies related to biodiversity conservation. Notably, the safeguarding of Bhutan’s biodiversity is enshrined in its Constitution (2008). The Biodiversity Act of Bhutan was adopted in 2003. More recently, the Food and Nutrition Security Policy of Bhutan (2014) promotes biodiversity conservation for food security and resilience for all time thereby contributing to Gross National Happiness. Bhutan currently has 70.46% of its total area under forest cover and 51.44% of the total area secured as protected areas and biological corridors.

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Afghanistan
Afghanistan’s first NBSAP (2014-2017) contains 11 preliminary targets focusing on: protected areas; conserving selected taxonomic groups; conserving genetic diversity of valuable species and maintaining associated indigenous and local knowledge; sustainably managing sources from which biodiversity-based products are derived; decreasing the rate of loss and degradation of natural habitats; alien species; climate change and pollution; ecosystem capacity and sustainable livelihoods; traditional knowledge and the rights of ILCs; access and benefits sharing; and financial and technological resources. All of these targets include a timeframe and implementation responsibilities and have been mapped to the achievement of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. The NBSAP is mainstreamed with the Environment Sector Strategy and the National Priority Programme 1 - National Water and Natural Resources Development Programme, among other strategies. In addition, the UNFCCC National Adaptation Plan of Action (2009) extensively references biodiversity and its role in supporting ecosystems, and especially rural communities, to adapt to climate change. Pursuant to the Environment Law (2007), the National Environmental Protection Agency (NEPA) is mandated with overall responsibility for NBSAP implementation, in partnership with the Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock and other government organizations, and assisted by international organizations and NGOs. In terms of decentralizing actions for implementing the NBSAP, the Sub-National Government National Priority Programme - Subnational Governance Strategy will be key to this process. Further, through environmental plans, of which biodiversity is a subcomponent, contained in the National Development Plan (2015-2019), NBSAP implementation at the provincial level (there are 34 provinces) will be facilitated (NBSAP updates for the 2015-2019 period will elaborate extensively on this objective). Afghanistan’s National Development Strategy (2008-2013) currently serves as its National Poverty Reduction Paper; its cross-cutting environmental issues section contains a section on biodiversity which illustrates how Afghanistan will link up its development, security, and environmental issues, combining with sectoral policies and plans. For NBSAP implementation to be successful, the country further recognizes the need to develop a plan for capacity development, a communication and outreach strategy, and a plan for resource mobilization. To monitor activities, a comprehensive list of indicators will be developed for the updated NBSAP (2015-2019).

Republic of Korea

The Republic of Korea’s new NBSAP (2014-2018) was developed in accordance with the requirements of the Act on the Conservation and the Use of Biodiversity adopted in 2012. Based mainly on the theme of “Expanding the Future Value of Biodiversity”, the NBSAP is the third prepared by Korea and addresses 6 priorities for action: mainstreaming biodiversity; strengthening biodiversity conservation; reducing threats to biodiversity; the sustainable use of ecosystems; establishing a mechanism for biodiversity research and management; and international collaboration. Under these priorities, 18 goals have been established and are linked, as appropriate, to the achievement of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. Action plans, accompanied by targets, actions and indicators, have been formulated for each of these goals. Korea’s first NBSAP was prepared in 1997, and the second in 2009 for the 2009-2013 period which focused attention on the equitable sharing of benefits from biodiversity and the sustainable use of biological and genetic resources. A notable achievement of these NBSAPs corresponds to the creation of institutions for biodiversity conservation, as demonstrated by the establishment of the National Biodiversity Centre (within the National Biological Resource Centre) in March 2013, and the Marine Biodiversity Institute of Korea which is scheduled to open in 2014, among others. The Korea Biodiversity Observation Network (KBON) has also been recently set up to monitor biodiversity, including the impacts on biodiversity due to climate change, at the national level over the long term. Furthermore, in September 2013, the Ministry of Environment established a partnership with the business sector to raise and promote biodiversity programs called the “Korea Business and Biodiversity Initiative” (KBBI), which has been officially enrolled in the Global Platform on Business and Biodiversity managed by SCBD.

Georgia

Adopted by Government Decree on 8 May 2014, Georgia’s new NBSAP (2014-2020) was prepared in the light of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and its Aichi Targets. In contrast to Georgia’s earlier NBSAP (2005), the current NBSAP addresses implementation from a more holistic, cross-cutting and ecosystem-based perspective. CBD’s Gender Plan of Action was also fully considered in the course of its preparation. National targets have been set to achieve both the 2030 Vision and the strategic goals and targets of the global agenda and are accompanied by indicators, objectives, critical assumptions, actions, timeframes, responsible implementing bodies, and sources of potential funding. An overview of the country’s biodiversity is provided with respect to eight themes: species and habitats; protected areas; forest ecosystems; agricultural biodiversity and natural grasslands; inland water ecosystems; The Black Sea; cross-cutting issues and governance; and CEPA, with actions for implementing each national target linked to the theme of relevance. A Committee for Supervising and Monitoring NBSAP Implementation will be established by the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources Protection and ensure broad stakeholder engagement, including with the economic sectors and local authorities. Georgia also intends to develop a National Resource Mobilization Strategy.

Netherlands

Actions for implementing the Aichi Biodiversity Targets have been integrated into several Dutch policy plans which together serve as a revised NBSAP, thereby fulfilling the requirements of Aichi Biodiversity Target 17. Based on the recommendations of the Taskforce on Biodiversity and Natural Resources, the “Natural Capital Agenda: conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity” (2013) sets the implementation agenda to 2020 in the Netherlands and in the Dutch Caribbean. The Agenda considers the provisions of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and its Aichi Targets, the EU Biodiversity Strategy, as well as Dutch international development policy. Emphasis is placed on strengthening the economy-ecology relationship, with four main themes defined (sustainable production and consumption: sustainable supply chains; sustainable fisheries and protection of marine biodiversity; sustainable agriculture and protection of biodiversity; valuing natural capital). General objectives and specific action points are identified for each theme, with activities to be implemented by all stakeholders, including civil society and the private sector. Related policy plans include, among others, the Natural Way Forward (Government Vision 2014) and the Nature Policy Plan (The Caribbean) 2013-2017.

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Liechtenstein

Liechtenstein’s National Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 is accompanied by an Action Plan to 2020 and constitutes the country’s first NBSAP submission to the Convention. It was originally prepared in the 2010 International Year of Biodiversity and adjusted in 2014. The Strategy is based on one overall target which is to ensure the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. In addition, 4 sub-targets have been established addressing: i) biodiversity as the core element for nature conservation, including food and livelihood, with regard for its value and effects on nature; ii) the legally binding designation of nature protection areas to ensure and support biodiversity; iii) the sustainable use of Liechtenstein’s resources with consideration given to the biodiversity targets; and iv) Liechtenstein’s responsibility for its fair share of global biodiversity. Distributed among these 4 sub-targets are 12 strategy elements for which actions, bodies responsible for implementation and timeframes have been established.

Guatemala

Guatemala's revised NBSAP (2012-2022) is the main instrument for implementing the National Biodiversity Policy which was adopted in 2011 for mainstreaming biodiversity in support of socioeconomic development; this approach exemplifies a paradigm shift in the manner in which biodiversity is addressed in the country, with the original NBSAP (1999) having stressed a purely conservationist approach. Responsibility for implementation of all policy related to biodiversity is assigned to the National Council for Protected Areas (CONAP). The revised NBSAP focuses on the five thematic areas outlined in the Biodiversity Policy: 1) biodiversity knowledge and valuation; 2) biodiversity conservation and restoration; 3) sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystem services; 4) role of biodiversity in climate change mitigation and adaptation; and 5) policy implementation. The Strategy contains 5 operational strategies, 11 strategic objectives, 14 national targets (aligned with the Aichi Biodiversity Targets), while the Action Plan contains 139 actions for implementing the Strategy. Indicators have been developed for monitoring and assessing implementation. Further, a preliminary version of the financial requirements and budget for NBSAP implementation has been prepared. Recognition is also given to the fact that the development of a Resource Mobilization Strategy is essential and should consider national, regional and international sources, and those that are public and private in nature.

Nepal

Nepal’s revised NBSAP (2014-2020) has a long-term vision (35 years) and includes specific short-term (up to 2020) strategies and priorities for action. The latter are clustered into 6 sectoral thematic areas (protected areas, forests outside protected areas, rangelands, wetlands, agriculture, mountains) designed to address key biodiversity threats, gaps and issues, the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and the Millennium Development Goals. Strategies and priority actions have also been developed for 15 cross-sectoral thematic areas focused on: policy and legislation, institutions, mainstreaming, harmonization among biodiversity-related conventions, capacity, landscape management, invasive alien species, climate change, gender and social inclusion, traditional knowledge and indigenous and local communities, knowledge generation and management, technology, communication, extension and outreach (CEO), fund generation and mobilization, and monitoring and evaluation. Where appropriate, quantitative targets have been set against the priority action. The strategies generally indicate the agency responsible for implementation and supporting agencies, while the strategy on monitoring and evaluation also sets out performance indicators, means of verification and a time schedule. The National Biodiversity Coordination Committee (NBCC) serves as the key national institution for managing biodiversity, and also facilitates and monitors activities carried out by institutions at the district and local levels. The framework for the Local Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan is intended to serve as a guide to the Village Development Committees (VDCs) and municipalities in preparing their own BSAP. A preliminary estimate of costs for implementing the NBSAP based on the recommended priority actions and past funding trends has been prepared.

Estonia

Adopted in 2012 and developed in line with the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020, Estonia’s “Nature Conservation Development Plan until 2020” (NCDP) serves as the country’s revised NBSAP. The NCDP is also aligned with the Estonian Sustainable Development Strategy until 2030 and the Estonian Environmental Strategy until 2030 and promoted as a strategic base document for mainstreaming into all sectors. The NCDP comprises 3 main goals to ensure: (i) that people know, appreciate and conserve nature and know how to use their knowledge in their everyday lives; (ii) the favourable conservation status of species and habitats and the diversity of landscapes so that habitats function as a coherent ecological network; and (iii) the long-term sustainability of natural resources, and the preconditions for this, and that the principles of the Ecosystem Approach are followed in the use of natural resources. Measures and activities have been developed to achieve each goal. The total cost for implementing the NCDP over the 2012–2020 period is 582.2 million euros. Progress achieved on implementing the NCDP will be reported to the Government once a year with revisions deemed necessary initiated by the Ministry of the Environment who will involve all relevant ministries, including the Ministry of Finance, and parties in the revision process.

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Cameroon

Cameroon’s NBSAP II, completed in 2012, is a revision and update of the 2000 NBSAP, proposing a new policy orientation to reverse and halt the current trend in biodiversity loss as a way to establish a strong nature base that is indispensable for the country’s socioeconomic growth. Of importance is Cameroon’s 2035 vision for growth and development and its priority orientations, defined within the Growth and Employment Strategy Paper (GESP) which provides development options to boost key production sectors that are largely dependent on biodiversity (the document highlights activities that are unsustainable within each of these sectors and their negative impacts on biodiversity). NBSAP II will be implemented through to 2020 and contains 4 strategic goals, 20 national-level targets and 10 ecosystem-specific targets, priority actions, timeframes for action, performance indicators and actors/organizations responsible for implementation. It has been prepared with consideration given to the framework provided by the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and its Aichi Biodiversity Targets. A monitoring and evaluation framework has been conceived as well. In addition, NBSAP II provides an orientation for the subsequent development of a Capacity Development Plan, CEPA Plan and a Resource Mobilization Plan for its implementation.

Dominica

Dominica's revised NBSAP promotes the pursuit of a ‘green’ development path in keeping with the Government’s pronouncement that declared Dominica the ‘Nature Isle’. Dominica is aligning its development agenda and biodiversity conservation strategy with the global biodiversity objectives. All of the goals and targets of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 are therefore considered relevant and will be addressed to the extent possible within the development framework, and as far as they amplify the 'Nature Isle' concept and influence biodiversity management in Dominica. However, the country has selected the following five 2020 targets as national priorities and developed twelve strategies and accompanying actions for achieving them.
  • By 2020 at the latest, all residents of the Commonwealth of Dominica will be aware of the value of biodiversity, and the steps they can take to conserve and use it sustainably.
  • By 2020, at least 15% of areas under agriculture, aquaculture and forestry are managed sustainably, ensuring conservation of biodiversity.
  • By 2020, pollution, including from excess nutrient, has been brought to levels that are not detrimental to ecosystem function and biodiversity.
  • By 2020, at least 20% of terrestrial, inland water and 15% of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem service, are conserved through comprehensive ecologically representative and well-connected systems of effectively managed, protected areas and other means, and integrated into the wider land and seascape.
  • By 2020, ecosystem resilience and the contribution of biodiversity to carbon stock has been enhanced, through conservation and restoration, including restoration of at least 15% of degraded ecosystems, thereby contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation, and to combating desertification.

Tuvalu

Endorsed by Cabinet in 2013, Tuvalu's first NBSAP (2012-2016) addresses eight thematic areas: climate change and disaster risk management; traditional knowledge, cultural practices and indigenous property rights; conservation of species, ecosystems (marine, coastal, land terrestrial) and genetic diversity; Community - empowerment, involvement, awareness, understanding and ownership; sustainable use of natural resources; trade, biosecurity and food security; waste and pollution management; and management of invasive species. Strategy goals, objectives, actions, key performance indicators, key implementing bodies and stakeholders have been identified for each thematic area. Five cross-cutting issues necessary for effective implementation have also been established, namely: capacity building, education, training, awareness and understanding; sustainable development and environment management; mainstreaming and financing mechanisms; legal framework for biodiversity and law enforcement; and monitoring and evaluation. The planning process has emphasized inter alia an integrated approach to implementation, broad stakeholder engagement with a view to building "ownership" of the NBSAP by Tuvaluans, and the application of traditional knowledge, together with innovations and best practices, in activities. Tuvalu recognizes the importance to increase awareness among government and non-government stakeholders in order to acquire the support needed for implementation.

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Belgium

In November 2013, Belgium's Interministerial Conference for the Environment adopted an update of the National Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. Based largely on the previous Strategy (2006-2016), the update incorporates provisions aligned with the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity (2011-2020) and the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. It will guide activities for revising federal and regional biodiversity action plans and be promoted in sectoral policy-making. Its main focuses are: a) tackling emerging risks and the impact of internal trade of live specimens; b) protecting and restoring biodiversity and associated ecosystem services through protected areas - green infrastructure - no net loss; identifying pathways of introduction on IAS; c) phasing out perverse incentives and using guidelines on the integration of the values of biodiversity and ecosystem services in development strategies, planning processes and reporting systems included; developing an approach to include these values in national accounting; d) implementing the Nagoya Protocol; e) mapping ecosystem services in Belgium and assessing their values; f) ensuring the implementation and enforcement of biodiversity legislation; g) involving provinces, cities and other local authorities; h) boosting the mobilization of resources (including through innovative mechanisms) and enhancing capacities. The Strategy contains 15 priority strategic objectives and 85 operational objectives that have been mapped to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and to the targets of the EU Biodiversity Strategy. Specific actions and indicators for the Strategy will be developed at a later stage (during the implementation process).

El Salvador

El Salvador’s new Biodiversity Strategy (2013) was developed in accordance with the provisions of the Environment Law (Art. 69), constituting one of four national strategies that have been developed for implementing the National Policy for the Environment (2012) whose overall goal is to reverse environmental degradation and reduce vulnerability to climate change. (National Strategies have also been developed on climate change, water resources and environmental sanitation). The new Biodiversity Strategy focuses on massive restoration and conservation undertakings, including in regard to the country’s ecosystems, with a view towards recovering the capacity required to sustain current and future development. Particular emphasis is placed on soil and land uses. It is structured along 3 main goals, and identifies respective priority areas: 1) biodiversity mainstreaming in the economy (agriculture, fisheries and aquaculture, tourism); 2) restoration and conservation, including critical ecosystems (mangroves and beach ecosystems, rivers and wetlands, gallery forests and other forest ecosystems); 3) biodiversity for the people (rescue of traditional conservation practices for genetic resources, rights of use of biological resources, local economic options). To enable implementation, five critical themes are highlighted (awareness-raising, research, education and training, technology, financing), as is action required at the institutional level (inter-institutional coordination, institutional strengthening, local governance and management models, monitoring, reporting and verification, normative and regulatory legislation). The accompanying Action Plan is currently in development.

Suriname

Suriname's National Biodiversity Action Plan (NBAP) (2012-2016), finalized in February 2013, was essentially formulated on the basis of the directions outlined in the National Biodiversity Strategy (NBS) finalized 6 years earlier in 2007. The NBAP contains 8 objectives: (i) biodiversity conservation (ii) sustainable use of biodiversity (iii) regulated access to genetic material and associated knowledge, with fair and equitable sharing of benefits (iv) knowledge acquisition through research and monitoring (v) capacity-building (vi) CEPA (vii) cooperation at local and international levels (viii) sustainable financing. Each of these 8 objectives contains sub-objectives detailing desired actions to which are associated necessary inputs, expected outputs, level of importance and priority (timeframe), responsible implementing bodies, budget indication and budget source. Actions for the NBAP were elaborated through a phased approach with those for the Coastal Zone, including the urbanized areas, addressed in 2007 and those for the Interior in 2010-2012. Additionally, the final version of the NBAP incorporates actions promoting comprehensive stakeholder consultations, the rights of the communities (Indigenous and Maroons), the application of the Principles of Free Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) associated with the Nagoya Protocol, EIA/SEA, co-management of protected areas with local stakeholders. Suriname recognizes the need to develop a series of objective, quantifiable indicators for measuring the effects of actions.

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Finland

In December 2012, the Finnish Government adopted the National Strategy for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity (2012-2020) entitled ‛Saving Nature for People’. Replacing the National Strategy (2006–2016), the vision of the new strategy is to halt biodiversity loss in Finland by 2020 and ensure the favourable status of biodiversity and ecosystem services by 2050. Comprised of 5 strategic goals and 20 national targets, it has been formulated in compliance with the Strategic Plan (2011-2020) and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, as well as with the targets set out in the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. Implementation of the strategy will be conducted in a manner respectful of the indigenous Sámi community’s traditional knowledge and practices related to biodiversity. Relevant ministries have been assigned to implement the strategy by working in cooperation with civil society, commercial interests and other stakeholders to create a cost-effective and purposeful action plan that contains quantitative and qualitative bases for monitoring. The action plan has been adopted for fulfilling the goals and targets set by the Government until 2020, while giving due consideration to national needs and priorities. It will be implemented within spending limits defined in central government budget frameworks. Progress on the implementation of the strategy and action plan will be monitored and assessed, with findings reported to the Government in 2015.
Vision
  • By 2020 biodiversity loss in Finland will have been halted.
  • The favourable status of biodiversity and ecosystem services will be ensured by 2050.
  • Finland will protect and sustainably utilise biodiversity for its own intrinsic value and as a source of human wellbeing, while also taking active responsibility for issues related to biodiversity in international contexts.
  • The Government believes that wide-ranging actions, changes in attitudes and processes, and enhanced cooperation will all be needed to achieve the goals described above. These actions must be based on the following principles:

Mission

Finland will urgently undertake effective actions designed to halt the loss of biodiversity by 2020 and ensure that by 2050 the state of the natural environment in Finland is stable and capable of ensuring people’s future well-being.
To achieve this:
  • Issues and values related to biodiversity must become fundamental elements in decision-making.
  • The pressures facing biodiversity must be reduced.
  • Collaboration between the authorities, citizens, businesses and stakeholders and related participation procedures must be enhanced. New forms of cooperation designed to prevent and minimise any harmful impacts on biodiversity must be realised at a timely stage of the preparation of decisions on projects and plans.
  • Degraded ecosystems must be restored cost-effectively or left to revert to their natural state through natural processes.
  • Natural resources must be utilised sustainably. Renewable natural resources must be used in economic activities and to increase well-being in ways that ensure they are not depleted, but are renewed for the benefit of future generations. Non-renewable resources must be used as eco-efficiently as possible. In this way the present generation will not endanger the prospects for future generations to enjoy a good life in a sustainable society.
  • Actions related to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity must be realised effectively with due regard to citizens’ constitutional property rights and Finland’s traditional everyman’s right of access to the land, while also ensuring that all citizens meet their responsibility to preserve biodiversity. The indigenous Sámi community’s traditional knowledge related to biodiversity will be respected.
  • Decisions related to biodiversity must be based on the best available scientific information, and also apply the precautionary approach.
  • Finland will take responsibility for ensuring access to genetic resources and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from their utilisation.

Japan

The National Biodiversity Strategy of Japan (2012-2020) was adopted by Cabinet in September 2012, following two major events: the adoption at COP-10 in Nagoya of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity (2011-2020), including the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, and the Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred in March 2011 that made us think anew about the relationship between human beings and nature. The current Strategy provides a national roadmap for achieving the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, as well as outlines direction for realizing a vision of “Living in Harmony with Nature”. It contains 13 national targets and 48 key action goals (accompanied by target years for implementation) whose achievement will be monitored by a set of 81 indicators developed for this purpose. The Strategy also contains around 700 specific measures which will serve as the national action plan for implementing the roadmap. With a view to reflecting the views of diverse stakeholders, several enabling activities were carried out (e.g. establishment of a liaison committee, comprised of relevant ministries and agencies; organization of townhall meetings nationwide; invitation for public comments; conduct of meetings for exchanging opinions with relevant academic societies and NGOs; consultation with the Central Environment Council).

Malta

Adopted in December 2012, Malta's first National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (2012-2020), entitled "Working Hand-in-Hand with Nature", serves as a policy driver to set the country on the right track to meet its biodiversity and environmental objectives, as identified in Malta's National Environment Policy (2012) and in the 2020 Aichi Biodiversity Targets and EU targets. The NBSAP addresses the need to preserve biodiversity and ecosystem services through biodiversity integration in decision-making as well as within policies, plans and programmes of those sectors that act as drivers of biodiversity change. Nineteen national targets with action-driven and outcome-oriented measures, grouped under 18 thematic areas, have been set out, with implementation of actions assigned to one of four possible timeframes. CBD, EEA, SEBI and EU indicators, including the EU 2010 Biodiversity Baseline, have been adapted to serve as examples of indicators to measure progress towards NBSAP implementation and are subject to revision. Examples of prioritized actions relate to the establishment of: species and habitat action plans for priority species, especially endemic species, and for rare specialized habitats; a strict protection regime, incorporating measures to address the illegal and the incidental capture and killing of protected species, including those that are migratory; a range of governance types for long-term management of protected areas, based on good governance principles.

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Colombia

The Colombian "Política Nacional para la Gestión Integral de la Biodiversidad y sus Servicios Ecosistémicos (PNGIBSE)", launched on 28 July 2012, promotes a new way of addressing biodiversity in the country, oriented on the integrated management of biodiversity and the ecosystem services it provides, with the view to maintaining and increasing the resilience of socioecological systems at the national, regional, local and transboundary levels. The policy is considered fundamental to national development processes and is to serve as the strategic and conceptual framework for all existing and future environmental instruments related to biodiversity, developed at various levels, as well as the basis for inter-sectoral coordination of activities. It contains six strategic directions: (i) conservation and care of nature; (ii) governance and creation of public value; (iii) economic development, competitiveness and quality of life; (iv) management of knowledge, technology and information; (v) risk management and provision of ecosystem services; (vi) co-responsibility and global commitments. Actions for implementing the policy are to be arranged, coordinated and carried out jointly by the state, the production sector and civil society. The document also establishes the links between the policy’s strategic directions and compliance with the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, as well as some priority actions to be implemented by 2014, in alignment with the targets of the National Development Plan (2010 - 2014) – “Prosperity for All”, related to the integrated management of biodiversity and the ecosystem services it provides. The elaboration of a comprehensive action plan, based on the policy’s six strategic directions, is called for in the short term.

Dominican Republic

The “Estrategia Nacional de Conservación y Uso Sostenible de la Biodiversidad y Plan de Acción (2011-2020)” constitutes the country’s first NBSAP. Aligned with the global framework, national targets have been developed for the short, medium and long terms, as have milestones and indicators. The Ecosystem Approach is promoted in planning processes. The NBSAP is linked to implementation of the National Development Strategy (2010-2030) indicating that, by 2016, actions to strengthen aspects related to biodiversity, under the fourth strategic objective of the National Development Strategy on sustainable natural resource management, will be carried out as necessary. Women were highly involved in the NBSAP development process. The business sector (e.g. Bon Agroindustrial and Fundación Propa-Gas) is engaged in numerous biodiversity conservation activities through its association with RENAEPA, the national non-profit network promoting the integration of the business sector in sustainable natural resource management processes. A draft sectoral law on biodiversity has been submitted to Parliament for adoption.

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Switzerland

The new Swiss Biodiversity Strategy, adopted by the Federal Council on 25 April 2012, describes 10 strategic objectives to be achieved by 2020. Among these objectives are, notably, the sustainable use of natural resources by all relevant sectors, the implementation of an ecological infrastructure comprised of protected areas and protected area networks, the development of activities related to biodiversity and cities and consideration of biodiversity as a measure of Swiss prosperity. The Aichi Biodiversity Targets and the EU’s Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 were taken into account in the preparation of the Strategy. The Department of Environment, Transportation, Energy and Communication (DETEC) intends to develop an accompanying action plan by 2014 with the participation of all actors.

Democratic People's Republic of Korea

NBSAP implementation in the country is closely linked with implementation of the Master Plan for Development (MPLD) and national plans for sectors such as forestry, fisheries, Koryo medicine manufacturing, agriculture, as well to scientific research and energy development. The revised NBSAP contains 10 strategic goals and 23 actions (several of which will be implemented through projects). An action plan is currently being developed to mainstream biodiversity and environment in the education sector. The immediate objectives of the Strategy include: (i) restoring degraded ecosystems, halting the deterioration of the ecological environment, reducing the rate of loss of biodiversity components and improving the whole ecological environment; (ii) improving the management of nature reserves for raising the effectiveness of the system; (iii) increasing bio-productivity and service function of ecosystems and establishing the system for the sustainable use of bio-resources, thus enabling people to gain both environmental and socio-economical benefits via biodiversity conservation and sustainable use.

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Spain

The Spanish "Plan Estratégico del Patrimonio Natural y la Biodiversidad 2011-2017", adopted through Royal Decree 1274 on 16 September 2011, constitutes a fundamental element in support of the 2007 Law on Natural Heritage and Biodiversity. The plan considers themes derived from the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and the 2011 EU Strategy, and was subjected to Strategic Environmental Assessment in accordance with the provisions of the 2006 law on assessment of the effects of environmental plans and programmes.

Ireland

Launched on 9 November 2011, "Actions for Biodiversity 2011-2016", Ireland's second National Biodiversity Plan, addresses objectives raised by the international and European communities to reduce biodiversity loss. The plan comprises 7 strategic objectives: 1) To mainstream biodiversity in the decision-making process across all sectors; 2) To substantially strengthen the knowledge base for conservation, management and sustainable use of biodiversity; 3) To increase awareness and appreciation of biodiversity and ecosystems services; 4) To conserve and restore biodiversity and ecosystem services in the wider countryside; 5) To conserve and restore biodiversity and ecosystem services in the marine environment; 6) To expand and improve on the management of protected areas and legally protected species; and 7) To substantially strengthen the effectiveness of international governance for biodiversity and ecosystem services. Twenty-one national targets have been established, accompanied by 102 actions, headline biodiversity indicators that are expected to be adopted in 2012, as well as outcomes.

United Kingdom

While ultimate responsibility for CBD implementation lies with the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) of the UK Government, it is shared among the UK's 4 countries (England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Wales) and its Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies. In view of this, individual Country Biodiversity Strategies have been developed, as have a number of strategies for the Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies. To date, England, Scotland and Northern Ireland have completed revisions of their strategies in the light of the 2010 Nagoya outcomes. A UK-wide post-2010 biodiversity framework has also been developed.

England - "Biodiversity 2020: A strategy for England's wildlife and ecosystem services" outlines the strategic direction for biodiversity policy for the next decade on land (including rivers and lakes) and at sea, building upon the Natural Environment White Paper published in June 2011. The strategy stresses the provision of support for healthy well-functioning ecosystems and the establishment of coherent ecological networks. A set of outcomes for 2020 has been defined, including the establishment of a network of marine protected areas containing in excess of 25% of English waters by the end of 2016. The strategy aims to ensure that biodiversity values are considered in the decision-making processes of both the public and private sectors. The government also intends to develop new and innovative financing mechanisms for achieving the 2020 outcomes.

Scotland - "2020 Challenge for Scotland's Biodiversity" published in 2013 is Scotland’s response to implementing the Nagoya outcomes and the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. It aims to protect and restore biodiversity on land and in Scotland's seas, and support healthier ecosystems; connect people with the natural world, for their health and wellbeing and to involve them more in decisions about their environment; maximise the benefits for Scotland of a diverse natural environment and the services it provides, contributing to sustainable economic growth.

Northern Ireland – Published in 2015, “Valuing Nature - A Biodiversity Strategy for Northern Ireland to 2020” contains seven overarching goals closely linked to the internationally agreed Aichi Targets to help halt the loss of biodiversity in Northern Ireland. An Implementation Plan is included as part of the Strategy and sets out the 57 actions that will be taken to meet the goals. Together, the goals and actions set out accountability and demonstrate a long-term commitment by the Northern Ireland Executive and wider society to halting biodiversity loss. The Strategy also recognises the value of biodiversity in relation to economic prosperity and health and well-being.

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France

The revised National Biodiversity Strategy (2011-2020) is coherent with various existing national strategies and action plans. The strategy attaches particular importance to increasing biodiversity information and education for all stakeholders; biodiversity mainstreaming in development projects (especially in overseas territories where exceptionally rich biodiversity has significant socioeconomic and cultural value for the local populations); as well as to biodiversity governance at all levels (global to local).

European Union

At its meeting of 21 June 2011, the Environment Council of the European Union endorsed the new Strategy to halt the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services in the EU by 2020, and agreed to further discuss the actions in order to ensure the effective and coherent implementation of the Strategy. The preparation of a new Strategy is in line with two commitments made by EU leaders in March 2010. The first is the 2020 headline target: "Halting the loss of biodiversity and the degradation of ecosystem services in the EU by 2020, and restoring them in so far as feasible, while stepping up the EU contribution to averting global biodiversity loss"; the second is the 2050 vision: “By 2050, European Union biodiversity and the ecosystem services it provides – its natural capital – are protected, valued and appropriately restored for biodiversity's intrinsic value and for their essential contribution to human wellbeing and economic prosperity, and so that catastrophic changes caused by the loss of biodiversity are avoided.” There are six main targets, and 20 actions to help Europe reach its goal.

Venezuela

In 2010, Venezuela adopted a new National Strategy for the Conservation of Biological Diversity (2010-2020) and an associated Action Plan. The new Strategy was formulated with the participation of a wide variety of sectors within society (academic, Government employees, enthusiasts and community-based organizations), in several workshops that took place over a period of 18 months. Overall, over 1600 people participated nationwide, promoting debate and enriching the analytical process through offering different points of view. During the workshops, the problems associated with the loss of biological diversity were identified and their causes and consequences analyzed. The causes identified were then grouped into one of three categories: proximate, intermediate and structural. The next stage consisted of collectively constructing strategies for the conservation of biological diversity. Using the analysis of the problems and the current status of biodiversity as starting points, seven strategic lines were formulated in terms of the technical elements required to confront the loss of biological diversity, and seven crosscutting themes identified as the political and social elements necessary to guarantee biological conservation together with social commitment. This collective construction ensured that participants were involved in the entire process of preparing the Strategy, generating awareness of the urgency of the issues while contributing to the transformation of the country’s situation via the transformation of individuals and vice versa. The National Strategy for the Conservation of Biological Diversity contains the fundamental guidelines that will govern actions taken during the 2010-2020 period. It is composed of seven strategic lines, with a general objective and several specific objectives, which contain general actions that constitute the basis on which the Action Plans are built. Venezuela's first NBSAP was adopted in 2001.

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Serbia

The Serbian Biodiversity Strategy for the period 2011-2018 was adopted in 2011. Objective 9.1 of the document addresses the establishment of national-level targets for biodiversity protection, according to the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and Aichi Biodiversity Targets, over the next three-year period. Current actions are associated with institutions responsible for implementation, timeframes and potential funding sources.

Australia

Australia agreed a revised Biodiversity Conservation Strategy for the 2010-2030 period in October 2010 and has substantially moved towards the etablishment of national targets that are measurable and time-bound, with ten measurable targets linking to various elements of the new Strategic Plan for Biodiversity set for implementation by 2015. In 2015, the Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council will review the status of implementation of the strategy as well as consider what amendments may be required to the targets and strategic elements.

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Burkina Faso

While Burkina Faso’s Biodiversity Strategy (2001) covers a 25-year period, its Action Plan is revised every five years. The Biodiversity Action Plan (2011-2015) is currently under implementation and was developed with consideration given to, inter alia, the conclusions of GBO-3, the impacts of climate change on biodiversity, the Rural Land Tenure Law (2009), a coordinated approach to implementation of the Rio Conventions, and the socio-ecological principles of the Satoyama Initiative. The Plan also considers the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity adopted in 2010 in Nagoya, while also being linked to the National Strategy for Accelerated Growth and Sustainable Development, also adopted in 2010, among other plans. It contains 36 priority actions with expected results formulated against each action, along with associated activities, indicators, verification sources, and important assumptions on the availability of funding, technical capacity and political will, among other requirements. The costs of the Plan's implementation have also been calculated on an annual basis. A decentralized approach to biodiversity management involving local communities (especially women) is particularly emphasized, as is improving knowledge on the conservation and use of biological resources (especially genetic resources) and ensuring that the benefits arising from their use are equitably shared, as prescribed in the Nagoya Protocol.

Italy

The 'Strategia Nazionale per la Biodiversità' was adopted by the Italian Permanent Conference for Relationships between State, Regions and Autonomous Provinces in October 2010.

China

China's revised National Biodiversity Conservation Strategy and Action Plan (2011-2030) was developed with the draft Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 taken into account.

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  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme