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San Marino - Overview

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The designations employed and the presentation of material on this map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity or the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

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Please note that country profile details are not yet available for this country.


NOTE: Click here to access studies submitted by San Marino that relate to CBD implementation.

Biodiversity Facts

Status and trends of biodiversity, including benefits from biodiversity and ecosystem services

San Marino is an enclaved microstate (61 km2) located on the Italian peninsula, to the northeast of the Apennine Mountains, featuring small steep valleys and creeks and spectacular limestone cliffs. Despite its small size, the country contains a high level of biological, geological and landscape diversity. Twenty-one percent of its territory is assessed as urban; 41% agricultural (mainly arable lands, orchards, vineyards and olive groves); 16% woodlands (predominantly oaks and other broadleaves); over 17% shrublands and similar lands; 4% badlands; while less than 1% is covered by rivers... More »

Main pressures on and drivers of change to biodiversity (direct and indirect)

Since the national territory has a very limited extension (6,119 ha) and is totally located within the Italian peninsula, it is inevitably subject to environmental changes, pressures and the threats that, on a large scale, affect biodiversity in Italy.

However, in the small country of San Marino, simplification of agro-ecosystems, use of pesticides, chemical pollution and construction of specific infrastructure do not currently represent a serious problem; instead the direct consequences of the current rate of urbanization include the loss, fragmentation and erosion of habitats and impairment of their ecological and functional roles, with several negative effects on the survival of populations and species, soil permeability, temperature rise and hydrogeological balance... More »

Measures to Enhance Implementation of the Convention

Implementation of the NBSAP

The country has not prepared a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan.

Actions taken to achieve the 2020 Aichi Biodiversity Targets

The “San Marino Agenda 21 Coordination” was established in 2007 and includes 23 bodies and associations that organize training and awareness-raising initiatives, including conferences and exhibitions, for the general public and schools. Issues highlighted include, among others, ecosystem protection, sustainable development, climate change, new technologies related to alternative energy sources and energy efficiency... More »

Support mechanisms for national implementation (legislation, funding, capacity-building, coordination, mainstreaming, etc.)

Adopted by decree in 2012, San Marino’s Environmental Code incorporates the latest European environmental standards. In 2014, the Government adopted the law reform on the promotion and enhancement of energy efficiency in buildings and renewable energy use in the civil and industrial sectors (2008) (a complementary multi-year National Energy Plan has also been prepared)... More »

Mechanisms for monitoring and reviewing implementation

San Marino recognizes that systematic data collection should be strengthened, as should standardized integrated monitoring.

Since 2012, the San Marino Naturalistic Centre (CNS) has existed as an organizational unit within the Department of the Territory and Environment, designated as the Scientific Authority for CITES and responsible for monitoring the natural aspects of the country through study and field research activities, both independently and in collaboration with other organizational units of the public administration and/or other authorities or private citizens... More »

National Contacts

Full details of national contacts »

Convention on Biological Diversity

Mr. Tonino Ceccoli
CBD Primary NFP
Dr. Fabio Berardi
CHM NFP

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

Mr. Dario Galassi
BCH NFP

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  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme