- Since COP-10, 173 Parties have submitted NBSAPs: 145 Parties submitted revised versions (among these, 2 Parties completed their revisions prior to COP-10 however with consideration given to the draft Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and are therefore included in this number); 17 Parties submitted their first NBSAPs; 2 Parties submitted both their first NBSAP and a revised version; 4 Parties submitted two revised versions; 1 Party submitted an Action Plan to 2020 for enhancing implementation of its Strategy adopted before COP-10; 1 Party submitted an Action Plan to 2028, as an addendum to the NBSAP prepared before 2010 which remains current and conforms with the Aichi Targets and will also be implemented to 2028; 2 Parties submitted addendums to their NBSAPs prepared before 2010 which contain national targets mapped to the Aichi Targets; and 1 Party submitted a first NBSAP developed in 2010 prior to COP-10.
Haiti A summary will be provided here shortly.
Slovenia A summary will be provided here upon receipt of the English version of the revised NBSAP. This document is currently available in Slovenian only.
Fiji A summary will be provided here shortly.
- These NBSAPs reflect varying degrees of compliance with the Nagoya outcomes. They are accessible below (their date of receipt by the Secretariat or the date on which the NBSAP was officially launched is indicated in brackets).
Angola’s 2025 Vision underscores the need to conduct biodiversity valuation to ensure ecosystem resilience to eradicate extreme poverty and improve the wellbeing of the Angolan people. The main framework used for expressing the usefulness of biodiversity is the concept of ecosystem services. Various efforts are being carried out to mainstream biodiversity and ecosystem services considerations in development processes.
The revised NBSAP (2019-2025) was adopted by Presidential Decree and is mainstreamed with inter alia Article 39 of Angola’s Constitution (2010), National Development Plan (2018-2022), SADC Law Enforcement and Anti-Poaching Strategy embedded in the Protocol on Wildlife Conservation and Law Enforcement, and the National Policy on Forests, Wild Fauna and Conservation Areas. Implementation will be facilitated by the identification of synergies with other executive branches of the Government, and cross-cutting issues, as well as in collaboration with institutional bodies, such as the Multisectoral Committee for the Environment and the Public-Private Partnership.
There are 12 strategic goals which focus on the following abridged themes: pressure reduction and sustainable use; conservation areas network; scientific research and information dissemination; CEPA; implementation of related international agreements; biodiversity management by local communities; resource mobilization; biodiversity restoration in cities, towns, villages and neighbourhoods; environmental institutions; legislation development and implementation, in harmony with international and regional (SADC) agreements; management, coordination and monitoring; and restoration of degraded forests and ecosystem services. Each strategic goal is linked to a suite of national objectives.
The Action Plan until 2025 is aligned with the country’s strategic goals and national objectives, as well as with the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and Sustainable Development Goals. In this context, emphasis is placed on actions related to biodiversity governance, biodiversity for subsistence, biodiversity for economic development, biodiversity management systems, biodiversity and climate change, and biodiversity and other development initiatives (e.g. energy and mining).
Separate action plans are outlined for the following 24 sectors: agriculture; fisheries; geology and mining sector; oil sector; trade and general tax authority; urbanization, housing and civil construction; energy and water; transport; national defense and security; social communication; environment; education and teaching; forest; scientific research; tourism; culture; family and promotion of women; industry; planning and finance; banking and business (state and private); foreign affairs and international cooperation; provincial governments; NGOs and religious institutions; and international cooperation sector. Each sectoral action plan outlines actions to be developed by 2025 and is linked to the implementation of relevant national objectives. Indicators to measure success in 2025 are also provided.
Angola implemented its first NBSAP from 2007 to 2012.
South Sudan has prepared its first NBSAP 2018-2027 whose implementation is guided by six overall principles, including the beliefs that biodiversity management will purposely contribute to poverty reduction and economic development aspirations outlined in the South Sudan Development Plan, alongside other development policies, and to building increased accountability in the public management of biodiversity resources and accountability at subnational, national and global levels. It is hoped that the NBSAP will be adopted by Cabinet and a comprehensive national biodiversity coordination framework established early on in the implementation period.
Seven strategic objectives are mapped to achieving relevant Aichi Biodiversity Targets and aim to: 1) develop a stakeholder co-ordination framework for national and subnational biodiversity management; 2) strengthen policy, legislative and institutional capacity for biodiversity conservation and management for all actors; 3) reduce negative impacts and enhance positive impacts on biodiversity through facilitation, design and capacity enhancement for enforcement and compliance, for biodiversity regulations and incentive mechanisms; 4) strengthen capacity for and conduct resource assessments, spatial, ecological and land use planning and benchmarking of the value of biodiversity to support sustainable use and management of biodiversity; 5) restore degraded ecosystems and promote access and benefit-sharing of biodiversity and ecosystem services, including for protected areas and non-protected areas; 6) develop and implement a resource mobilisation strategy for biodiversity conservation and management; and 7) establish knowledge and information management systems and create awareness of biodiversity conservation. Twenty-four national targets have been set that are distributed among the strategic objectives.
The NBSAP calls for significant efforts to be carried out to decentralize biodiversity management (notably, the Transitional Constitution states that South Sudan shall have a decentralized government system). Target 2 aims to mainstream biodiversity values in National Development Plans and budget framework papers, as well as in State and County Development Plans. In addition, Target 4 states that, by 2025, National Government and State Governments will have reviewed relevant legislation, policies and programs to maximize synergies with the NBSAP. To address the very low level of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) carried out, particularly within the private sector, Target 7 aims to strengthen, by 2022, biodiversity-inclusive EIA and environmental audits, and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA).
An NBSAP monitoring and evaluation framework is presented in the form of a log-frame outlining the flow of targets/actions for each of the strategies, objectives, outputs and output indicators. Also presented are the means of verification for indicators comprising of internal and external evaluation activities, as well as documented evidence and physical observation.
The development of a resource mobilization strategy for the NBSAP will be jointly coordinated by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry and the Ministry of Finance and Planning. The country intends to have prepared, by 2024, guidelines for developing innovative finance mechanisms (e.g. Payments for ecosystem services, biodiversity offsets, environmental fiscal reforms, performance bonds, green markets through natural resource trade and value chains, climate finance).
This document is an addendum to the NBSAP prepared in 2009, containing Singapore's national biodiversity targets that have been mapped to achieving relevant Aichi Biodiversity Targets.
Turkey’s National Biodiversity Action Plan (2018-2028) is an addendum to the NBSAP (2007-2017). A review of the latter, led by the National Biodiversity Strategy Specialist Committee and which assembled various ministries, including the Ministry of Economy, concluded that the strategies and objectives contained in the NBSAP remained current and, moreover, were in conformity with the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. The National Biodiversity Action Plan (2018-2028) addresses new national objectives formulated on the basis of, among other directives, the 10th Development Plan (2014-2018) which promotes socioeconomic development through the application of a multi-dimensional and participatory approach. The Action Plan contains seven new national objectives on the following (abridged) themes: biodiversity pressures and threats; biodiversity components and conservation approaches; biodiversity conservation in agricultural, forestry and fishing areas; awareness of ecosystem services by the public and administrators and sustainable management; ecosystem rehabilitation and restoration and the filling of related legislative gaps; development of high value-added products aligned with the principles of conservation and sustainable use; and the preparation of national ABS legislation and establishment of required technical infrastructure. Twenty-four actions associated to these national objectives will complement implementation of the NBSAP as well as the current global biodiversity agenda. Responsible authorities (and related authorities) and indicators for each action have also been defined. Both the NBSAP and Biodiversity Action Plan will be implemented up to 2028. The legal status of biodiversity is determined by the Turkish Constitution and legislation, and the provisions of international conventions and protocols, thus implicating several institutions in actions to conserve biodiversity. In 2018, a revised Presidential decree designated responsibility for the development of “policies for the conservation of nature, detection of protected areas, national parks, parks of nature, monuments of nature, nature preservation areas, wetlands and conservation, management, development, operation and authorizing for operation of biodiversity and hunting and wildlife” to the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, under the General Directorate of Nature Conservation and National Parks. Legislation recently adopted includes the Law on Biosafety (2010) and the Law on Industrial Property (2016). In addition, since 2011, several regulations pertaining to, generally speaking, the protection of genetic resources have been adopted. The National Biotechnology Strategy and Action Plan was implemented from 2015 to 2018, and the National Marine Research Programme (2016-2026) and the “TUBITAK Vision 2023” on the Turkish National Technology Foresight Program are currently under implementation. Turkey is a Party to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety however is not a Party to the Nagoya Protocol on ABS. In regard to the establishment of a monitoring mechanism for biodiversity, it is envisioned that the General Directorate of Nature Conservation and National Parks will establish a Coordination Secretariat, and that relevant institutions and organizations will be invited to meetings held annually to report on activities they have carried out in relation to biodiversity and to evaluate the current status of implementation of the NBSAP and the National Biodiversity Action Plan.
The Policy and Strategy for the Integral and Sustainable Management of the Biodiversity Action Plan (2019-2030) (Política y Estrategia Plurinacional para la Gestión Integral y Sustentable de la Biodiversidad - Plan de Acción 2019-2030
) was adopted by the Plurinational State on 28 December 2018 and is the product of collaboration among indigenous and campesino organizations, national academic institutions, all sectors of the central government, as well as departmental and municipal governments, among other actors. Based on the paradigm of “Living Well in Harmony with Mother Earth” which, among other provisions, mandates social inclusion and the non-commodification of natural processes and genetic resources, this policy instrument will contribute to achieving the current respective global agendas for biodiversity and sustainable development. It promotes and guides actions for managing biodiversity in an integrated and sustainable manner, by means of contributions from indigenous peoples and other actors, in order to achieve socioeconomic development, and states that benefits are to be shared among all actors. The basis for the new NBSAP is taken from numerous legislations and strategic plans, including: Bolivia’s new Constitution (2009) which declares that natural resources are exclusively of public interest and shall be administered by the State; Law of the Rights of Mother Earth (2010); Framework Law of Mother Earth and Integral Development for Living Well (2012); Patriotic Agenda 2025 (2013); Plan on Economic and Social Development (2016-2020); and the Law for the Integral Planning System (2016). The latter legislation was particularly significant to the development of the new NBSAP in that it provides standards and procedures for integrated and decentralized planning for simultaneously achieving complementary and sustainable productive systems for eradicating extreme poverty, conserving environmental functions and managing risks, climate change and life systems. The new NBSAP will also serve to operationalize the Sectoral Plan for Integral Development developed by the Ministry of Environment and Water (2015). Furthermore, the Framework Law of Autonomies and Decentralization “Andrés Ibáñez” (2010) outlines differentiated competencies and functions for each level of government. The Biodiversity Action Plan encompasses five strategic areas: policy and standards; institutions and territorial governance; conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity; comprehensive environmental management for biodiversity; and knowledge management and mobilization. There are 10 strategic objectives and 15 lines of action respectively associated to the 2020, 2025 and 2030 horizons. Additionally, two cross-cutting issues (climate change and gender) shall be mainstreamed in actions. Bolivia adopted its first NBSAP in 2001.
Kuwait’s National Biodiversity Strategy (2011-2020) was adopted by the Environment Public Authority on 12 November 2018 and is based on ten principles, including that decisions on the allocation or use of national biodiversity resources shall be based on the concepts of equitable resource-sharing and transparency; programmes shall be developed on the basis of environmental concepts and the pillars of sustainable development; lack of information on impacts should not be an obstacle to taking measures to protect natural resources; fees should be paid for the use of natural resources; and tangible and intangible values of biodiversity should be identified and disseminated in national accounts (Gross National Product). Three action plans have been defined covering the short, medium and long terms, each containing general, special and supporting measures that will be implemented during these timeframes. General measures commonly relate to biodiversity documentation, assessment, planning, management and use. Special measures planned for the short and medium terms respectively deal with conserving biodiversity within and outside protected areas and nature reserves. Support measures pertain to the development of integrated policy for biodiversity conservation, with consideration given to regional and international agreements and bilateral and multilateral cooperation, and to national-level measures which aim to establish legislations and policies, including sectoral development policy and biotechnology policy, and strengthen institutional arrangements, biodiversity financing (such as through PES and the Polluter Pays Principle), national reporting, CEPA (including for decision-makers), and capacity in the areas of biotechnology, the use and conservation of genetic resources, and wildlife conservation and protected areas management, among other areas.
Panama’s new NBSAP (2018-2050), adopted by decree on 18 December 2018, following a highly participatory, inclusive and gender-sensitive process that considered the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, the Sustainable Development Goals and the National Policy on Biodiversity (adopted by decree in 2008), shall be used as an instrument for mainstreaming biodiversity in relevant policies and strategies. Its 2050 vision is to achieve “Un Panamá Verde” (“A Green Panama”) and enhance well-being for all Panamanians, and is underpinned by a paradigm shift towards a development model that combines the three dimensions—social, economic and environmental—of sustainable development. Implementation will be guided by five strategic lines, namely: conservation and restoration; reduction of pressures; knowledge, awareness-raising and education; sustainable use and management; and mainstreaming and governance. Under this framework, 24 national targets have been set, along with action lines and monitoring indicators. An Action Plan has also been prepared which is costed up to 2030 and will be reviewed and adjusted, as necessary, every five years up to 2050. It contains a total of 26 actions (and associated guidelines), timeframes, actors, and cost estimates to 2030 totalling 102,630,000 balboas. Panama’s system of protected areas (SINAP) is comprised of representative samples of 12 life zones and a variety of ecosystems, occupying 31.8% of the country’s land area and 13.5% of its marine area. Considerable attention is being given to developing “green tourism” in protected areas, in accordance with both national and international standards. This initiative is supported by an Action Plan for the 2016-2026 period and being promoted by the Ministry of Environment, the Tourism Authority and the National Institute of Culture, together with civil society, communities and the private sector. In addition, through Law 69, sanctioned in 2017, an incentive program was established to assist with consolidating the alliance for the reforestation of one million hectares which, at the same time, will contribute to achieving the SDGs. This program provides partial or total non-refundable direct financing benefiting, among other activities, those carried out in regard to natural forest protection, restoration and conservation, agroforestry, forests and livestock, sustainable forest management and commercial plantations. Panama intends to have updated its action plan on resource mobilization by 2025. Relatedly, it will carry out actions to increase the ability to quantify public and private investment in biodiversity conservation, increase the capacity to perform cost-benefit analysis of environmental practices that are friendly to biodiversity, within the agricultural sector, increase the capacity to economically assess biodiversity goods and services, and estimate the financial needs for biodiversity conservation by adjusting planning tools (strategies and action plans), among other actions. Panama has also prepared a Communication Plan to guide the definition of priorities, results, impacts and key messages regarding implementation of the NBSAP (and the SDGs) which ultimately seeks to achieve inclusive economic growth while conserving and restoring biodiversity.
Adopted by the Government of the Republic of Macedonia on 13 March 2018, the current NBSAP (2018-2023) assigns priority to the following biodiversity issues: sectoral mainstreaming; information/knowledge of status and trends; legislative and institutional strengthening; conservation; sustainable use of biodiversity components; monitoring, assessment and evaluation, prevention and mitigation of impacts; education (formal and informal); public awareness-raising, information and dissemination; and access and benefit-sharing. Nineteen national targets have been set that comply with the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. For each national target, actions, priorities, competent institutions, implementing periods, funding, and action implementation indicators have been defined. In parallel, the country adopted the National Strategy for Nature Protection (2017-2027) which integrates both geodiversity and biodiversity protection. As a candidate for EU membership, the country is also conducting activities to implement the EU acquis on nature conservation, particularly the EU Birds and Habitats Directives.
The first NBSAP, adopted in 2004, achieved most progress in the areas of legislation, investigation and monitoring, public awareness and education and, to some extent, in regard to in situ conservation. Included among its outcomes were the development of protected areas management plans, in accordance with internationally recognized methodology, the establishment/expansion of the protected areas network and the establishment of bio-corridors between protected areas, as well as the identification of important plant and animal areas. The lowest level of progress was achieved in the areas of ex situ conservation, institutional strengthening, financial resources, and coordination and implementation. The Law on Nature Protection (2004) provides the legal basis for carrying out various measures towards biodiversity conservation, including the use of spatial planning and SEA procedures. The country adopted its Spatial Plan in 2004 and, in 2010, conducted a detailed analysis of all protected and proposed-for-protection areas included in the Study of the Natural Heritage, under the Spatial Plan, and other documents. The results of the analysis contributed to, among other outcomes, the establishment of a representative protected areas network which today covers nearly 20% of the national territory. While the application of SEA has increased over the last years, the impacts have not yet proven to be satisfactory.
The Law on Nature Protection also stipulates that funds for nature protection are to be provided from the national budget, the budgets of local self-governments (on the territory on which the protected area is situated), and from other sources. Activities are primarily financed by the GEF and EU, and by donations/grants from other countries and private foundations. In spite of regulations having been adopted in 2013, establishing a price list for the use of protected areas, this PES system has not yet been implemented. Cross-border conservation projects with Albania, Bulgaria and Greece have been carried out as a result of EU funding. Although efforts were initiated in 2005 towards decentralization, institutional processes remain highly centralized. It is also recognized that the National Committee for Biological Diversity (which includes a Secretariat), established in 1999, should be renewed, and that an institute or agency for nature, serving as an independent technical body, should be established. In addition, capacity at the local level, especially in municipalities appointed as protected areas management entities, requires strengthening.
Micronesia (Federated States of)
The revised NBSAP (2018-2023) of the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) was developed through a highly consultative process, involving representatives from the national, state (Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei and Kosrae) and municipal levels, UNDP, NGOs, CBOs, and the science and education communities. Consultations with women’s focus groups were also held in all four states during this period. It was determined that the following 11 themes contained in the first NBSAP, adopted in 2002, remain relevant and thus they have been retained in the revised NBSAP, together with their respective strategy goals: Ecosystem Management; Species Management; Genetic Resource Use; Agrobiodiversity; Ecological Sustainable Industry Development; Biosecurity; Waste Management; Human Resources and Institutional Development; Resource Owners; Mainstreaming Biodiversity; and Financial Resources. The themes are mapped to achieving related Aichi Biodiversity Targets and Sustainable Development Goals and, where applicable, to the Micronesia Challenge. Implementation is guided by the four principles of: sovereign rights (over biological diversity); the community-based approach; traditional heritage; and ecological integrity. Furthermore, climate change and gender are recognized as specific themes underpinning the entire NBSAP. The country also intends to expand the scope of environmental impact assessments to include gender and societal impacts. The NBSAP follows up on progress achieved to date, with objectives and actions having been appropriately updated. Thematic indicators and constraints are defined as well. An annual quick assessment process will be undertaken to evaluate implementation progress and allow for the inclusion of new actions, as necessary. After 5 years, a consultative process will be undertaken to review the Plan to ensure its relevance for the post-2023 period.
FSM governance operates at four levels (national, state, municipal and traditional). Under FSM’s constitution, most power is delegated to the states who are able to inter alia
enact laws related to the environment and natural resources. Of note is that Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (BSAPs) have been prepared by all four states. Traditional culture and systems are important to all aspects of life in FSM, while being intrinsic to biodiversity conservation. Significantly, land rights and ownership, which govern the use of natural resources, are limited to FSM citizens only and the terms of land leasing vary by state. The greater part of land and inshore marine areas are privately or collectively owned. However, the role of traditional chiefs differs among the four states due to the varying degrees to which traditional governance is included in respective state constitutions. Yap’s constitution is the only one of the four that includes provision for a traditional leadership branch within the state government, while Kosrae’s constitution is the only one of the four that does not have an article that is tradition-specific.
Progress has been achieved in various areas since the first NBSAP was prepared. In 2002, the Micronesia Conservation Trust Fund was established and, in 2003, an ecoregional plan for biodiversity conservation in FSM was developed, as communicated in A Blueprint for Conserving the Biodiversity of the Federated States of Micronesia
. In 2006, the FSM, together with other countries, committed to the Micronesia Challenge which, by 2020, seeks to conserve 30% of near-shore resources and at least 20% of forest resources across Micronesia. In 2017, the FSM enacted a law expanding its no-commercial-fishing-zone to include 10% of its Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Other achievements are linked to increases in the protected areas (terrestrial and marine) network, a strengthened NGO network and an increase in community engagement, as well as to increases in technical and financial support for biodiversity conservation from the national and state levels.
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
The revised NBSAP (2015-2020) mirrors the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 however has been customized to account for the country’s unique circumstances, as well as the National Economic and Social Development Plan (NESDP) (2013-2025), particularly NESDP Goal 4 which aims to improve physical infrastructure, preserve the environment and mitigate the impact of climate change. NBSAP implementation will be guided by four nationally-determined strategic goals focused on: mainstreaming; biodiversity monitoring and the establishment of mechanisms to address threats; ecosystem-level conservation; and conservation and restoration to improve resilience to climate change and mitigation potential. Moreover, five national targets, linked to Aichi Biodiversity Targets 1, 5, 9, 11, and 15, include respective activities, timelines, budget and cost elements, and responsible entities. The total cost for implementing activities is estimated at USD $3,100,000. Implementation of the first NBSAP from 2000 to 2010 was assessed as less than satisfactory i.e. it was not used to inform planning in key sectors, and most of the activities recommended in the various priority areas were not undertaken due primarily to the lack/unavailability of financial resources, although marginal progress was made in mainstreaming biodiversity, though in a piecemeal fashion. For this reason, a comprehensive strategy for mainstreaming biodiversity, including a plan for monitoring its implementation, has been included as a component of the revised NBSAP. The government is also committed to strengthening institutional arrangements to ensure that the Action Plan is thoroughly implemented. Coordination of the implementation of the Action Plan will be the responsibility of the Sustainable Development Unit of the Ministry of Finance, Economic Planning, Sustainable Development, and Information Technology. The actual implementation of the Plan will be the responsibility of several different agencies, including the Forestry and Fisheries Department and the National Parks, Rivers and Beaches Authority. However, it is anticipated that several different NGOs will be actively involved in implementation as well. Regarding CEPA matters, although several different agencies have to date developed discrete educational programmes, activities under National Target 1 will concentrate on the development and implementation of a harmonized public biodiversity education and awareness programme. In addition to having identified internal and external sources of financial support, innovative sources of funding, including environmental fiscal reform, payments for ecosystem services, biodiversity offsets, markets for green products, biodiversity in climate change funding, among other financial mechanisms, will be given due consideration. The establishment of a national biodiversity clearing-house mechanism (CHM) has been identified as another critical component for strengthening the country’s capacity to mainstream biodiversity into its economic and social development. The CHM will be a single repository of all biodiversity data in the country, allowing for, among other things, the wide-spread dissemination to governmental entities, NGOs and the public, tracking the implementation of the NBSAP and, specifically, tracking the progress towards the national targets. Although there is still no comprehensive legislation to implement the Convention on Biological Diversity, progress has been made with the adoption of the National Parks (Amendment) Act (2010), and preparation of draft legislation including Regulations (2011) to the Forestry Resources Conservation Act. In addition, a draft Environmental Health and Management Act (2013) and EIA Regulations (2015), under the Town and Country Planning Act (1992), have also been prepared and await enactment.
Turkmenistan A summary will be made available here shortly.
Vanuatu’s new NBSAP (2018-2030) is the product of a process, initiated in 2014, to revise the first NBSAP (1999), incorporating the views of national and provincial governments, NGOs, CBOs and local communities. The document is aligned with the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity (2011-2020) and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, as well as with two key national strategies, namely, the National Sustainable Development Plan (2016-2030) and the National Environment Policy and Implementation Plan (2016-2030). It will also be the main implementing strategy for the Environment Pillar of the National Sustainable Development Goals and Policies (2016-2030). Biodiversity measures are also integrated in other relevant policies, ranging from climate change and overarching productive sectors’ policies and other respective natural resource management sector policies. The NBSAP focuses on the following 7 strategic areas (containing respective targets and indicators), which are further divided into “focus areas” (containing respective objectives, actions, specific activities, timeframes, lead agencies): 1. Conservation Area Management; 2. Forest and Inland Waters Ecosystems Conservation and Management; 3. Coastal and Marine Ecosystems Conservation and Management; 4. Species and Genetic Diversity Conservation; 5. Invasive Species Eradication and Control; 6. Mainstreaming Biodiversity across sectors and society; 7. Resource Mobilization. One of the eight principles underpinning the Strategy concerns “Gender Mainstreaming and Equality” (Principle 4). Provincial implementation plans have also been defined, outlining specific local actions to address threats affecting the islands’ biodiversity, including identifying potential conservation areas. The Government will take a critical role in this Strategy but needs the cooperation and commitments of wider stakeholders, ranging from provincial governments, NGOs, private sector, local communities, landholders and individuals to implement NBSAP measures. In Vanuatu, land cannot be alienated from the traditional landholders, but can be leased from the landholders for fixed periods and agreed purposes. This system of land and resource management limits the capacity of government to conserve biodiversity without the support, understanding and commitment of landholders; and there has generally been little progress towards the establishment of formal protected areas in the country. As an alternative to conventional, government-managed protected areas, various approaches to community-managed conservation areas have been piloted in Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) for both terrestrial and marine areas. Government and civil society partners have promoted Locally Managed Marine Areas (LMMAs), which are seen as a way to empower local people to manage their marine and coastal resources, while similar approaches have been promoted for terrestrial forests, including community conserved areas (CCAs) and the Emua Marine Protected Area and Vatthe Forest Conservation Area. Vanuatu has set ambitious national targets under the National Sustainable Development Plan and the National Environment Policy and Implementation Plan to effectively conserve 15% of natural forest and 10% of wetland areas, through community and government management measures, by 2030. Targets include 90% of community management committees complying with their CCA reporting obligations by 2020 and 10 registered CCAs in Vanuatu by 2020. Vanuatu also intends to be actively managing 30% of its forests by 2030; and to have established a national ecologically representative system of marine protected areas by 2020. In 2013, Vanuatu adopted the Land Reform (Amendment) Act and National Land Use Planning Policy promoting sustainable land use based on “kastom” or customary practices and, in 2014, adopted the Fisheries Act and Forestry Act. Most recently, in 2018, Vanuatu adopted its Sustainable Tourism Policy which encourages all forms of tourism to strive to be more responsible and sustainable. Furthermore, as a Party to the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-sharing, Vanuatu aims to have completed, by 2030, a total of 13 actions aimed at strengthening the application and operationalization of the Protocol in the country.
Trinidad and Tobago
The Cabinet of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago approved the revised National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (2017-2022) on 26 April 2018. This document represents the national response to the commitment taken up by Parties at COP-10 to implement the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity (2011-2020) and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. It will also guide implementation of the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. Twenty (proposed) national biodiversity targets are aligned with the global targets, as well as mapped to achieving individual Sustainable Development Goals. Priority has been given to implementing seven national biodiversity targets by 2020, coinciding with Year 3 of the NBSAP, aligned with Aichi Biodiversity Targets 1 (awareness increased), 5 (habitat loss halved or reduced), 6 (sustainable management of marine living resources), 7 (sustainable agriculture, aquaculture and forestry), 9 (invasive alien species), 11 (protected areas) and 12 (extinction prevented). Associated risks, actions, implementing agencies, outcomes and outputs have been defined for these particular targets. The remaining national biodiversity targets will be implemented directly through implementation of the prioritized targets, or indirectly through existing regional or national initiatives. Also defined are the components of a capacity development plan, communications strategy and resource mobilization plan. Funding to support NBSAP implementation by organizations and community groups will be provided by the Green Fund established under the Finance Act in 2000. The monitoring and evaluation of implementation of the national biodiversity targets will be conducted by means of available indicators. NBSAP implementation will be overseen by the Ministry of Planning and Development (MPD), acting as the CBD National Focal Point, with technical support provided to the MPD by the Environmental Management Authority (EMA) and other relevant government agencies, NGOs and CBOs across the country. The first NBSAP was approved by Cabinet in 2001 however actions were completed to varying degrees, in spite of a number having been initiated. Achievements of the first NBSAP include, among others: the mainstreaming of environmental and biodiversity conservation concepts in the formal education system at primary, secondary and tertiary levels; recognition of the agencies involved in biodiversity conservation and the establishment of interaction among them; the growth of civil society engagement in biodiversity conservation; the establishment of a biodiversity clearinghouse by the Environmental Policy and Planning Division (EPPD); integration of biodiversity in the policies and programmes of ministries with responsibilities for environment, agriculture, tourism, transport, planning, public utilities, energy, and local government. Recent improvements in legislation and policies include the enactment of the Planning and Facilitation of Development Act (2014), Air Pollution Rules (2015), Litter Act (revised in 2014 to increase fines for violations), and the entry into force of the Climate Change Policy (2011), Protected Areas Policy (2011), Wildlife Policy (2013), and the Forest Policy (2011).
Portugal Portugal's National Strategy for the Conservation of Nature and Biodiversity (2030) was approved by the Government of Portugal on 5 April 2018. It is available in Portuguese only at the moment. A summary will be made available upon receipt of the English version.
The goals of Pakistan’s second NBSAP (2017-2030) for achieving the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and Sustainable Development Goals are: to conserve biodiversity at priority sites, including species and genetic diversity, with a focus on in situ site-specific conservation work, high-priority ex situ conservation, wildlife trafficking, and illegal timber trade; and to mainstream biodiversity as an essential element of human development, with a focus on increasing awareness of how biodiversity and ecosystem goods and services contribute to human wellbeing, sustain development outcomes, and on promoting integration with key sectors, such as agriculture, poverty alleviation, climate change, health, democracy and governance, economic growth, and trade. NBSAP objectives are based on the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and the Sustainable Development Goals and will be implemented through strategies and actions organized around cross-cutting issues, particularly, biodiversity awareness, mainstreaming, gender, poverty alleviation and environmental improvement, and CBD’s main thematic areas, namely, terrestrial ecosystems, forest biodiversity, inland and coastal wetlands, coastal lands and marine ecosystems, and agro-biodiversity. Actions are linked to timelines, cost estimates (which total USD $74.8 million), outcome targets, responsible agencies and monitoring indicators. Moreover, Pakistan anticipates adopting the NBSAP as a policy instrument by 2018. The National Forest Policy (2016) has been approved in principle by the country’s highest constitutional, political and administrative forum and, to streamline implementation of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change, the Climate Change Act (2017) was enacted which establishes a policy-making Climate Change Council and a Climate Change Authority. Notably, the Act calls for the Climate Change Authority to “formulate guidelines for the protection and conservation of renewable and non-renewable resources, species, habitats, and biodiversity in general which are adversely affected or threatened by climate change”. Pakistan has also drafted an Act on Access and Benefit Sharing. Moreover, actions to achieve the Aichi Biodiversity Targets at the provincial and regional levels will be implemented through Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (BSAPs) prepared as a part of the NBSAP revision process. The Directorate of Biodiversity, under the Ministry of Climate Change, will have overall responsibility for coordinating the implementation of the NBSAP through its implementing partners in the relevant ministries at the national level, provincial and regional governments, and conservation organizations. Provincial laws for the management of the environment, forests, wildlife, and fisheries have been enacted by the four provinces of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Gilgit Baltistan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and the Islamabad Capital Territory. Additional sources of funding will be explored under innovative mechanisms available in the Ministry of Climate Change and other ongoing donor projects (e.g. REDD+, GEF STAR allocation, Green Climate Fund). Implementation of the NBSAP shall be monitored on an annual basis based on an indicative list of indicators contained in decision XI/3. Subject to the availability of funds, an independent mid-term evaluation shall be commissioned in 2020 and a final evaluation undertaken in 2030. The monitoring and evaluation reports will be presented to the National Steering Committee and Provincial Coordination Committees. The monitoring and evaluation mechanism will be established within the first year of NBSAP adoption. Implementation of Pakistan's first National Biodiversity Action Plan (2000) resulted in some progress in increasing awareness and understanding of biodiversity concerns across the sectors, as well as in increasing the number of projects carried out to conserve natural resources, including local breeds of crops, diversity of fishes, livestock, and poultry and cereal crops. Biodiversity values are not well reflected in the current national reporting and accounting systems, primarily due to the absence of appropriate valuation of biodiversity, inadequate assessment of the impact of biodiversity loss on the livelihoods of the poor, and lack of a clear understanding on how restoration of ecosystem goods and services can contribute to poverty alleviation. In response, technical and administrative capacity will be developed for the valuation of biodiversity using low cost tools and methods that, in addition to economic values, recognize social and cultural values. Valuation studies will also be carried out in regard to ecosystems on which people rely heavily for subsistence.
The revised NBSAP (2015-2025) has been endorsed by the President of the Republic of Palau. This national policy document is intended to provide a guide for strategic planning for all government, private-sector, non-government, and civil-society agencies, organizations and industries involved in the management and use of biological resources in Palau. Its provisions are to be implemented at both national and state levels. Seven strategic areas have been developed: protected/managed areas; species protection; biosecurity/invasive species and biosafety; integrating biodiversity and ecosystem services into development policies; reducing direct pressures on biodiversity through sustainable use; ensuring food security through maintenance of agricultural biodiversity; and mainstreaming conservation. For each strategic area, an overarching goal is defined, connected to impact indicators, objectives and expected outcomes; while the Action Plan specifies connected activities, implementation indicators and responsible agencies. Biodiversity indicators are also available to assist in assessing the impact of activities. Significantly, the NBSAP incorporates goals set by the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-sharing and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. The Office of Environmental Response and Coordination (OERC) is responsible for overseeing NBSAP implementation; however it is anticipated that a Bureau of Environment will be created which will replace the OERC in this capacity should this occur. A Technology Needs Assessment has been prepared, in addition to a Resource Mobilization Plan, a Communication Strategy and a Capacity Development Framework and Action Plan. Financing obstacles encountered with the first NBSAP are being addressed through the application of a decentralized approach, where existing government agency strategic plans and other relevant conservation policy initiatives and grant projects are incorporated into the revised NBSAP (and a portion of the budget for each stakeholder agency essentially applied to implementing the NBSAP). A review of conservation laws, regulations and policies to identify gaps affecting biodiversity management is called for, which will likely result in the need to amend laws and possibly also create new laws. A national public review of the NBSAP is to begin no later than the fifth year of implementation. Palau’s first NBSAP was completed in 2005. Building on traditional management practices, Palau has had great success in designating protected areas to provide for conservation of ecosystems and biodiversity. An overall objective of natural resource management in Palau is to support productive landscapes, whether natural or shaped by humans, and to manage them for sustainable use into the future. With effective management and community support, these protected areas contribute to productive landscapes by ensuring that the natural resources Palauans depend upon have sufficient capacity to regenerate. In addition to designating conservation areas, Palau has made progress in improving planning capacity and overall management of its natural resources. Airai and Melekeok states have been leaders in developing management plans including Master and Land Use Plans and, in 2013, Airai state completed the first state-level watershed management plan in Palau. Tourism contributes roughly 50% of Palau’s GDP. Tourists are largely drawn to Palau by the country’s natural beauty in general, and by the opportunity to see its biodiversity in particular. Palau is a destination for divers, snorkelers and birdwatchers drawn by the possibility of seeing endemic and rare species, as well as the general richness of species present. Palau’s relatively high standard of living and strong economy, in comparison to other small island developing states (SIDS), make conservation and sustainability activities taken here regionally significant. Palau has the capacity to not only adopt policy, but to test its implementation as well. As a result, lessons learned here may be valuable to other SIDS facing similar issues.
Adopted by the Council of Ministers for Sustainability on 5 January 2018, Chile’s revised NBSAP (2017-2030) underscores the centrality of biodiversity conservation for achieving sustainable development. The following five strategic objectives have been formulated and linked to five respective 2030 national targets (mapped to relevant Aichi Biodiversity Targets and SDGs) and to several strategic lines: 1) to promote the sustainable use of biodiversity for human wellbeing, reducing threats to ecosystems and species; 2) to increase awareness, participation, information and knowledge regarding biodiversity, as the basis for human wellbeing; 3) to establish robust institutions, good governance and the equitable sharing of benefits derived from biodiversity; 4) to include biodiversity objectives in public- and private-sector policies, plans and programs; and 5) to protect and restore biodiversity and its ecosystem services. The Action Plan is organized into six sections: cross-cutting issues and five thematic areas (conservation of marine and oceanic island biodiversity; management of invasive alien species; conservation of indigenous species; protected areas; conservation and rational use of wetlands). A responsible implementation body is assigned to each section, each of which addresses the above five strategic objectives for which separate targets and respective activities have been defined. As the Strategy extends to 2030, the thematic areas will be evaluated every four years and new thematic priorities and plans, as well as normative and management instruments, incorporated, as necessary. Actions will be monitored annually using pressure-state-response and management indicators. The new Strategy emphasizes the need for greater participation from civil society, the public and private sectors, researchers, and Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities in implementation. A Resource Mobilization Strategy is under development through Chile’s participation in BIOFIN. A proposed law calls for the creation of a service for biodiversity and protected areas, and a protected areas system. Regional operative biodiversity committees exist already. Adopted in 2003, the first NBSAP was implemented from 2003 to 2010 and produced, among other outcomes, three thematic instruments, namely, the National Policy for the Protection of Threatened Species, National Strategy for the Conservation and Rational Use of Wetlands, and the National Policy on Protected Areas (all three instruments were updated in 2014). At present, Chile's terrestrial and marine protected areas cover 15.1 and 46 million hectares, respectively. In 2013, work began on the development of the new Strategy (with consideration given to aligning it with the 2011-2020 global biodiversity framework) and on updating regional biodiversity strategies and action plans for 16 regional administrations. Gaps identified in the first Strategy also led to the development of the National Strategy for the Management of Invasive Alien Species and the National Strategy for Marine and Oceanic Island Conservation. Furthermore, the Climate Change Adaptation Plan for Biodiversity was adopted by the Council of Ministers for Sustainability in 2014. The country's energy sector is evolving dynamically. The National Energy Policy was adopted in 2015, with important advances having been made in the field of non-conventional renewable energy.
This document represents the first NBSAP developed by San Marino, an enclaved microstate (just over 61 km2 in size) located on the Italian peninsula. It has been approved by the Secretary of State for the Territory and agreed upon by all the major stakeholders in the country. The Biodiversity Strategy is to be considered a dynamic reference document to guide economic and social development. While the NBSAP describes the state of national biodiversity as “decent”, it also signals the need to address the negative effects that factors, such as climate change, urbanization and industry, have had on biodiversity over the last decades. In response, the country intends to mainstream biodiversity considerations at all levels, which will necessitate the provision of economic, legislative and organizational support from government institutions and the involvement of the largest possible number of stakeholders in implementing actions. Cultural traditions have persisted in the country over seven centuries. Moreover, in 2008, the San Marino Historic Centre and Mount Titano were designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The cultural services provided by the country’s ecosystems are therefore of particular significance. Biodiversity conservation will guarantee the preservation of these cultural services and the various benefits that are derived from them (e.g. tourist attractions, economic revenue, quality of life for San Marino’s inhabitants). The NBSAP comprises four primary objectives which aim to: 1) Guarantee legally binding protection for biodiversity; 2) Use natural resources and ecosystems in a sustainable way in order to preserve biodiversity; 3) Increase the knowledge of the biodiversity heritage of the territory; and 4) Promote a broad and easily accessible knowledge of biodiversity. Specific priority areas of action have been identified under each primary objective in the action plan, as have responsible implementing bodies, and implementing timeframes (to 2025 primarily) (only two actions on the development of a new plan to manage fauna and hunting and a website for San Marino Naturalistic Centre (CNS) are be implemented by 2020). In the last decade, the public administration has carried out work in various sectors to boost environmental protection, landscape conservation and the sustainable use of resources, in accordance with the European Directives. Activities have also been carried out to raise awareness of the economic values of biodiversity and promote a transition to a Green Economy. Law reform was carried out in 2014 on the Law on the Promotion and Enhancement of Energy Efficiency in Buildings and of Renewable Energy Use in the Civil and Industrial Sectors (2008); and San Marino's Environmental Code incorporating the latest European environmental standards was adopted by decree in 2012. San Marino has yet to establish a central authority to collect information on implementation and prepare national reports. Priority areas under Primary Objective 3 (increase the knowledge of the biodiversity heritage of the territory) include actions to be carried out by the Secretariat of State for the Territory, the San Marino Naturalistic Centre (CNS), and the Environmental and the Agricultural Resource Management Office (UGRAA) in regard to monitoring of biodiversity. Priority areas under Primary Objective 4 (promote a broad and easily accessible knowledge of biodiversity), include actions to: promote the concept of biodiversity in schools; enhance ecotourism to promote San Marino's biodiversity heritage; and create a platform to enhance the Clearing-House Mechanism and flow of information between research bodies and the population.
The 2030 vision of Tunisia’s National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (2018-2030) is for national biodiversity to be resilient to climate change, protected from threats, and conserved and managed so as to contribute in a sustainable manner to national socioeconomic development. In this light, integration of the objectives of the Strategy in planning and socioeconomic development policies is implicit. The development of the current NBSAP was preceded by: an examination of national-level biodiversity planning processes implemented since the adoption of the first Strategy in 1998, and their outcomes, including an update on the status of biodiversity components, and critical analysis of the outcomes of the implementation of earlier NBSAPs (1998, 2009); economic valuation of biodiversity components and ecosystem services at the national level; and the formulation of national targets and SMART indicators. The lessons learned from this process were instrumental in defining five national biodiversity priorities: 1) To strengthen capacity for NBSAP implementation and monitoring 2) To mainstream the values of biodiversity in national policies and throughout society 3) To develop knowledge and determine values for traditional know-how 4) To reduce pressures and threats on biodiversity and promote its sustainable use 5) To protect and restore biodiversity, improve the resilience of ecosystems and strengthen the services they provide. There are in addition 15 strategic objectives (mapped to the achievement of the global biodiversity strategic goals and targets), 40 targeted objectives and 48 actions to be implemented by 2030. The costs of implementation are estimated at 1150,886 MDT. Funding is to be mobilized through the integration or alignment of NBSAP objectives with sectoral strategies and programmes, including those related to research, and through the implementation of a resource mobilization plan developed for this purpose. NBSAP implementation will also be supported by the National Strategy and Action for Biodiversity Communication and Awareness-raising developed in 2015. Recognition is given to the fact that women in rural communities worldwide constitute the principle users and guardians of biodiversity. In Tunisia, women perform a particularly important role with respect to the governance of potable water. Gender considerations have been mainstreamed in both the Strategy and Action Plan.
Ireland's third National Biodiversity Action Plan (2017-2021) was officially launched on 5 October 2017. The following seven strategic objectives contained in the second National Biodiversity Action Plan (2011-2016) have been retained in the third Plan (and are now mapped to achieving relevant Aichi Biodiversity Targets): 1) To mainstream biodiversity in the decision-making process across all sectors; 2) To substantially strengthen the knowledge base for conservation, management and sustainable use of biodiversity; 3) To increase awareness and appreciation of biodiversity and ecosystems services; 4) To conserve and restore biodiversity and ecosystem services in the wider countryside; 5) To conserve and restore biodiversity and ecosystem services in the marine environment; 6) To expand and improve on the management of protected areas and legally protected species; and 7) To substantially strengthen the effectiveness of international governance for biodiversity and ecosystem services. Eighteen national targets have been set, complemented by actions (those contained in the second Plan identified as ongoing or requiring further action have been retained in the third Plan, and new actions added where necessary), timeframes, lead/key partners and performance indicators. The Department of Culture, Heritage and the Gaeltacht is the official body responsible for oversight of the implementation of this Plan and for coordinating the other Public Authorities, NGOs and private-sector organizations involved in the process. The Biodiversity Working Group (BWG), comprised of Departments, Agencies and other bodies that have a role in implementing the Plan, will deliver an interim review of implementation in 2019 based on indicators (which will also facilitate reporting on Ireland’s progress towards attaining the European targets and the Sustainable Development Goals). The Biodiversity Forum represents various economic sectors, NGOs, academics and other relevant stakeholders and will monitor the implementation of the Plan and advise the Minister accordingly. The National Biodiversity Data Centre was established in 2007 and manages, analyzes and disseminates data on Ireland’s biodiversity. Different institutions are currently tracking biodiversity-related expenditure for Ireland which is the first step in understanding and developing a sustainable funding mechanism for biodiversity conservation. Further to this, the National Parks and Wildlife Service will develop a financial plan to address biodiversity finance challenges in a comprehensive manner and build a sound business case for increased investment in biodiversity management. As part of this, research novel finance mechanisms will also be reviewed, including payment for ecosystem services and biodiversity offsets.
Consistent with CBD’s main thematic areas and the five strategic goals and targets of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity (2011-2020), the country’s second NBSAP (2017-2026) is based on the following five strategic objectives: 1) national biodiversity is well protected through sound and holistic national legislation and policy implementation across all sectors; 2) practical methods and mechanisms are enhanced and functioning to safeguard biodiversity, resulting in improved conservation status of threatened and rare species; 3) practical and robust conservation actions are significantly enhancing the status of species, habitats, sites and ecosystems in and outside protected areas; 4) improved living standards, ecosystem services and opportunities are provided to people, particularly local communities, through sustainable and inclusive biodiversity conservation actions; and 5) improved sectoral and public involvement, and enhanced capacities and awareness, are contributing to effective planning and result-oriented execution of conservation programmes. Cross-sectoral strategies and cross-cutting issues include: financial resources, policies, regulations and legislation, research and training, capacity building, public participation, gender, planning, monitoring, conservation of protected areas, sustainable use, incentive measures, public education, impact assessment, access to technology, information exchange, sharing of benefits and indigenous knowledge. Twenty-three strategic outputs have been formulated, each comprised of between three and eight strategies and actions (119 in total) and linked to an implementation timeframe, estimated costs, one or two key indicators and responsible entities/partners, as well as to the achievement of relevant Aichi Biodiversity Targets. Adequate funding as well as effective law enforcement are important factors to achieving the strategic objectives. Activities will cost nearly 50 million dollars over the ten-year period to implement. Fortunately, there have been strong commitments from international partners and multilateral donors to provide full or matching funds for the conservation of the biodiversity in the country. Priority legislative actions which need to be implemented include, among others: the enactment of the draft reviewed and amended Wildlife Conservation Act (1972) and its Regulations (2015); the enactment of the draft reviewed and amended Forestry Act (1988) and its Regulations (2015); enactment of the newly drafted Wetlands Conservation Act and its Regulations (2015); a review of the Mines and Minerals Acts (2008) to incorporate biodiversity conservation considerations; and introduction of policy, guidelines and regulations that incorporate biodiversity into urban development. With the lack of a proper coordinating mechanism partly to blame for lapses in the implementation of the first NBSAP (2004-2010), adopted in 2003, the establishment of the following is vital for administering the current NBSAP: NBSAP National Steering Committee, comprising 15 members from government agencies, the universities, NGOs and funding partners; NBSAP implementation coordination hosted by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or National Protected Areas Authority (NPAA); NBSAP Regional Steering Committees comprising government agencies, NGOs and community-based organizations (CBOs). Monitoring rests on the shoulders of all key stakeholders, but the process must be led by the EPA and the NPAA and aligned with other national development strategies, national policies and international biodiversity programmes and agreements. The Agenda for Prosperity (2013-2035), National Adaptation Programme of Action for Climate Change (2006), Environmental Protection Agency Act (2008) and the National Protected Areas and Conservation Trust Fund Act (2012), among others, have strong biodiversity and environment components. Consideration is being given to establishing a national Clearing-House Mechanism and developing a communication strategy as an auxiliary document to the NBSAP (2017-2026).
The new National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (2018-2022) represents a paradigm shift in the strategic orientation of conservation policies – one which seeks to establish a balance between conservation and development activities to ultimately enhance quality of life for the people of Honduras. It was developed through a highly participatory and inclusive process, including a broad range of ministries, e.g. ministries of planning, finance, industry and commerce, labor, health, transport, and agriculture; national and international financial institutions; and various groups, representing women, agriculturalists, youth, unions, private sector, indigenous communities, the Garifuna people, NGOs and academia. The NBSAP provides general guidance to all stakeholders who are also expected to contribute to the implementation of the action plan. The main objectives of the NBSAP are the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity at all three levels (genetic, species, ecosystem), with several themes being congruent with those contained in the Government’s Strategic Plan (2014-2018). The NBSAP’s three strategic directions seek to: improve the management of biodiversity conservation; promote knowledge generation; and incorporate biodiversity conservation in economic development processes (8 strategic objectives are also defined). Eleven national targets have been set and mapped to achieving the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and the Sustainable Development Goals, and are complemented by respective activities and tasks, as well as performance and impact indicators. Deforestation is among the most serious threats to biodiversity in the country (Honduras has moreover one of the highest rates of deforestation in the world). The Forest Law was adopted in 2013 which has significantly advanced conservation efforts. Honduras is also a UN-REDD Programme Partner Country. Other legislations recently adopted include: Law for the Protection of Coffee and Cacao Production (2016); Law on Climate Change (2014); Law to Strengthen Shrimp Farming (2013); Special Law Regulating Public Projects on Renewable Energy (2011); and the Executive Decree on a Moratorium and Suspension on the Investigation, Exploration and Exploitation of Hydrocarbons (2011). A draft Biodiversity Law is currently being discussed by all the sectors (who benefit from the country’s natural resources), through a process facilitated by the Secretariat for Energy, Natural Resources, Environment and Mining (MiAmbiente). Honduras is a Party to the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-sharing. The inclusion of the gender approach in all sectors and at all levels, in accordance with the CBD framework, is also being promoted. The first NBSAP was adopted in 2001 and implemented over ten years. While the country has made progress in the conservation of protected areas (it is estimated that about 30% of the country is protected in the form of reserves however this does not include the percentage of watershed areas under protection), certain protected areas remain vulnerable.
Yemen’s NBSAP2 will contribute to the national vision of achieving a resilient, productive and sustainable socio-ecosystem by 2050, through the implementation of the vision’s five strategic goals/ national outcomes addressing the following priority areas: 1) biodiversity and ecosystems conservation; 2) sustainable use of biological resources; 3) reduction of natural and anthropogenic pressures; 4) biodiversity and poverty mainstreaming in sectoral development plans; and 5) good governance in biodiversity management. Shorter-term action plans will be formulated up to 2050 to support the five strategic goals. The action plan for the 2015-2025 period focuses on halting overall biodiversity loss and maintaining healthy, productive and functional ecosystems, based on establishing coherent and resilient ecological networks, supported by restructured policies and adequately mandated and empowered local communities and institutions. Twenty SMART national targets have been set in close alignment with specific Aichi Biodiversity Targets. Outputs have been defined for each strategic goal/outcome, and planned actions associated to baseline threats, responsible institutions and partners, budgetary (costing) figures and potential funding sources. According to Yemen’s Ecosystem Valuation Study, the value of the country’s key ecosystems (forest, rangeland, wetland, marine, mangroves) is estimated to be worth approximately USD 287,829 million, which is about ten times the value of the GDP (USD 20,000 million per year). Unfortunately, most of the values of ecosystem products are ignored in economic decision-making and thus not accounted for when estimating GDP and developing national income accounts. In this light, National Target 16 aims to increase awareness of the values of biodiversity and ecosystem services among decision-makers and integrate these values into key environmental sectors by 2025 (which contributes to Aichi Biodiversity Target 2). Gender aspects were taken into consideration from the outset through the representation of the National Women’s Committee (NWC) on the Steering Committee established to lead the NBSAP2 development process. The issuance of a Cabinet decree declaring members on the Board of Directors of the coordination body for biodiversity issues, among which will include the NWC, is also envisaged. This Board of Directors will support a mechanism for monitoring and reviewing the status of NBSAP2 implementation (the establishment of this mechanism will be coordinated by the Environment Protection Authority). Other institutions that will be represented on this Board of Directors include the Union of Agricultural Cooperatives, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Planning and International Coordination, Ministry of Oil and Mineral Resources, Ministry of Electricity and Energy, Ministry of Information, media organizations, among others. Actions in support of decentralized management for biodiversity empowering local communities will also be carried out in this implementation period. Under National Target 17, in partnership with the government, a community-based management approach will be widely promoted with the aim to cover 50% of Yemen’s protected area by 2020, and 100% by 2025, thereby leading to improved effectiveness of Yemen’s protected areas and promotion of traditional knowledge and practices on conservation and sustainable use of biological resources (which contributes to Aichi Biodiversity Target 18). Yemen elaborated its first NBSAP in 2005.
Updated from the Indonesian Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (IBSAP) (2003-2020), the IBSAP (2015-2020) responds to the provisions of decision X/2 and national priorities related to biodiversity management for achieving sustainable development goals. The first Biodiversity Action Plan (BAPI) was adopted in 1993. The current IBSAP comprises the principal guidelines to be taken into account by policy-makers in the biodiversity sector, and is also intended to serve as a key reference document for implementing programmes and activities in other development sectors, be they government, private, or civil-society sectors, at either national or sub-national level. The IBSAP also calls for the need to ensure consistency with actions carried out to implement other international treaties to which Indonesia is a Party. Improvements in the current IBSAP over the earlier version relate to the inclusion of: updated data and information on the latest status of national biodiversity presented in Kekinian Keanekaragamanan Hayati Indonesia
(Current Indonesian Biological Diversity) published by the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) in 2014; programmes and action plans to achieve the (22) national targets and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets; results of a study conducted on the economic value and utilization of biodiversity, sources of funding, and a strategy for mainstreaming biodiversity into the development plan; and identified capacity support needs for implementation (e.g. from institutions, data and information exchange mechanisms, monitoring and evaluation mechanisms). Four specific action plans have been formulated on the following themes: biodiversity research, data management and documentation; biodiversity utilization; maintenance and preservation of biodiversity; and capacity-building of biodiversity management. For each action plan, activities have been defined which include indicators, responsible institutions, implementation periods, budget indications, and which are linked to achieving relevant national and global biodiversity targets. The IBSAP also examines the relationship between biodiversity and climate change, with activities on climate change adaptation and mitigation to be carried out at decentralized levels over the 2015-2020 implementation timeframe. Activities related to the implementation of the Nagoya Protocol on ABS and its derivative instruments will also be carried out at both national and local levels during this timeframe (Indonesia became a Party to the Nagoya Protocol in 2014). The National Biodiversity Information Network (NBIN), established under the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), serves as a reference centre on biodiversity conservation, research and use. The NBIN also provides a connection to the global biodiversity information network, facilitates the flow of biodiversity information and responds to the needs of users involved in the biodiversity sector. Cooperation between NBIN members and the dissemination of information regarding NBIN are promoted through the NBIN Association. Furthermore, in cooperation with the Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) has developed a portal known as the Indonesia Biodiversity Information Facility (InaBIF) which is expected to become the portal of knowledge management for genetic resources and traditional knowledge of Indonesia that will store, manage and integrate data and information on the Genetic Resources and Traditional Knowledge (SDGPT) of Indonesia, as well as provide other services. Efforts are also being carried out to enhance the national Biodiversity Clearing-House (CHM) which serves as a medium for disseminating information, including monitoring and evaluation results and implementation reports, regarding the IBSAP (2015-2020).
Following an intense and inclusive development process, involving central, regional and local administrations, experts and scientists, civil society organizations and private-sector stakeholders, the Croatian Parliament adopted the Nature Protection Strategy and Action Plan (2017-2025) on 7 July 2017, in accordance with terms outlined in the Constitution and Nature Protection Act (2013). Five strategic goals aim to: 1. Increase the effectiveness of key nature protection mechanisms; 2. Reduce the direct pressures on nature and promote sustainable use of natural resources; 3. Strengthen the capacities of nature protection system; 4. Increase the knowledge and availability of data on nature; and 5. Raise the level of knowledge, understanding, and support for nature protection among the general public. Under each strategic goal, specific objectives and activities are defined and mapped to achieving relevant Aichi Biodiversity Targets and targets contained in the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. Detailed descriptions of the methods to achieve the strategic goals will be developed for the Action Plan. All sectors whose activities depend or may have an impact (positive or negative) on the country’s biodiversity and geodiversity are expected to contribute to implementation of the Strategy. Notably, Croatia has included geodiversity as a constituent part of the Strategy given that it represents an important segment of landscapes, conditioning biodiversity and serving as a foundation for ecosystems. In addition, implementation of the Strategy will be highly decentralized, requiring action by a number of central state administration bodies, administrative bodies of regional self-government units and/or of the City of Zagreb, as well as local self-government units, public institutions and other institutions. Priorities in the forthcoming period will continue to be strongly connected with commitments stemming from Croatia's membership in the EU. Significant mechanisms in environmental protection legislation include EIA and SEA, whose procedures are being increasingly harmonized with obligations stemming from international agreements and, in particular, those stemming from the EU acquis
. The Strategy's Implementation Plan calls for efforts to effectively implement the national CHM, which provides access to databases within the Nature Protection Information System that are continuously upgraded, contributing to partnership networks enabled by the CBD CHM and the CHM for EU member states covered by the Biodiversity Information System for Europe (BISE). This Plan also includes indicators developed for the purposes of monitoring the implementation of activities (performance indicators) and the achievement of specific objectives (impact indicators). As for resource mobilization, activities will address, among other matters, the lack of systematic records in this area, the introduction of positive biodiversity incentives (e.g. agri-environment incentives or subsidies for temporary suspension of activities in fisheries in order to ensure the recovery of fish stock), introduction of new financial mechanisms and further development of innovative financial mechanisms. Croatia has had a positive experience implementing the system of fees payable by environmental polluters and users in the private and public sector, on the basis of the Polluter Pays Principle, where the Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund provides one part of the collected funds to projects contributing to biodiversity conservation. In addition, and particularly important for the regional management level, is that all European territorial cooperation programmes foresee funds for projects contributing to: biodiversity protection and conservation; promotion of ecosystem services, including the Natura 2000 ecological network and green infrastructure; and to the conservation of natural heritage, primarily through the improvement of visitor infrastructure. These opportunities represent a significant rise in support compared to cross-border programmes during the pre-accession period. Croatia adopted its first Strategy in 1999 and its second Strategy in 2008.
The preparation of the revised and updated NBSAP (2017-2025) of the Republic of Mauritius (ROM) entailed an extensive process of stakeholder consultations and approval, review of the original NBSAP (2006-2015) and several preparatory documents, namely, a biodiversity mainstreaming assessment for key industries and themes, an ecosystem valuation study for the catchment areas of Mare Longue and Mare‐aux‐Vacoas, and an ecosystem‐based adaptation study for a more resilient protected area network. The Working Principles adopted for the new NBSAP are: integration of the ecological, social and economic values of biodiversity into decision‐making; effective in situ
and ex situ
biodiversity conservation and/or restoration; minimizing the direct and indirect pressures on biodiversity and ecosystem services; biodiversity mainstreaming in the public and private sectors; effective information-sharing, NBSAP monitoring and delivery; and the Ecosystem Approach. The country has retained the five strategic goals of the global Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and adapted all corresponding Aichi Biodiversity Targets to the national context, values and interests (with the exception of Aichi Biodiversity Target 18 which stakeholders consider to not be applicable to the country in view of the fact that the people of the ROM are descendants of successive waves of immigrants from various countries). Two action plans for the RoM are presented. Because Rodrigues gained autonomous status in 2001 and is governed by the Rodrigues Regional Assembly, a separate action plan was developed for the island and its associated islets. These action plans specify the key programmes and activities (with key indicators where available), Lead Agency and Partners, priorities, timeframes, and provisional budgets, for implementing each national target. Addressing knowledge gaps in biodiversity mainstreaming into national policies, strategies and plans and into sectoral policies, strategies and plans, across government, the private sector and civil society are made a priority in each Action Plan. The NBSAP also summarizes plans for capacity development in the following key identified gap areas: biodiversity and ecosystem services assessment, mapping and valuation in qualitative, quantitative and economic terms, for the terrestrial, freshwater, coastal, marine and agro‐biodiversity (National Target 1); biodiversity‐focused freshwater monitoring (National Target 8); biosecurity and IAS management (National Target 9); ecosystem services management and rehabilitation/restoration (National Target 14); natural and agricultural ecosystem rehabilitation/restoration (National Targets 6 and 7) while minimizing carbon loss (National Target 14). A summary is also provided of the approach chosen for communication and outreach on the NBSAP. Notably, the development and implementation of a Resource Mobilization Strategy has been made a priority activity for 2017 in both Mauritius and Rodrigues. Coordination of implementation of the NBSAP activity portfolio at the national and subnational levels will be carried out by the Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Agro-Industry and Food Security (MAIFS), serving as the CBD National Focal Point, and three working groups in Mauritius (Terrestrial Biodiversity Working Group, Agro-biodiversity Working Group and Freshwater, Coastal and Marine Working Group), and the Rodrigues Environment Committee in Rodrigues. A process has been defined for NBSAP monitoring and evaluation, including a mid‐term review planned for 2020. The national Clearing-House Mechanism was re-developed in 2016 and will be used as a tool to synthesize, compile and share information about the NBSAP and associated topics in the ROM. New legislation includes the Native Terrestrial Biodiversity and National Parks Act adopted in 2015. Strategic documents currently under implementation include, among others, the Protected Area Network Expansion Strategy (2016-2026), National Strategic Action Plan for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Crop Wild Relatives (2016-2025), Strategic Plan for the Food Crop, Livestock and Forestry Sectors (2016-2020), and the National Invasive Alien Species Strategy and Action Plan (2008-2017). A National Climate Change Adaptation Policy Framework (NCCAPF) was prepared in 2013.
Argentina’s new Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (2016-2020) (ENBPA) constitutes the national policy on the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and the fair and equitable distribution of its benefits. It was developed taking into account the current global biodiversity agenda, the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda as well as the objectives of the Rio Conventions and biodiversity-related conventions. Its development also involved a multisectoral process led by the National Advisory Commission for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity (CONADIBIO), established in 2011, whose main functions relate to NBSAP development, including establishing goals, targets and priority actions based on consensus among stakeholders. The ENBPA thus represents a cross-cutting component of the public agenda as well as an essential tool for achieving inclusive sustainable development, calling for the involvement of all ministries, levels of government, institutions, academics and scientists, indigenous peoples, the private sector and civil society organizations in implementation. It is made up of the following 9 strategic objectives (with strategic objectives 1 to 5 also containing thematic sub-objectives), each complemented by a rationale and general and specific objectives, and 21 priority national targets set within this framework: 1) Conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity (wild species; natural ecosystems; conservation areas; prevention, control and monitoring of invasive alien species); 2) Knowledge and management of biodiversity information (actions, research areas, information generation; transfer; information portals; priority research themes; biodiversity monitoring); 3) Biodiversity awareness-raising, dissemination and education (national education system; civil society participation; public management; private sector; CEPA); 4) Sustainable production and consumption practices (agro-ecosystems; sustainable aquaculture production; transformation of primary products and other production processes); 5) Genetic resources (joint system for the administration and management of genetic resources; genetic resource networks); 6) Biodiversity valuation; 7) Prevention of loss, control and monitoring of biodiversity; 8) Inter-institutional and inter-sectoral coordination; and 9) International cooperation. CONADIBIO will be responsible for coordinating activities and monitoring and evaluating implementation with support provided by subcommittees established during the ENBPA development phase. Actions will be implemented by different State entities possessing the required human resources and competencies in biodiversity matters. Environmental protection efforts are increasingly being assumed by national and provincial entities. In 2012, national spending on biodiversity conservation represented 0.48% of the GDP, while a growth rate of 350% in such spending was determined for the 2006-2012 period.
Djibouti’s revised Stratégie et Programme d’action nationaux pour la biodiversité
was adopted in 2017. It is the result of an extensive process (national dialogue) which began in 2014, based on the concepts of co-construction and appropriation and on the three NBSAP principles of bottom-up logic, broad participation, and coherence and, if possible, synergies for achieving more sustainable results. The participation of approximately 230 persons was enabled through the organization of field visits, five regional workshops and two national-level workshops, focused on the scope of biodiversity and its vital importance for the achievement of sustainable development within the context of adaptation to climate change. The revised NBSAP was also developed with consideration given to “Vision Djibouti 2035” launched in 2014 which recommends, among other actions, economic and political decentralization (currently underway) to achieve national development goals, and that populations should be consulted and participate in this process, as well as afterwards, on a permanent basis, as concerns development activities. The document also outlines the relevance of the revised NBSAP to implementation of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. Its five strategic objectives focus on: curative and urgent action (in situ
and ex situ
conservation); preventative action (risk prevention and climate change adaptation); support for positive dynamics and management of “after projects” (organization); change in mentality (motivation); and integration and adaptation (de-compartmentalization). A total of 20 national targets and 38 main activities are distributed among the five strategic objectives, each of which is further complemented by a keyword list (non-exhaustive), a rationale, scene-setting, sub-targets, specific activities, linkages to other strategic objectives and sub-objectives as well as to national policy instruments and tools, expected results, among other elements. A study carried out in 2015 concluded that implementation of Djibouti’s first NBSAP, adopted in 2000, was largely unsatisfactory due to lack of operational and financial capacity. In this regard, the dissemination of best practices, and the pursuit and generation of sustainable financial and human resources, have been identified as cross-cutting issues to be addressed under each strategic objective in the revised NBSAP. Among the document’s 38 main activities include: development of an oasis type of agriculture that is economical and productive; “greening” of the (formal and informal) economy through the development of ecotourism, green agriculture and renewable energies; organization of monitoring and evaluation of individual in situ
and ex situ
indicators; training of biodiversity stakeholders by peer groups; and support for intersectoral analyses, collaboration, partnerships and the joint management of the territories.
Costa Rica’s Biodiversity Strategy (2016-2025) (ENB2) builds upon the first National Biodiversity Strategy (2000-2005) (ENB1), and is part of the National Biodiversity Policy (2015-2030) (PNB) adopted by decree on 11 September 2015. Together, ENB2 and PNB constitute the country’s public policy framework for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and the equitable sharing of benefits arising from its use, which is directly linked to national development, poverty reduction, sectoral and cross-sectoral mainstreaming efforts and regional initiatives. Significantly, ENB2 promotes a new form of environmental management underpinned by the principles of co-responsibility, interculturality, intersectoral collaboration, decentralization, the Ecosystem Approach, the Results-Based Approach and the Gender and Human Rights Approach. The document also addresses management approaches for addressing the relationship between biodiversity and climate change. Women constituted 46% of the total number of participants (1,021) involved in the ENB2 development process, and representatives of civil society organizations 49% of this total (of which 41% constituted representatives of indigenous peoples organizations). ENB2 components are mapped to the achievement of the four strategic objectives of the National Biodiversity Policy (2015-2030) which are to: 1) improve the status and resilience of biodiversity and ecosystems; 2) promote economic, socially inclusive and environmentally sustainable development; 3) strengthen social participation in biodiversity management and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits derived from biodiversity; and 4) improve the efficiency and effectiveness of intersectoral and institutional management linked to biodiversity and ecosystem services. ENB2 addresses 7 strategic themes: in situ conservation; restoration and reduction of loss and/or deterioration of important biodiversity elements; regularization of natural state heritage and territorial and marine regulation; inclusive sustainable landscapes; strengthening of governance, participation, education and cultural practices regarding biodiversity; information management, monitoring and research regarding biodiversity; and the strengthening of capacity, financial resources and institutional arrangements. Distributed among these strategic themes are 23 global medium-term goals (2025), 98 national targets (2020), along with associated indicators, baselines and responsible institutions. Notably, $100 million has already been committed for the 2016-2020 period through a portfolio of programs and projects funded by GEF-UNDP, the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, BIOFIN and other partners, subsequently mapped to achieving relevant ENB2 goals and targets, representing an innovative approach for implementing the action plan. It is incumbent upon the ENB2 Management and Monitoring Committee to follow up on activities at various levels and frequencies over the ten-year implementation period to ensure that targets and expected impacts are achieved. In addition to responding to the terms of the National Biodiversity Policy, ENB2 implementation will contribute to achieving the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and the Sustainable Development Goals.
Liberia’s revised NBSAP (2017-2025) is consistent with the goals of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and its Aichi Targets, as well as with the environmental pillar of the “Agenda for Transformation” (equivalent to the National Development Strategy to 2030). The results of a country study carried out on the political and socioeconomic contexts influencing biodiversity management also significantly contributed to the preparation of the revised document. The mission of the current NBSAP seeks to: “Develop education and information programmes to raise the level of awareness of the population about the importance of biodiversity and place values on ecosystem goods and services through assessment and evaluation; and to develop a framework for mainstreaming biodiversity into national accounting systems, development policies, plans and programmes”. An Implementation Plan defines systemic, institutional, human and technological resource needs and comprises four components: a capacity development plan and technical capacity needs assessment; a resource mobilization strategy and financial mechanism; a communication strategy; and a technology transfer plan. Liberia intends to enhance institutional arrangements through the establishment of a platform of specialized biodiversity management committees, including the National Biodiversity Secretariat, the National Biodiversity Steering Committee and the Rio Conventions Steering Committee. Activities at the subnational level will focus on the coordination of sectoral activities with the National Biodiversity Secretariat. The national CHM will be used to report and disseminate information coming from the subnational (local and community) level, as well as to facilitate focus group discussions, surveys, among other activities, at this level. The document comprises a monitoring plan developed by the Biodiversity Project Team and the Thematic Expert Group responsible for drafting the revised NBSAP (this plan was subjected to stakeholder scrutiny in the four regions of the country and later taken to national validation workshops before its adoption). A “monitoring matrix” links Liberia’s 20 national targets (mapped to achieving relevant global targets) to respective actions, impact indicators, responsible organizations (lead and collaborators), a timeframe and costs. The NBSAP is also guided by twelve principles, among which include the requirement that biodiversity status and trends be continually monitored and evaluated, and that development initiatives with potential adverse effects on biodiversity be subjected to strategic environmental assessment. Furthermore, Liberia has identified fourteen cross-cutting issues relevant to coherent implementation of the biodiversity-related MEAs, including “poverty and biodiversity”, “climate change and biodiversity”, “gender and biodiversity”, “governance and biodiversity” and “technology transfer and biodiversity”. The first NBSAP was completed in 2004.
The development of the revised and updated NBSAP was guided by the overall objective to preserve national biodiversity to ensure the sustainable use of its components, required for the nation’s socioeconomic development and to ensure livelihood for Rwandans. The Strategy’s governing principles emphasize the inclusion of biodiversity conservation in economic decisions, as well as in the plans and budgets of relevant economic development sectors, such as agriculture and animal resources, fisheries, forestry, mining and infrastructures. Five strategic goals are closely aligned with the global strategic goals and supported by strategies which stress the following elements: partnership development, involvement of stakeholders and the strengthening of trans-boundary biodiversity management mechanisms; promotion of conservation incentives and alternative sources of livelihoods; establishment of corridors and connectivity between fragmented habitats and extension of protected areas, where possible; promotion of community-based natural resources management around natural ecosystems; and community awareness-raising and capacity-building. The Action Plan comprises actions linked respectively to the objective and relevant national targets, responsible implementing institutions, a timeframe, and indicators for monitoring and periodically evaluating implementation. The Ministry of Natural Resources, through the Rwanda Environment Management Authority (REMA), will participate in NBSAP implementation with other government agencies, academic institutions, NGOs and community-based organizations. It has also been proposed that a national institution, such as the Centre of Excellence on Biodiversity Conservation and Natural Resources Management, be strengthened to contribute to implementation. Human resources capacity-building for entities involved in biodiversity conservation, agro-biodiversity, biotechnology and biosafety will be undertaken at various training institutions, and promote gender as a cross-cutting issue in biodiversity planning. A communication and outreach strategy has also been proposed which suggests development of a stronger and more effective Clearing House Mechanism, among other communication media. The proposed financing strategy focuses on initiating innovative financial mechanisms in order to increase public and private budget contributions as well as support from development partners. It is recognized that the private sector has a critical role to play in conserving biodiversity and contributing to the achievement of sustainable development. In this regard, the Rwanda Private Sector Federation (PSF) exists as a professional organization, dedicated to promoting and representing the interests of the Rwandan business community while, at the same time, providing timely and relevant business development services that lead to sustainable private-sector-led economic growth and development. Rwanda has also prepared a technology needs assessment. As a Party to the Nagoya Protocol on ABS, Rwanda anticipates that, by 2017, the Protocol will be integrated in national legislation and administrative practices and enforced (National Target 15). By 2020, Rwanda anticipates having integrated the values of biodiversity and ecosystems services in planning processes, the poverty reduction strategy and the national economy (National Target 2). Rwanda is one of the countries whose tourism is one of the fastest growing sectors, offering many popular attractions (e.g. Volcanoes National Park, Akagera National Park, Nyungwe Forest, birding facilities, Nile trails) and accounting for a significant portion of foreign revenue. Rwanda adopted a Biodiversity Policy in 2011 and a Biodiversity Law in 2013. Biodiversity conservation is integrated in several key strategic plans, such as the Rwanda Vision 2020 Development Strategy, the Rwanda Wildlife Policy (2013), the Rwanda Protected Areas Concessions Management Policy (2013), the National Industrial Policy (2011), and the National Strategy for Climate Change and Low Carbon Development (2011) focused on green growth and climate resilience. The first NBSAP was developed in 2003.
The Plan National concernant la Protection de la Nature (2017-2021)
(PNPN2) was adopted by a decision of the Government Council on 13 January 2017. Notably, the first section of PNPN2 contains the National Biodiversity Strategy which was developed with consideration given to, inter alia
, the current global biodiversity agenda, the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020, and the national status and trends of biodiversity. PNPN2 can be viewed as a subcomponent of the National Sustainable Development Plan adopted in 2010. PNPN1 was adopted in 2007. The Biodiversity Strategy contains 7 objectives which aim to: fully implement biodiversity legislation; preserve and restore ecosystems and their services; significantly reduce land use and landscape fragmentation; strengthen the contribution of agriculture and forestry to the maintenance and enhancement of biodiversity; combat invasive alien species; ensure that the population is made more aware of biodiversity; and contribute to halting biodiversity loss at the global level. Efforts will focus on five particular sectors: agriculture, forestry, water management, urbanization and land use. Among the 28 measures contained in the PNPN2 Action Plan, implementation of 12 measures addressing the following themes are assigned high priority: biodiversity monitoring programmes; restoration of 15% of degraded ecosystems and their services; prioritization and implementation of action plans for species and habitats; implementation of the Natura 2000 network and associated management plans; designation of protected areas of national interest; land acquisition for nature conservation purposes; conservation and restoration of the ecological connectivity of habitats and landscapes; creation of a compensatory pool; monitoring and scientific analysis of agricultural extensification measures; integrated consultation in agriculture and forestry matters; optimizing the interoperability of data contained in alphanumeric and geographical information systems related to environmental management; and the expansion and national coverage of biological stations. An integrated process has been initiated to elaborate a long-term strategy on issues related to sustainable development and climate. To date, as a result of this process, objectives and measures for a National Strategy on Climate Change Adaptation have been defined for the biodiversity, water, forestry and agriculture sectors.
Swaziland’s second NBSAP (NBSAP 2) is aligned with the current global biodiversity agenda. The five strategic goals of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 were adopted to serve as the framework for the development of NBSAP 2. In addition, twenty national targets modeled on the Aichi Biodiversity Targets have been set. Furthermore, the key priority areas of the new document were identified based on the lessons learnt, such as the importance of NBSAP mainstreaming in national development and economic planning processes, from the (limited and challenged) implementation of NBSAP 1 adopted in 2001. NBSAP 2 was prepared in a highly participatory and consultative manner, involving multiple national stakeholders. The development process was led and coordinated by the Swaziland Environment Authority (SEA), working with and through the Biodiversity Project Implementation Committee (BPIC) which served as the project steering committee, comprised of representatives from key government ministries and departments as well as strategic stakeholder institutions. Other participants included a national think-tank of local experts. Special stakeholder groups, such as Chiefs, were consulted at special regional workshops. Scientists from the South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI), the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) were also consulted on national and regional aspects related to the NBSAP. The document’s seven key priority areas focus on: i) improvement of the status of the country’s biodiversity by monitoring, reduction of threats and pressures, safeguarding ecosystems and encouraging sustainable utilization; ii) generation of reliable information data for continued monitoring of the status of biodiversity; iii) mainstreaming and integration biodiversity into national plans and strategies and contribution to the national development objective; iv) building and strengthening human capacity in all aspects pertaining to conservation and management of biodiversity; v) strengthening the existing legislative and policy framework to improve the management and sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystems; vi) exploitation of synergies with other MEAs; and vii) increasing awareness on biodiversity among the citizenry of Swaziland. The action plan contains strategic initiatives to help guide the achievement of each target. Each strategic initiative has a number of indicative activities proposed by the strategy in fulfilment of the strategic initiative. For each of the strategic initiatives, a lead agency (-ies) and partners have been designated and baselines, indicators, timelines and cost estimates established. The implementation plan for the strategy comprises strategies for mainstreaming biodiversity into other sectors, human and technical capacity development, communication and outreach as well as resource mobilization. Implementation of NBSAP 2 will be coordinated by the Swaziland Environment Authority (SEA), in collaboration with the Biodiversity Project Implementation Committee (BPIC). A process for monitoring and evaluating implementation, on a biannual basis, has also been worked out.
The revised and updated National Biodiversity Strategy with the Action Plan for the period 2016-2020 was adopted by the Government of Montenegro in January 2016. The document was developed in response to the country’s obligation to implement the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and national legislation, namely, the Environment Act and the Nature Protection Act (which envisages that the NBSAP be reviewed every five years). It also addresses the obstacles and gaps identified in the first NBSAP (2011-2015) adopted in 2010 whose implementation success has been assessed as “mixed”. In this light, Montenegro has set the following 7 strategic targets to be achieved by 2020: the de facto
practice of biodiversity protection (identified as one of the most important social and political priorities for overall development); biodiversity protection by all stakeholders and by employing a multisectoral approach; development of an efficient financing mechanism for biodiversity protection and adaptation for a sustainable biodiversity economy (as part of a green economy); significant reduction in identified direct pressures on biodiversity; creation of preconditions and implementation of targeted measures for biodiversity protection; creation of environmental infrastructure as the basis for national biodiversity conservation; and improvement, systematization and wide and equitable availability of biodiversity knowledge through developed mechanisms. Significantly, the Biodiversity Strategy adopts a new conceptual approach based on the need to improve biodiversity education, communication and awareness-raising (CEPA) and achieve more efficient sectoral mainstreaming of biodiversity considerations. As such, emphasis is placed on preparing information, on the importance of biodiversity and the services it provides for sustainable economic development and human wellbeing, that is easily understood and accepted by the widest range of stakeholders, with special attention also given to the application of adequate economic incentives for achieving biodiversity targets. The above 7 strategic targets are complemented by 21 operational targets, each associated to a time period, deadline, achievement indicators and institutions responsible for implementation, including local self-government units (LSGUs). Local self-governments are moreover obligated by law to adopt local biodiversity actions plans aligned with the NBSAP. The development of a new National Strategy for Sustainable Development until 2030 is ongoing and, once finalized, will include long-term sustainable development goals aligned with the SDGs, as well as constitute an important development framework to which all other sectoral strategies and plans should be aligned.
The Action Plan on the Conservation of Landscape and Biological Diversity (2015-2020) was approved by Order of the Minister of Environment on 9 January 2015. The participation of municipalities in the implementation of the measures referred to in the Action Plan is recommended in the ministerial order itself. The Plan aims to create conditions to enable the implementation of a long-term landscape and biodiversity policy, based on national tradition and in accordance with EU legislation (such as that associated with the European Landscape Convention), international conventions, resolutions, agreements and programmes. The document presents strategic and other objectives and tasks for conserving landscape and biological diversity, and objectives and tasks for protected areas. Tasks are respectively assigned evaluation criteria (and target values) and authority(ies) responsible for implementing the criteria. Measures are respectively linked to an implementation period (which in some instances extends to 2023 due to EU support provided for the 2015-2023 period), cost estimates and responsible actors. The strategic objective for landscape conservation is to conserve landscape areas at various territorial levels, as well as their ecological potential, by ensuring their adequate planning, management, use and sustainable development. A priority measure to be carried out in this regard is the preparation of a draft law amending the Law of Environmental Protection, and integrating key landscape policy provisions. Among other measures, Lithuania seeks to prepare and implement management projects for eight parks of national importance, and prepare and implement projects for the creation of ten reference landscapes in transfrontier territories. The development and implementation of green infrastructure projects will also be undertaken, as will measures to develop research on biological diversity and ecosystems and to use the research data to integrate these aspects in public policy sectors. Lithuania will also carry out measures to ensure the safe use of GMOs and prevent their dispersal in the environment and damage to ecosystems. Lithuania is a signatory to the Nagoya Protocol on ABS and is taking steps towards its ratification and implementation, including the preparation of relevant legislation, with consideration also given to the EU Regulation adopted in 2014 on compliance measures for users from the Nagoya Protocol. The measures contained in the Action Plan will contribute to the implementation of various strategic plans, such as the National Progress Programme (2014-2020), the National Sustainable Development Strategy and the National Strategy for Climate Change Management Policy (2013-2020). Lithuania adopted its first NBSAP in 1998.
Kiribati’s National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plan (2016-2020) are a means through which the country intends to meets its obligations under the Convention and, in particular, contribute to achieving the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. The three pillars of sustainable development (social, environmental, environmental) were taken into account during the development of the NBSAP, whose outputs are expected to contribute significantly to the Kiribati Integrated Environment Policy. The NBSAP vision states that, “The people of Kiribati continue to enjoy their natural biodiversity that is resilient to the impacts of climate change and supports socioeconomic livelihoods”. Biodiversity conservation has been included in the Kiribati Development Plan (2016-2019) and several sectoral plans, such as the Kiribati Joint Implementation Plan for Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management and the Fisheries Policy. Nine priority areas will be focused on until 2020: protected and conservation areas; ecosystem management; species conservation and sustainable use; communication and education; capacity-building; invasive alien species/biosecurity; traditional knowledge and practices; environmental governance; and research and information. The Action Plan identifies biodiversity threats and presents associated national targets (mapped to achieving relevant Aichi Biodiversity Targets), national actions, indicators, outputs, responsible agencies and costs. Local communities will be heavily involved in implementation. The NBSAP’s first guiding principle on good governance and leadership states that “… the Government will lead national efforts to protect and promote the sustainable use of biodiversity and will always consult the local community”. Church groups, youth and women will also support implementation activities. Chaired by the Environment and Conservation Division (ECD), the National Biodiversity Planning Committee comprises Government departments, NGOs and the private sector. This Committee assisted in NBSAP development and is responsible for monitoring implementation progress. In this regard, the ECD will set up and implement an NBSAP monitoring and reporting protocol, while the Ministry of Environment, Lands and Agricultural Development (MELAD) is responsible for ensuring that interim and full reviews of implementation are carried out. Kiribati is currently exploring ways and means to establish an Environment Fund. The Kiribati Biodiversity CHM and the Environmental Management Information System are also under development. The first NBSAP was prepared in 2005. In 2010, Kiribati became the world leader in marine conservation after declaring the Phoenix Islands (408 250 sq km) a marine protected area (PIPA). In 2013, Kiribati exceeded the marine target set out under Aichi Biodiversity Target 11 (12% of territorial waters are protected). In January 2015, the entire PIPA area was officially closed to commercial fishing. Also included among its achievements over the last decade are the production of the Key Biodiversity Area Report, the directory of RAMSAR potential sites, community-based management plans (fisheries and mangrove management plans), and environment educational materials.
The elaboration of Ghana’s NBSAP (2016) was led by the National Biodiversity Committee (NBC), with strategic guidance provided by the Ministry of Environment Science, Technology and Innovation (MESTI). The first National Biodiversity Strategy was prepared in 2002 however an associated Action Plan was not prepared. The new document particularly seeks to put in place systems, technologies and legislative instruments to mainstream biodiversity into the national development agenda. It is linked to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and relevant initiatives, including, among others, the Sustainable Development Goals, Ghana’s 40-Year National Development Plan, the Forestry Development Master Plan, and strategic plans prepared for international conventions to which Ghana is a Party (e.g. the National Climate Change Action Plan). Four strategic objectives (components) aim to: address the underlying causes of biodiversity loss by mainstreaming biodiversity into all sectors of government and society programmes; improve the status of biodiversity by safeguarding ecosystems, species and genetic diversity; enhance the benefits of biodiversity to all sectors of the economy; and enhance implementation of the national biodiversity action plan through participatory planning, knowledge management and capacity-building. The four strategic objectives (and respective priority national strategies) are to be achieved over 25 years, within a three-phase programme (2016-2020, 2021-2030, 2030-2040). A short-term programme (comprising 20 separate action plans) to be implemented between now and 2020 contains activities that fit into the ongoing national development agenda. Funding for activities is provided from the national annual budget and development partners (the total cost of implementing the short-term programme is GHS 534.5 million). Implementation of each Aichi Biodiversity Target has been summarized in an action plan, highlighting the main planned activities, associated national targets, indicators, actor(s) and the frequency of monitoring/reporting. MESTI will maintain a strong leadership role and report regularly on the status of biodiversity and, in most cases, lead in the coordination of sectoral activities. The NBSAP has been designed to be implemented by ministries, departments and agencies outside of MESTI; emphasis is placed on concerted action at all levels of governance, including the traditional authorities, the private sector, civil society organizations and the Government of Ghana as a whole. Local institutions will be highly instrumental in implementing actions and should also benefit from enhanced capacity and capability as a result of NBSAP implementation. In order to ensure effective monitoring and reporting on the NBSAP, an overall results framework has been developed which provides clear guidance on indicators, which can be used to monitor implementation and review the action plan. The NBC and MESTI will also formulate guidelines and strategies for mainstreaming gender in community-level biodiversity conservation projects. By June 2017, Ghana intends to have developed and implemented a communication and public awareness strategy on biodiversity conservation.
TO TOP ^ Ecuador
Prepared fifteen years after the first National Biodiversity Policy and Strategy (2001-2010), the current National Biodiversity Strategy (2015-2030) responds to the provisions of Ecuador’s new Constitution, enacted in 2008, the National Development Plan (also known as the National Plan for Good Living (2013-2017)) and the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity (2011-2020) and its Aichi Targets. Significantly, the Rights of Nature (ecosystems) are codified in the country’s new Constitution (Ecuador is moreover the first country in the world to do so). This new course was inspired by the teachings of indigenous cultures on sumak kawsay
or “good living” (buen vivir) in harmonious co-existence with nature. Ecuador’s political agenda today promotes public planning integrating biodiversity considerations for achieving goals related to sustainable development, poverty eradication and equitable wealth distribution. The National Decentralized System for Participatory Planning constitutes a set of processes, entities and instruments that enables the interaction of various social and institutional actors to organize and coordinate development planning at all levels of government. Implementation of the Strategy is also supported by proposals contained in various subsidiary planning instruments, such as the national strategy for the transformation of the production matrix (emphasizing the use of “eco-efficient” mechanisms and tools), the national strategy for equality and poverty eradication, the national territorial strategy, and sectoral and cross-sectoral policy agendas. Ecuador's Strategy contains four objectives: mainstreaming in public policy management; reduction of pressures and misuse of biodiversity; equitable benefit-sharing, taking into account specific details related to gender and interculturality; and the strengthening of knowledge management and capacities that promote innovation in biodiversity matters. National policies that will guide actions correspond to those established in the National Development Plan, and in particular to policies related to the Plan’s Objective 7 which aims to "guarantee the rights of nature and promote territorial and global environmental sustainability". National biodiversity targets are set and distributed under the four strategic objectives, and linked to nineteen results to be achieved by 2030 as well as to relevant Aichi Biodiversity Targets. An action plan (2015-2021) provides a description of actions and entities responsible for implementation during this period. Specific studies were carried out regarding the integration of aspects on gender, interculturality and climate change during the preparation of the Strategy. A proposal has also been developed to monitor the management of the Ecuador’s Biodiversity Strategy, as well as to monitor and evaluate the impact of its implementation. The National Institute for Biodiversity was established by decree in 2014.
The revised National Strategy on the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity (2017-2020) was approved on 3 October 2016 by Order of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan. It represents the national response to implementing the commitments made by Parties in Nagoya. The Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources is responsible for coordinating implementation of the Strategy and must advise the President on progress at least once a year. The Strategy’s main goals focus on: the sustainable use of genetic resources; biodiversity conservation and benefits transferred to future generations; poverty alleviation; maintaining ecological balance; ensuring a transition to a “green economy”; promoting environmental education; restoring endemic and local fauna species; developing the protected areas network; and reducing threats to biodiversity. Ten priority objectives aim to: 1) ensure a broad extension of environmental education within society at large to raise awareness on biodiversity and ecosystem services; 2) improve biodiversity monitoring systems; 3) restore and conserve biodiversity, ecosystems and genetic diversity; 4) develop and effectively manage protected areas and expand the current network; 5) reduce the negative impacts on biodiversity and its sustainable use; 6) improve the regulatory framework to ensure the sustainability of biodiversity; 7) increase public participation in biodiversity conservation at the national and local levels; 8) develop collaboration in biodiversity conservation management; 9) provide adequate resources for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity; and 10) strengthen institutional capacities for biodiversity planning, management and use. For each priority objective, activities are elaborated and linked to outcomes, implementing organizations and implementation periods (specific targets have been set under certain priority objectives). Among other activities to be carried out to 2020, Azerbaijan endeavours to: enhance ecotourism potential, particularly in national parks; explore the efficient use of bioenergy resources; prepare pilot projects for the development of organic farming; develop the Emerald Network protected areas within the framework of the EU Neighbourhood Policy; strengthen controls on the collection and trade of medicinal plants and ensure their sustainable use; expand the network of accredited laboratories for the identification of genetically modified crops; develop effective mechanisms for increasing public participation, taking into account gender equality, in biodiversity protection and decision-making processes; develop cooperation among relevant state agencies; and expand the use of alternative and renewable energy sources in the regions. Funding for proposed activities will be met by funds allocated in the central state budget and from the State fund for environmental protection, micro-credit schemes, and grants from international donors and financial institutions. The first National Strategy and Action Plan on Conservation and Sustainable Use was adopted in 2006.
Belize’s National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (2016-2020) has been formally endorsed for use by government and stakeholders in implementing the country's biodiversity targets. It is a five-year plan set within a fifteen-year framework, aligned with the Horizon 2030 national development framework and its third-phase strategy entitled the Growth and Sustainable Development Strategy (GSDS) endorsed in 2015. The Action Plan is notably structured for mainstreaming and multi-sectoral implementation across government, the private sector and civil society. Five strategic goals address the following themes: mainstreaming; reducing pressures; protection; benefits; and implementation. Twenty measurable national targets are distributed among these strategic goals, each linked to achieving both relevant Aichi Biodiversity Targets and Sustainable Development Goals. The national targets are also linked to prioritized strategic actions broken down into activities associated to relevant indicators, lead implementing agencies and supporting agencies. In addition, synergies have been identified for mainstreaming implementation, through the identification of national legislations, policies and plans that contain similar objectives (e.g. poverty reduction strategies, climate change adaptation plans). Timeframes per target are also suggested and, in some instances, extend beyond 2020, however remain within the timeframe of the Horizon 2030 framework. An Implementation Plan focused on capacity development, communication and outreach, and resource mobilization has been formulated. Capacity gaps at individual, institutional and systemic levels identified during the NBSAP revision process (capacity gaps were also identified under the GSDS) are addressed in this Plan. Recommendations for addressing gaps and limitations in biodiversity policies and legislation that can potentially affect NBSAP implementation have also been assembled. The country plans to develop a Communication and Outreach Strategy Framework which will be supported by the re-establishment of the national Clearing House Mechanism (CHM), among other activities. The National Protected Areas System is the primary mechanism used by Belize for biodiversity conservation and is supported through a variety of funding mechanisms, such as grants from the Protected Areas Conservation Trust (PACT), Debt-for-Nature Agreement, and revenue generated directly by the protected areas themselves. A number of other funding options are currently being explored, primarily REDD+ and the Green Climate Fund. In addition, a comprehensive review of financial needs and current expenditure is being carried out through the BIOFIN Initiative. Belize plans to establish a Biodiversity Office, to be housed in the Forest Department, which will provide the coordination required for implementing the NBSAP, working in close communication and collaboration with the Belize Fisheries Department, the National Climate Change Office and the PACT (through the National Protected Areas Technical Committee). The National Biodiversity Monitoring Programme (NBMP) has been developed through the University of Belize’s Environmental Research Institute to improve standardized and systematic monitoring of biodiversity indicators to inform national decision-making, and has been aligned with the Aichi Biodiversity Targets for measuring progress and contribution towards global goals. Belize anticipates that, by 2020, 100% of relevant national development decisions take into consideration ecosystem services and biodiversity relevance to the national economy (Target A3). The Belize Barrier Reef Reserve System is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and comprised of seven marine protected areas; this ecosystem is a valuable resource for traditional fishing communities and the country's marine-based tourism industry, supporting more than 50% of the national population, either directly or indirectly. Although never formally endorsed, the first NBSAP (1998-2003) provided an informal framework to guide biodiversity conservation and was used by successive governments, NGOs and CBOs over the years.
Sao Tome and Principe
The vision of the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (2015-2020) (NBSAP II) proclaims that, “Until 2020, Sao Tome and Principe should strengthen the institutional and human capacities in order to promote diversified economic development, which will contribute directly and indirectly to the conservation of biodiversity, thus combining socioeconomic development of communities with the preservation and conservation of biodiversity, in a sustainable way”. NBSAP II is based on results obtained from studies carried out in five thematic areas, subsequently adopted as strategic areas (axes) for intervention in the final version of the document. These strategic areas comprise: the conservation of marine and coastal ecosystems; the conservation of inland waters ecosystems; the conservation of forest ecosystems; the conservation of agrarian ecosystems; and the strengthening of the institutional, legal and socioeconomic framework, as a cross-cutting theme in all strategic areas. Sub-objectives have also been defined which correspond more particularly to achieving the three CBD objectives on conservation, sustainable use, and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the use of genetic resources, and are distributed under each strategic area, as appropriate. For each of the latter, compliance indicators, verification sources and action plans (comprised of separate projects) are also presented. Each project is associated to responsible bodies, partners (national, international and financial), objectives, activities, estimated costs, among other elements. It should be noted that activities are of a preliminary nature and will be continued beyond 2020, as necessary. Also, under the Decentralization Policy, pursued by the central Government, the District Councils are officially responsible for environmental matters. Information is provided in NBSAP II on activities carried out (and to be carried out) to implement the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. Various restoration projects concerning tree species of high commercial value have been conducted, and work in this area is ongoing. Work has also been carried out regarding the valuation of traditional medicines. CEPA activities are underway to raise awareness within society at large of the values of agricultural ecosystems and the traditional uses of and customs linked to biodiversity. Sao Tome and Principe recently ratified the Nagoya Protocol on ABS. In 2014, the country obtained REDD+ certification. Sao Tome and Principe also intends to develop a national legal framework on biosafety and promote scientific research within the scope of biotechnology. While it was not possible to implement all the measures proposed in the first NBSAP prepared in 2005, important steps were taken, particularly regarding the establishment of 30% of the country’s territory as protected areas, and the designation of the Island of Principe as a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve.
TO TOP ^ Jamaica
Jamaica’s National Strategy and Action Plan on Biological Diversity (2016-2021) is an update to the NBSAP adopted in 2003. The vision and guiding principles developed in 2003 have been retained in the updated version. Jamaica has adopted the twenty Aichi Biodiversity Targets (with minor modifications) as national targets, and respectively assigned outputs/results, national indicators, baselines, prioritized activities and parties responsible for implementation to each target. The document is underpinned by the global 2030 Sustainable Development Goals, and especially promotes mainstreaming as the most effective means for achieving the national targets, which can be accomplished through consideration of biodiversity in strategic plans, such as Jamaica’s Vision 2030 Development Plan and its supporting Medium-Term Framework (MTF) (2015-2018), national poverty reduction strategies, and activities carried out in key production sectors (i.e. forestry, fisheries, mining, tourism and agriculture). The current NBSAP also pays special attention to themes not addressed in the earlier NBSAP, namely gender, as a cross-cutting issue, and biodiversity integration in climate change and disaster risk reduction plans. Jamaica also seeks to enhance biodiversity mainstreaming in awareness-raising activities, particularly targeting youth development programmes and policies, and in land use planning. Recently-adopted legislation relevant to NBSAP implementation includes the Protection of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture Act (2013) and the Quarry Control (Amendment) Act (2015). The Protected Areas System Master Plan (PASMP) (2015) for 2013-2017 and the Forestry Policy (Green Paper) (2015) are further complements to implementation. While an outline for a resource mobilization strategy has been elaborated, there exist difficulties in mobilizing financial resources and in the application of natural resource valuation (NRV) methods. Actions focus on biodiversity conservation across all sectors. Local governments (parish councils) are designated among the entities responsible for implementing activities related to land use planning. Indicative budgets by sector/cross-cutting theme for each activity have also been established. The NBSAP also comprises a plan for monitoring and evaluating the achievement of the national targets. It is recommended that the Environmental Management and Conservation Division, under the National Environment and Planning Agency (NEPA), take ownership of the NBSAP, oversee its implementation and ensure that biodiversity is mainstreamed within the Vision 2030 MTF process. The Agency will be responsible for following up with various ministries and agencies regarding the production of data to inform the targets and indicators. In this implementation period, among numerous other activities, Jamaica endeavors to: increase its coverage of marine protected areas; ratify the Nagoya Protocol on ABS; strengthen monitoring and enforcement of regulations with respect to effluent discharges; and legislate the protection of any traditional knowledge, innovations and practices of local communities relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.
Andorra’s Estrategia Nacional de la Biodiversidad (ENBA)
represents the country’s first biodiversity strategy. It contains five strategic objectives, mapped to achieving relevant Aichi Biodiversity Targets, focused on: inventorying and improving knowledge on biodiversity and its trends; managing biodiversity and guaranteeing ecosystem services; promoting biodiversity conservation in sectoral, national and local policies; biodiversity education, communication and training; and governance and cooperation. An implementation timeframe (2016-2024) has been set, however Andorra anticipates revising the strategic objectives in 2020 in accordance with biodiversity trends that exist at that time. Initiatives are promoted in three sectors, in particular: agriculture and livestock; forests (which cover 40% of the territory); and tourism (which currently represents 60% of the GDP). Included among the activities to be undertaken are: the establishment of bio-indicators; the identification of areas of interest for protection, with consideration given to ecological connectivity (including with neighboring countries); the promotion of green spaces and ecological connectivity in urban planning; the assessment and improvement of formal school curricula; the establishment of a commission for periodic monitoring and updating of the ENBA, including representatives of national and local administrations, professional agents and civil society; the economic evaluation of biodiversity and ecosystem services; and the the establishment of economic instruments that integrate aspects related to the conservation and sustainable management of biodiversity. Andorra also aims to ensure consistency among the ENBA and strategies and plans developed for other international conventions, such as the European Landscape Convention, the Bern Convention and the UNFCCC.
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
The revised NBSAP (NBSAP2) of the Islamic Republic of Iran has been prepared in accordance with the obligations of Parties under Aichi Biodiversity Target 17. Its Vision states that, “By 2030, public awareness raised on the importance of biodiversity for human wellbeing and the status of biodiversity have improved sustainably, so that the natural landscapes, ecosystems, species and genetic resources, vital elements of air, water, soil, fauna and flora are effectively conserved. In such an environment, people have physical and mental health, peace and security, and sustainable socioeconomic and environmental justice”. The four strategies contained in NBSAP1 (2006) remain valid and are retained in NBSAP2 as principles, while several activities contained in NBSAP1 are still being carried out. The four strategic goals of NBSAP2 are to: 1) mainstream biodiversity across government and society and promote awareness and public participation to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs); 2) integrate biodiversity monitoring, assessment and reporting; 3) reduce pressures on biodiversity and promote the sustainable use of natural resources; and 4) promote the integrated conservation of biodiversity. NBSAP2 contains 24 national targets and 99 activities. Also taken into account are the provisions of the National Macro Policies for the Environment (endorsed by the Supreme Leader), the Sixth Five-Year National Development Plan 2016-2020 (awaiting approval by Parliament), the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and the Sustainable Development Goals. Examples of activities to be implemented under the four strategic goals include: training for high-level decision-makers, including line ministries, judiciary and parliamentarians; development of a legal basis for the greater involvement of local communities, the private sector and other partners in biodiversity conservation and sustainable use management programmes; updating of criteria for the utilization of biodiversity resources and ecosystem services; development of a national biosafety legal framework and policies; revitalization of the Biodiversity Committee under the National Committee for Sustainable Development (NCSD) with the membership of relevant governmental and non-governmental organizations; and the development and strengthening of economic incentives to encourage appropriate private sector investment in biodiversity management and conservation (e.g. green tax incentives). The NCSD secretariat is hosted within the Department of the Environment, and the Committee is presided over by the Vice-President of the Republic and the Head of the Department of the Environment. To implement the 17 SDGs, 16 sub-committees have been established under the guidance of the NCSD, each responsible for different goals and chaired and organized by a ministry or organization other than the Department of the Environment. These sub-committees, in addition to addressing technical, legal and political aspects of the SDGs and related Conventions, should prepare national reports for the Conventions, and propose, approve and monitor implementation of relevant national and regional environmental projects. In addition, national steering committees have been put in place to coordinate, monitor and evaluate the implementation of such projects.
The vision of Algeria’s new Stratégie et Plan d’actions nationaux pour la biodiversité (2016-2030)
highlights the potential of biodiversity to serve as a vector for sustainable socioeconomic development and for adapting to climate change. In this context, the document represents the cornerstone strategic framework for achieving sustainable income generation and employment for inclusive green growth, for the benefit of present and future generations, through actions focused on conservation, sustainable use, restoration and biodiversity valuation. An NBSAP summary has been prepared specifically for decision-makers to enhance their perception of biodiversity, and contains proposals to accomplish this through strengthening work related to the economics of ecosystems and biodiversity, among other actions. Information collected on the status and trends of Algerian ecosystems (marine and coastal, forest and mountain, steppe, Saharan, oasis, wetland) and from three specific studies on biodiversity and climate change, ecosystem goods and services and urban biodiversity, contributed to the elaboration of the NBSAP. Its four strategic objectives focus on: adaptation of the institutional, strategic and legislative frameworks, particularly to ensure the participation of partner sectors, consistency with international commitments and mobilization of adequate funding; development, sharing and enhancement of knowledge and expertise and awareness-raising and communication on the importance of biodiversity for inclusive sustainable development; promotion of conservation and restoration to sustain and develop natural capital; and the development of key biodiversity sectors to ensure the sustainable production of goods and services provided by ecosystems as a contribution to green growth. Strategic indicators have been defined for each strategic objective, as well as for each of the 21 national targets. The latter are also mapped to relevant Aichi Biodiversity Targets and Sustainable Development Goals. There are a total of 113 actions, each assigned expected results, responsible entities and operational indicators. Implementation costs are estimated at more than USD 100 million for the initial 2016-2020 period. Priority actions to be implemented by the end of 2017 include: the establishment of a biodiversity service at the prime-ministerial level; the establishment of both an NBSAP Team and inter-sectoral biodiversity committee; the development of an NBSAP monitoring and evaluation system; and the formulation and validation of sectoral biodiversity action plans with partner sectors. To date, ten partner sectors (industry and mines, education, fisheries, public works, tourism, crafts, transportation, communication, culture, energy) have prepared biodiversity action plans however only two sectors (energy and fisheries) have approved their plans. Having identified the lack of biodiversity integration in sectoral policies as a weakness in the first NBSAP (2000), the new NBSAP conversely advocates the sharing of responsibilities with sectors through biodiversity integration in sectoral biodiversity action plans (and well as in local policies) as fundamental to NBSAP implementation. Flagship measures to be undertaken to 2030 include: the establishment of a protected areas network; the creation of a biodiversity observatory and an early warning system; the holding of an annual national biodiversity conference; the development of a national ecological compensation mechanism; revision of the statutes of existing state structures (e.g. National Centre for Biological Resources Development, national parks); exploration of innovative financing mechanisms (e.g. Payment for Ecosystem Services; tariffs on national park entry; opportunities provided by effectively implementing the Nagoya Protocol on ABS to which Algeria is currently a signatory); and ecotourism development.
TO TOP ^ Paraguay
The revised and updated NBSAP (2015-2020) outlines how Paraguay intends to meet the goals and targets of the current Strategic Plan for Biodiversity. Its vision, with a 2030 horizon, is to improve the quality of life for Paraguayans through a paradigm shift aimed at strengthening the application of the sustainable development model. This is to be achieved by promoting effective and efficient implementation of programmes related to conservation, ecological restoration and the sustainable use of biodiversity, with consideration given to CBD principles (with emphasis placed on the rights of indigenous peoples concerning traditional knowledge), institutional strengthening and national and international legal frameworks. Coordinated actions will be undertaken, involving all sectors and diverse actors, who benefit directly or indirectly from biodiversity and ecosystem services (including government, civil society, indigenous peoples, private sector and academia), and consider gender and respect for traditional knowledge. Eleven general strategic objectives and sub-objectives focus on: ex situ conservation of natural resources; in situ conservation of natural resources (protected wild areas; territories under special jurisdiction; development of tourism services); land use management; air quality; watersheds; the legal and institutional framework: democracy and environmental justice (eco-civility; social values, education, training and dissemination); energy resources; natural resources (development of wild resources; sustainable forest management; aquaculture); development of information systems services; and biotechnology and biosafety. Each general strategic objective is supported by specific objectives, proposed actions, expected results, indicators, implementing entities and cost estimates. The Implementation Plan draws particular attention to the importance of identifying synergies, establishing cross-sectoral and systematic approaches (e.g. alliances between the public and private sectors and among national, regional and international bodies). The Environment Secretariat (SEAM) is responsible for CBD implementation and is currently implementing its Institutional Strategic Plan (2015-2020) whose activities are also aligned with the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals to 2030 and the National Development Plan to 2030. Resources required for implementing the NBSAP to 2020 already exceed USD 279 million, of which an estimated 26.8% is required to carry out activities related to land use management identified as one of the most significant underlying threats to biodiversity conservation. The methodology for mobilizing resources proposed under UNDP’s BIOFIN Initiative has been instrumental in revising the budget allocated to biodiversity however an actual Resource Mobilization Strategy for NBSAP implementation has not yet been developed. Paraguay completed its first NBSAP in 2003.
Democratic Republic of the Congo
The new Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (2016-2020) of DR Congo is based on the framework provided by the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity (2011-2020) and its Aichi Targets, and mainstreamed with such strategic plans as: the second Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper; the second National Programme for Environment, Forests, Water and Biodiversity; the National Strategy for Biodiversity Conservation in Protected Areas; and the Framework Strategy for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD). Its vision to 2035, based on that of the previous NBSAP (2002) and the National Development Plan to 2035 (currently under preparation) states that: “By 2035, biodiversity is managed sustainably through its integration in all relevant national sectors, contributes to the country’s growth, and all Congolese persons are aware of the value of biodiversity and its contribution to their well-being”. Ten priority strategic axes focus on: biodiversity mainstreaming in all relevant national sectors; reduction of pressures on natural habitats; sustainable fisheries; improved management of existing protected areas and extension of the protected areas network; protection of fauna and flora species threatened with extinction; promotion of payment for environmental services, access to genetic resources and benefit-sharing; restoration; biosafety; promotion of taxonomic research and knowledge acquisition; and increased funding for biodiversity. A total of 14 national targets are distributed among these priority strategic axes. Each target is assigned indicators, actions and responsible executing entities. In addition, it is proposed that all of the country’s 26 administrative provinces (including the city of Kinshasa) prepare a provincial Biodiversity Action Plan. The capacity-building needs self-assessment (2009) was instrumental in highlighting capacity-building needs (that remain relevant today) for the preparation and revision of policy documents and strengthening legal, regulatory and institutional frameworks. Since April 2013, activities have been carried out to develop technical, administrative and managerial competencies of personnel located at the central structure of the environment and sustainable development administration. It is also proposed that, by 2020, a national programme on information, education and communication be developed and implemented to raise public awareness of the values of biodiversity. The “Okapi” Trust Fund for the rehabilitation of protected areas was endorsed under the Law for Nature Conservation adopted in 2014, and is currently valued at USD 11,500,000 (the objective is to reach USD 50,000,000). DR Congo plans on establishing a network of national biodiversity-related databases and to make access available to this network on the national CHM at http://cd.chm-cbd.net/.
Ukraine's revised NBSAP is constituted by the Main Principles (Strategy) of the National Environmental Policy of Ukraine until 2020 (adopted by law on 21 December 2010), and the National Action Plan on Environmental Protection of Ukraine for 2011-2015 (approved by the Order of the Cabinet of Ministers on 25 May 2011). Both documents were developed with the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity (2011-2020) and its Aichi Targets taken into account. Ukraine’s Strategy advocates the achievement of sustainable development through measures aimed at strengthening the role of environmental governance within the state governance system to achieve a balance among the three components (economic, environmental, social) of development. As such, the Strategy emphasizes the importance of considering environmental consequences in management decisions, and in the formulation of policies or programmes related to state, sectoral, regional and local development, and the need for establishing inter-sectoral partnerships and engaging broadly with stakeholders, including civil society and the private sector. The document also highlights strategic directions focused on: the prevention of natural and technogenic accidents through risk analysis and forecasting based on the results of strategic environmental assessment, state environmental expertise and state environmental monitoring; and on ensuring environmental safety, maintaining environmental equilibrium and eliminating the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Other principles relate to: the need to undertake efforts to preserve the environment for the future generations; the responsibility of persons in violation of environmental protection legislation; the Polluter Pays Principle; the responsibility of executive authorities to provide accessible, reliable and timely environmental information; and the responsibility of the State to provide support for stimulating the creation of modern forms of production by domestic businesses to reduce negative impact on the environment. The Action Plan (2011-2015) contains 7 goals targeting the following issues: 1) environmental awareness-raising; 2) improving environmental status and environmental safety; 3) achieving environmental safety for human health; 4) integrating environmental policy and improving integrated environmental management; 5) halting the loss of biological and landscape diversity and developing the ecological network; 6) sustainable use of nature; and 7) improving regional environmental policy. For each goal, measures, responsible executors, timeframes, potential funding sources and cost estimates are presented. Each measure is moreover mapped to achieving relevant Aichi Biodiversity Targets. Indicators have also been developed for each goal, and efforts are currently being carried out to improve the state system for environmental monitoring and information support to enable better managerial decision-making. By 2015, Ukraine anticipated having completed the transfer of EU environmental protection standards and the drafting of respective laws and regulations, and to be in a position to begin implementing the latter in the 2016-2020 period. The country also intends to focus on introducing economic mechanisms to stimulate structural transformations in support of sustainable development during this period.
Mexico’s Estrategia Nacional sobre Biodiversidad y Plan de Acción (2016-2030)
is a public policy document, developed with broad sectoral and stakeholder participation, and with consideration given to implementing the global Strategic Plan for Biodiversity (2011-2020) and its Aichi Targets as well as the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The first National Biodiversity Strategy was adopted in 2000 (an associated Action Plan was not prepared). The current NBSAP is largely based on the provisions contained in the document Natural Capital of Mexico: Strategic actions for valuation, preservation and restoration (2012)
. The development of the new NBSAP was coordinated by the National Commission for the Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity (CONABIO). Among the 14 guiding principles that underpin the NBSAP is the requirement that all stakeholders mainstream biodiversity considerations in public policies and decision-making processes. The NBSAP thus presents an important opportunity and framework to mainstream biodiversity criteria in such policies, plans and programs, within and across sectors, and at all levels of government, to ensure the continued provision of ecosystem services necessary for the well-being of the Mexican people. The document also calls for the identification of the linkages between the country’s biological diversity and its cultural diversity, implying the importance of involving indigenous peoples, afro-descendants and local communities in planning and implementation processes. The gender perspective is promoted as a cross-cutting issue in implementation (36 more women than men participated in the NBSAP planning process). Notably, Mexico has also established a legal and institutional framework which covers the issues of biodiversity, climate change and the environment, and the relationship with gender. Since 2002, CONABIO has promoted decentralized biodiversity planning and management through the development and implementation of State Strategies for Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity
. These activities are contributing to improving human and institutional local capacities. At present, more than twenty States are involved in this initiative.
The NBSAP is based on the following 6 strategic axes (each of which is associated to an overarching strategic objective to be achieved by 2030): knowledge; conservation and restoration; sustainable use and management; attention to pressure factors; education, communication and environmental culture; and mainstreaming and governance. These axes are complemented by 24 lines of action, 160 actions (and further specifications and recommendations), implementation timeframes (2016-2020 and 2021-2030), responsible implementation entities (i.e. environment sector, other federal sectors, and other actors). Also, 45 national targets have been set and are mapped to achieving relevant Aichi Biodiversity Targets and the NBSAP’s six strategic axes. The NBSAP’s relationship with the goals and targets of the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda is also mapped out, as is the relationship with various sectoral, special, institutional and cross-cutting programmes under the National Development Plan (2013-2018). It should be noted that biodiversity is concretely addressed under one of the latter Plan’s five national goals, entitled “Mexico Próspero”, which contains objectives, strategies and lines of action for the country’s production sectors and the environmental sector. The establishment of an inter-sectoral framework to coordinate activities within the Federal Public Administration on monitoring and evaluation of implementation has been proposed. A positive trend exists regarding national (public expenditure) and international funding for biodiversity. Mexico is also a member of the UNDP BIOFIN programme. Key actions required to strengthen capacity include, among others, those related to: generation and communication of biodiversity knowledge; coordination among actors and sectors; development of basic capacities in other sectors on the valuation of biodiversity and ecosystem services and the impacts of different productive activities on the country’s natural capital; improvement of evaluation mechanisms and monitoring of actions; and training for human resources in certain areas. Recently-adopted laws include the Federal Law on Environmental Responsibility (2013) and the General Law on Climate Change (2012). Mexico was the first megadiverse country to ratify the Nagoya Protocol on ABS in 2012, and intends to have adopted the legislation necessary to implement the Protocol by 2020.
TO TOP ^ Romania
Romania’s National Strategy and Action Plan for Biodiversity Conservation (2014-2020) constitutes the country’s third NBSAP. The first NBSAP was elaborated in 1996, and the second in 2000, as a part of preparations carried out to accede to the EU. Signed in 2005, the Accession Treaty of Romania to the EU includes concrete commitments to implement the EU’s environmental acquis
, which directly and indirectly addresses biodiversity. Since becoming an EU member in 2007, various strategic reference documents have been developed and implemented in response to national or EU policy, integrating biodiversity to a greater or lesser extent, and ensuring the financing of related projects. Such documents include the National Strategy for Sustainable Development (Horizons 2010-2020-2030), National Development Plan (2007-2013), National Strategic Reference Framework (2007-2013), National Strategy for Rural Development (2007-2013) and the National Strategy for Fisheries (2007-2013). The current NBSAP comprises four general “action directions” to 2020 aimed at: halting biodiversity loss at the genetic, species, ecosystem and landscape levels, and recovering degraded systems; integrating biodiversity in sectoral policies; promoting traditional and innovative methods, practices and knowledge and clean technologies; and improving communication and education. Moreover, ten strategic objectives address: a) the legal and institutional framework and financial resources; b) the national network of natural protected areas; c) protected species; d) the sustainable use of biological diversity components (land development, forest management, wild species with economic value, agriculture, tourism, transport, energy and exploitation of non-renewable resources); e) ex-situ conservation; f) invasive species; g) access to genetic resources and the fair distribution of benefits arising from their use; h) support and promotion of knowledge, traditional practices and innovations; i) scientific research development and promotion of technology transfer; and j) CEPA. Operational objectives and a suite of actions are also presented. Responsible institutions, implementation periods, estimated budgets, financing sources, priorities, and performance indicators have been designated for each action. The Ministry of Environment and Climate Change is responsible for coordinating NBSAP implementation, at central and local levels. Activities will be carried out with administrators of natural protected areas, managers of natural resources, and with representatives of local communities, the scientific and business communities and civil society. Monitoring will be conducted by the inter-ministerial committee responsible for coordinating the integration of environmental protection into sectoral policies and strategies at the national level. The costs for implementing the Action Plan (2014-2020) have been estimated at 6.5 billion lei, with funds to be provided by the state budget and other sources, such as the LIFE+ Programme of the European Commission.
The Programa Nacional sobre la Diversidad Biológica (2016-2020)
presents Cuba’s response to implementation of decision X/2. Cuba’s original NBSAP was adopted in 1999. A revised and updated Action Plan was elaborated for the 2006-2010 period, followed by another revision/update for the 2011-2015 period elaborated prior to the adoption of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity (2011-2020). The development of the current National Programme was largely based on the Economic and Social Policy Guidelines approved by the 6th Congress of the Communist Party of Cuba (and natural resource policies adopted in consequence), CBD national reports, the National Economic Plan, experiences and results gained from implementing the National Environmental Strategy for 2007-2010 and 2011-2015 and other specific strategic frameworks (e.g. National Forest Programme, National Plan for the Protected Areas System, National Biosecurity Action Plan), and actions related to implementation of relevant international commitments. The current document comprises five strategic goals, twenty national targets (mapped to relevant Aichi Biodiversity Targets), entities responsible for implementation, timelines, actions, and criteria/indicators. Achievement of the national targets is also mapped to the Economic and Social Policy Guidelines approved by the 6th Congress. Several priority areas (broadly-defined as follows) are addressed: awareness-raising; invertebrates and marine species; economic valuation of ecosystem services; training of professionals; reforestation with native species and forest fire prevention and control; biological collections (ex situ conservation); ecosystem rehabilitation and restoration; valuation and protection of traditional knowledge and its gender component; diversification of agricultural production; strategies for climate change adaptation and mitigation; fragmentation, pollution, forest fires, invasive alien species; recovery of fishery resources. Priority is also being given to matters related to the mobilization of resources to increase material and financial capacities; harmonization and integration of biodiversity in national development policies and strategies and in decision-making processes at all levels; development of a national legal system, including aspects related to international commitments, with importance attached to the themes of access to genetic resources, biological collections, among others; biodiversity mainstreaming in sectors; and the further development of indicators and monitoring processes. To facilitate integration of efforts undertaken by relevant entities and achieve the most effective outcomes, the National Programme emphasizes that these aims be realized through strengthening coordination among existing structures and identifying synergies, rather than through the establishment of new mechanisms.
Bangladesh’s updated NBSAP (2016-2021) responds to national obligations under Section 18A of the Constitution, which call for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, as well as the obligations of Parties under decision X/2. Serving as a framework instrument, the NBSAP has been integrated in the country’s 7th Five Year Plan (2016-2021), and comprises five strategic goals, 20 national targets and 50 activities (and associated indicators) to be implemented from 2015-16 to 2020-21. The linkages between the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (i.e. Targets 14 and 15) and the NBSAP targets are also presented. Government ministries and departments, and associated organizations, responsible for implementing each activity are identified; these entities will be supported by various biodiversity committees to be constituted under the Bangladesh Biological Diversity Act which currently awaits Parliamentary approval. The National Committee on Biodiversity will oversee implementation progress periodically with strong engagement of all the stakeholders. While the total cost of implementation is estimated at 18329.00 million BDT, a detailed capacity needs assessment will be required as a starting point for implementing the NBSAP. A part of updating the NBSAP consisted of conducting an economic valuation assessment (using secondary data) on the 50 services provided by three ecosystems (hill forest, wetland and mangrove). It was concluded that the contribution of these ecosystems to the GDP is equivalent to 9.2% to 33.3%, underscoring the importance of these ecosystems to human wellbeing. Furthermore, by 2021, Bangladesh expects to have accomplished an assessment of the valuation of goods and services of all its major ecosystems and incorporated these values into the national accounting system (this undertaking is also proposed in the 7th Five Year Plan). The NBSAP ensures the participation of women in implementation activities and that the benefits derived from biodiversity are shared equitably with them. This follows up on the National Women Development Policy (2014) which, in Section 36.3, stipulates that women should be provided with equal opportunity in agriculture, fishery, animal husbandry and afforestation. Bangladesh prepared its first NBSAP in 2004. Over the last decades, the establishment of community-based management systems for forests and wetlands resources has resulted in successful conservation outcomes while also having a direct positive contribution to poverty alleviation. The private sector is encouraged to contribute to biodiversity conservation by investing in biodiversity-related opportunities (e.g. cleaner production practices, implementation of environmental management systems), and to take up project activities or programmes on biodiversity conservation as part of their Corporate Social Responsibility. While addressing EIA requirements, the National Industrial Policy (2015) does not directly mention elements related to the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services (a recommendation has been put forward to incorporate these provisions in this policy).
Tajikistan A summary will be provided here upon receipt of the English version.
TO TOP ^ Solomon Islands
The revised and updated NBSAP (2016-2020) of the Solomon Islands was developed with the provisions of decision X/2 taken into account. This document constitutes the national policy instrument on biodiversity as well as a continuation of the initial NBSAP endorsed in 2009. It is also one of the few national policies that has adopted the principles enshrined in the Constitution (1978), among which include the principle to recognize customary rules and norms as an integral part of the modern law system. As such, the authority of customary leaders is implicit and the legitimacy of community decisions taken on natural resource management ensured. Moreover, the Constitution provides the guiding principles for interpreting all other Acts, including the Environment Act (1998). The NBSAP is complementary to other policies, particularly the National Development Strategy (2011-2020), and can be viewed as the sum of all strategies developed by environment-related organizations. The National Development Strategy will serve as the resource mobilization plan for the NBSAP, and as an instrument for mainstreaming issues on gender and poverty eradication and addressing challenges associated with environmental development. Fourteen priority areas are identified in the current NBSAP (each of which supported by a policy statement): i) environmental education and public awareness; ii) governance, compliances and enforcements; iii) sustainable finance; iv) research, traditional knowledge, science, information system and technology; v) marine and coastal biodiversity; vi) agro-biodiversity; vii) forest, mountain and plant genetic biodiversity; viii) waste, pollution and biodiversity; ix) invasive alien species; x) climate change, disaster risk management and natural infrastructure; xi) protected area systems; xii) endemic, threatened and migratory species; xiii) inland water biodiversity; and xiv) ABS. Unlike the initial NBSAP (2009), the current NBSAP sets national biodiversity targets for the next five years. Under four strategic management goals, 15 targets are distributed (and linked to achieving relevant Aichi Biodiversity Targets), accompanied by actions, milestones, performance indicators and impact indicators. The Ministry of Environment, Climate Change and Disaster Management will be responsible for coordinating NBSAP implementation, including its integration in relevant projects, sectorial plans, ministerial cooperate plans, annual work plans, activities of NGOs and CBOs, and private-sector strategies and plans. The national report on CBD implementation will evaluate NBSAP implementation. Legislation adopted by Solomon Islands in the recent past includes the Fisheries Management Act in 2015 and the Biosecurity Act in 2013.
The Master Plan for Integrated Biodiversity Management (2015-2021), including the Action Plan on Biodiversity Management (2015-2016) and national biodiversity targets, was adopted by Cabinet on 10 March 2015. It is aligned with the current global biodiversity agenda and represents Thailand’s fourth NBSAP document. Its objectives are to: address the underlying causes of biodiversity loss by mainstreaming biodiversity across public and civil society sectors; reduce direct pressures on biodiversity and promote the sustainable use of biodiversity; improve the status of biodiversity by safeguarding ecosystems, species and genetic diversity; enable management to enhance the benefits from biodiversity and ecosystem services; and enhance management and implementation of biodiversity-related obligations through participatory planning, knowledge management and capacity-building. This Master Plan was developed by the Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning, in close collaboration with the Office of the National Economic and Social Development Board and the Biodiversity-Based Economy Development Office (a public organization). Four strategies and eleven measures have been formulated on the basis of four principles: ecosystem approach management and ecosystem services; sustainable development on the basis of the green economy; conservation and the sustainable use of biodiversity, and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of genetic resources; and good governance. Forty national biodiversity targets have been set to support and mobilize implementation of the strategies and measures and are divided into 3 groups (i.e. targets to be met by 2016, 2020 or 2021), which aims to ensure that progress made towards these targets can be measured against the 12th National Economic and Social Development Plan (2017-2021) and the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity (2011-2020) and its Aichi Targets. Examples of planned activities include: awareness-raising of the importance of the role of women in the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity; developing financial mechanisms and resource mobilization strategies for supporting implementation of international biodiversity-related obligations; developing mechanisms for coordinating implementation of biodiversity-related conventions and international agreements; promoting and developing the capacity of urban and local communities in formulating community biodiversity plans; promoting the integrated management of ecosystems in the wider landscape and seascape; and establishing a biodiversity research and development institute as a regional ASEAN centre. The Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning is the principal agency for mobilizing implementation of the Master Plan’s strategies, facilitated by mechanisms that exist at national, provincial and local levels. Such mechanisms are sanctioned by the National Committee on Conservation and Utilization (NCB), responsible for mobilizing implementation at the national level, providing policy advice, formulating guidelines and indicators for monitoring implementation progress and assisting decentralized processes, agencies and sectors in implementing the strategies.
Developed in 2009/2010, prior to COP10, Nauru’s first NBSAP has received Government endorsement however is yet to be formally implemented, while also requiring revision and updating to align with the current Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and its Aichi Targets. The document promotes the achievement of sustainable development through actions carried out to rehabilitate the island at three levels (physical, biological and cultural), while taking into account customary (eigadey
) principles, ancestral beliefs (eibut eibum
), including those related to traditional biodiversity conservation methods and practices, and the concept of angam
which refers to the strong emotional tie Nauruans have with their island environment. For the past century, Nauru has been heavily mined for phosphate which has led to a serious breakdown of its physical environment and a reduction in the socioeconomic wellbeing of the people. Nauru’s NBSAP is an integral component of the National Environment and Development Management Strategies and complements the Nauru Rehabilitation Programme. The document provides a strategic framework for biodiversity management focused on eight thematic goals: mainstreaming biodiversity; ecosystem management; species management; community; access to and the equitable sharing of benefits from the use of genetic resources; biosecurity; agrobiodiversity; and financial resources and mechanisms. Each theme is associated to a strategy goal, objective, monitoring goal, actions and the identification of key players that will contribute to their implementation. The NBSAP is also cross-cut by nine goals focused on: policies and legislation; community involvement; cooperation and coordination; public awareness; capacity-building; protection of genetic resources; prevention, control and eradication of harmful native and alien species; socioeconomic development; and education. A prescribed monitoring system to track and evaluate progress for biodiversity action has also been defined in the NBSAP.
Sri Lanka’s National Biodiversity Strategic Action Plan (2016-2022) was adopted in 2016. The document’s five strategic objectives aim to: ensure the long-term conservation of biodiversity; promote the sustainable use of biological resources; conserve agrobiodiversity; promote the equitable sharing of benefits from biodiversity; and improve human well-being through an Ecosystem Approach. Twelve national targets have been set, and actions established for each. Each action is linked to the achievement of relevant Aichi Biodiversity Targets, Sustainable Development Goals and national targets of the updated National Action Plan for the Haritha Lanka Programme, and also consistent with various other national and sub-national policy frameworks. Moreover, indicators, primary and secondary implementing bodies, and implementation timeframes are provided for each action. The new NBSAP is intended to serve as a guiding policy framework for provincial authorities, civil society groups and the private sector (all of whom were consulted in the course of NBSAP preparation). An Implementation Plan is being worked out which will ultimately comprise a capacity building plan (which will address the specific capacity needs of different stakeholder groups) and a strategy for communication and outreach (it should be noted in this context that the development of the national CHM website is in its final stage). The Implementation Plan will also feature a Resource Mobilization Plan being developed under UNDP’s BIOFIN initiative. Implementation of the NBSAP will be coordinated at the national level by the Biodiversity Secretariat of the Ministry of Mahaweli Development and Environment. The National Biodiversity Experts Committee will serve in a supervisory and advisory capacity and meet every three months to review progress and offer guidance. In addition, it is proposed that a steering committee be set up comprised of identified line agencies, as well as representatives from the Ministry of Finance. It is also proposed that a monitoring and evaluation sub-committee be established within the Biodiversity Secretariat which should comprise representatives from government ministries, NGOs, academic and research institutions and experts, as identified by the Biodiversity Secretariat. The monitoring and evaluation sub-committee will be tasked with the development of a robust monitoring and evaluation system by 2017. The first NBSAP known as the “Biodiversity Conservation in Sri Lanka - Framework for Action” (BCAP) was endorsed in 1998 and an Addendum to it issued in 2007.
TO TOP ^ Somalia
The objective of Somalia’s first NBSAP is to provide a strategic action framework to systematically rehabilitate and conserve the country’s biodiversity, enhance the sustainable use of its services and products, and ensure that related benefits and obligations are equitably distributed among various segments of society. The NBSAP contains a 2050 Vision highlighting the potential contribution of the above desired outcomes to the country’s socioeconomic development; and an overarching goal to restore the country’s ecosystems and biodiversity by 2020. The Strategy is underpinned by eight principles, among which include the requirement that the people of Somalia are to be entrusted with the rights and responsibilities regarding the country's ecosystems, their associated products and services, the Polluter Pays Principle, consideration of inter-generational equity, consideration of indigenous knowledge in biodiversity management, and NBSAP mainstreaming in adequate policy, legislation and inclusive planning. Five priority areas are aligned with the five strategic goals of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity, under which twenty strategic targets have been developed with the Aichi Biodiversity Targets taken into account, supported by 71 sub-targets for which 233 SMART indicators are available. Fourteen strategic approaches have also been developed to guide implementation. In view the specific geopolitical context of Somalia, a two-phased implementation timeframe has been adopted, with Phase I ending by 2020 and Phase II by 2030. A first step will be to undertake systematic capacity and human resource assessment, including a technology needs assessment. Outlines have been prepared for the development of a Communication and Outreach Strategy, Resource Mobilization Strategy, Monitoring and Evaluation Plan and the national CHM. The National NBSAP Coordination Committee is situated under the High-level Coordination Committee for Sustainable Development, headed by the Prime Minister and coordinated by the State Minister of Environment. The latter committee will supervise and coordinate implementation of the three Rio Conventions. The terms of the National NBSAP Steering Committee are to serve as the project’s oversight and decision-making body, provide high-level guidance for NBSAP development to ensure that it is in harmony with other government plans and programs and increase the likelihood of it becoming a formal government policy document. The development of two Local Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plans (LBSAPs) for Puntland and Somaliland provided important input to the process of formulating the NBSAP. It is anticipated that LBSAP Coordination Committees will be established for all zones/interim administrations.
New Zealand's Biodiversity Strategy 2020 was received on 24 September 2020 and provides strategic direction for biodiversity up to 2050. An adaptive approach to implementation is being promoted, with work to develop associated implementation plans to begin early in the decade. New Zealand will also take steps to align implementation plans with the post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework expected to be adopted by COP-15. The new Strategy is available below in English and Māori.
New Zealand’s updated Biodiversity Action Plan (2016-2020) represents the national contribution to achieving the five strategic goals and targets under the current global Strategic Plan for Biodiversity. The updated document comprises 18 national targets (mapped to relevant Aichi Biodiversity Targets) and associated key actions. The importance of continued collaboration with central and local governments, Māori, resource managers, private landowners and businesses, for achieving successful implementation outcomes, is particularly highlighted. Collaborative efforts are currently contributing to a number of nationwide initiatives, including the recently-announced “Predator Free 2050” programme (the world’s most ambitious predator management programme), the “War on Weeds” initiative and the “Battle for our Birds” operation. The Treaty of Waitangi settlements are an important driver in furthering the role of Māori in biodiversity protection and are delivering innovative co-management and co-governance arrangements. The original NBSAP was published in 2000. In recent decades, the country has made significant progress in understanding, managing and reducing the threats to, and loss of, its biodiversity. Notably, a quarter of the country is under native forest cover; 8.6 million hectares is public conservation land; and advances in knowledge of ecosystems and improved pest control methods have resulted in biodiversity gains and contributions to the ongoing recovery of ecosystems across many ecosystem types and spatial scales. CEPA actions are being implemented by local school children through the “Kids Greening Taupō” conservation education programme, supported by local iwi (Māori tribes) who instruct the children in traditional ways of planting and harvesting. This programme is aligned with the work of “Greening Taupō”, a community organization that aims to increase the town’s native flora and fauna for the benefit of its people, businesses and natural environment. New Zealand adopted the Environmental Reporting Act in 2015 which calls for regular, fair and accurate reporting on the state of the environment, explanations for this state, and how this affects the country’s economy and society. This reporting focuses on five environmental areas or ‘domains’, three of which feature biodiversity (freshwater, land and marine). The first synthesis report, Environment Aotearoa
, was produced in 2015. New Zealand is also working towards creating one of the largest notake ocean sanctuaries in the world, encompassing 620,000 km2 around the Kermadec Islands (the sanctuary will be twice the size of New Zealand’s landmass and 35 times larger than the combined area of the country’s existing 44 marine reserves). Through implementation of a new Kiwi Recovery Plan, New Zealand anticipates that, by 2030, it has recovered numbers of this native and iconic bird to 100,000.
Grenada Further to having received Grenada's revised NBSAP (2016-2020) on 23 September 2016, the CBD Secretariat was advised on 27 December 2017 that, in accordance with Aichi Biodiversity Target 17 and following a robust domestic process, the revised NBSAP had also been adopted as a policy instrument.
Grenada’s revised NBSAP (2016-2020) was prepared against the backdrop of the current Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and its Aichi Targets and in parallel with the fifth national report completed in 2014. The revised NBSAP also builds upon the first NBSAP adopted in 2000. An assessment of the latter prepared for the 2000-2005 period revealed that, while certain project-related activities had been realized (e.g. assessment of key ecosystems, promotion of the sustainable use of biodiversity which led to the elaboration of poverty reduction policies, and the enactment of new legislation), the overall rate of implementation was just below the satisfactory level. The revised Strategy emanates from the status of biodiversity reflected in the fifth national report, and contains a mission to 2020 underpinned by two major factors: the need for restoration of key natural ecosystems to efficiently functioning units for the provision of ecosystem goods and services in the wake of the devastation caused by extreme weather events; and the need for biodiversity conservation to be an integral part of the solution to macroeconomic stability and the socioeconomic transformation of the Grenadian economy under the Home Grown Economic Programme. National priority targets have been set and mapped to achieving relevant Aichi Biodiversity Targets, focusing on five themes: i) CEPA, valuation, infusion of biodiversity in national programming and decision-making; ii) integration and mainstreaming across all decision-making levels; iii) sharing and applying biodiversity knowledge, science and technology and building national capacity; iv) making adequate resources available and fully implementing the NBSAP; and v) restoring and sustainably managing key national terrestrial and marine ecosystems (priority ecosystems are forest, agriculture, freshwater and coastal and marine). The Action Plan comprises two Strategic Priorities aimed at enhancing national capacity and restoring and sustainably managing key national ecosystems, under which priority actions are defined, with lead and supporting implementing agencies identified against each action. The Ministry of Agriculture will take the lead on implementation, while the Environment Unit, situated within the ministry, will take the lead on coordinating, monitoring and evaluating and reporting on implementation. Grenada recognizes the imperative to strengthen these institutions, as well as enhance inter- and intra-ministry coordination. Furthermore, the current NBSAP will review and update policy, legislative, institutional and governance frameworks for biodiversity management, climate change, sustainable land management and disaster risk reduction. Other imperatives are the development of a communications policy and a Resource Mobilization Strategy. A midterm review of implementation will be conducted at the end of 2017. A suite of indicators, including those provided in the initial NBSAP, all of which remain relevant, is available for monitoring and evaluating implementation. Knowledge gaps and capacity needs will be reviewed and analyzed over the implementation period and appropriately addressed.
The updated NBSAP covers the 2011-2020 period and contains a long-term vision to ensure the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity for the people of Comoros by 2030. This vision is underpinned by a set of principles calling for: broad engagement of stakeholders, including local communities, the private sector, civil society, women, youth, media, schools, scientific institutions, and nature conservation associations; the application of the Ecosystem Approach, taking into account traditional property rights and socioeconomic factors; integrated multisectoral mainstreaming of biodiversity; the identification of synergies and complementarity with other MEAs; the fulfillment of ethical and legal responsibilities; and the equitable sharing of benefits derived from biodiversity. Implementation will be coordinated and monitored by the islands’ respective administrative structures and supervised, monitored and evaluated by the National Commission for Sustainable Development. Of particular note is the Government’s intention to gradually transfer conservation actions to the communities (this plan is also supported by the Law on Decentralization). Twenty national targets have been set in alignment with the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. A total of 72 actions are prioritized for implementation over the short, medium or long terms. For each target, entities responsible for implementation (and partners), potential financing sources (e.g. international, national, cooperation, project, NGO), indicators and the scope of national territory to be covered are identified. Proposals have been prepared for elaborating a strategy which notably aims to build the capacity of all stakeholders, as well as for a communication and awareness-raising plan to motivate stakeholder groups, such as decision-makers, the private sector, technical and financial partners, into action for implementation. A plan for mobilizing resources is also proposed. In addition, the country plans to strengthen institutional structures (and coordination among them), as well as the national CHM and set of indicators. Methods of surveillance will be based on the degree of stakeholder mobilization, the effects of actions on the evolution of biodiversity components, and the socioeconomic impacts of sectoral policy integration. Comoros’ current policy framework consists of the National Environmental Policy, the Itsandra Manifesto on the Green Economy, the Strategy for Accelerated Growth and Sustainable Development, the Programme for the Millennium Development Goals, an agricultural strategy, a policy, strategy and action plan on climate change, among other strategic plans. In 2012, agriculture, fisheries and livestock comprised 41% of the GDP and nearly 90% of export earnings. The primary sector provides between 40-50% of the country’s food needs, almost 40% of its animal protein needs and 70% of its employment needs. The annual tourist value of Comoros’ coral reefs is estimated at USD 8 million. Many terrestrial and marine species could have economic importance in the field of biotechnology. Implementation of the first NBSAP adopted in 2000 registered progress in various areas (e.g. restoration of 60% of the coral in the marine park zone; a substantial increase in the growth rate of the sea turtle population; elaboration of 196 sustainable development plans of which 163 relate to agriculture and 33 to terrestrial and marine areas).
TO TOP ^ Czech Republic
The Czech Republic’s new Biodiversity Strategy is a concept document defining biodiversity priorities for the 2016-2025 period. Developed with consideration given to an evaluation of the previous Biodiversity Strategy (2005-2015), the Strategy is also linked to the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020, the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity (2011-2020), the State Environmental Policy, the Strategic Framework for Sustainable Development in the Czech Republic to 2030, as well as other concept documents spanning all sectors. Four Priority Areas focus on: 1) societal recognition of the values of natural resources, with a particular focus on biodiversity integration in the public and private sectors, the importance of biodiversity within the global context, biodiversity conservation for tourism, and the provision of adequate economic instruments and financial support; 2) long-term biodiversity health and the protection of natural processes in open landscapes and settlements; 3) environmentally-friendly use of natural resources, with a particular focus on improving practices in the area of economic management and use of biodiversity components and natural resources in selected ecosystems; and 4) up-to-date and relevant information regarding biodiversity knowledge, monitoring and research, the establishment of procedures for the national assessment of ecosystem services, and the definition of priorities within the context of international biodiversity conservation. These Priority Areas encompass twenty objectives (and respective “component objectives” associated to measures, indicators, deadlines, verification sources and responsible authority). The implementation of measures under Priority Areas 2 and 3 will be supplemented by the State Nature Conservation and Landscape Protection Programme which is expected to be updated by the end of 2017. The monitoring of the overall state of biodiversity in the Czech Republic will be addressed through Component Objective 4.1.1 which aims to create, by 2018, a comprehensive set of indicators for assessing biodiversity status, changes and trends. A mid-term review of the implementation of the component objectives of the Strategy will be carried out at the end of 2020, and an overall evaluation of the Strategy in 2025. One of the main priorities for the upcoming period will be the preservation of funding for the conservation of biodiversity, nature and landscapes after 2020, at which time the EU operational programmes that currently represent the main economic instruments for implementing related policies will end.
NOTE: The first version of Brazil's NBSAP (2016-2020) was submitted to the Secretariat on 31 August 2016 and focused on actions and commitments to be implemented by the Secretariat of Biodiversity located within the Ministry of Environment. Further efforts were initiated immediately afterwards aimed at engaging other governmental agencies, other sectors and civil society in implementation. In this context, a new version of the NBSAP, replacing the first version received on 31 August 2016, was submitted on 5 February 2018, containing new actions that are multi-sectoral in scope.
The NBSAP is grounded on the same principles and directives established for the implementation of the National Biodiversity Policy, adopted by decree in August 2002, which consider the Brazilian commitments under the CBD in addition to the rulings of the Brazilian Constitution and other regulations currently in force related to biodiversity. The formulation of Brazil’s 2020 biodiversity goals was enabled by a broad discussion and consultation process, initiated in 2011, known as the “Dialogues on Biodiversity”, supported by subsidies for the development of the National Biodiversity Action Plan. This process led to the creation of the Brazilian Panel on Biodiversity (PainelBio) whose mission it is to promote synergy between institutions, disseminate knowledge, conduct training and support decision-making for the achievement of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. Twenty national biodiversity targets for 2020 have been set, each linked to actions, goals, entity(ies) in charge, possible partners, deadlines, involved sectors, and other national targets and relevant Aichi Biodiversity Targets with which it interfaces. A Resource Mobilization Plan is being prepared (while cost estimates have already been formulated for several actions). Between 2014 and 2015, a preliminary set of indicators for monitoring the achievement of national targets was established through a broad participatory process, in partnership with the PainelBio working groups. Furthermore, in 2016, the Secretariat of Biodiversity received contributions from institutions recommending complementary indicators for monitoring purposes. The NBSAP also promotes strengthening coordination with all parts of the federation and alignment with subnational and local targets. Examples of the importance of this coordination are the processes to expand and create protected areas at the state and municipal levels, and the identification of partnership opportunities between the Ministry of Environment and the states. As a signatory to the Nagoya Protocol on ABS, the country is currently carrying out efforts to ratify the Protocol. Notably, in May 2016, a decree was sanctioned by the Brazilian President regulating Law No. 13, 123, adopted in 2015, on a legal framework for access and benefit-sharing. The regulatory process for this law involved indigenous peoples, traditional communities and traditional farmers. Brazil has also adopted a legal framework highlighting the importance of the gender approach in biodiversity conservation; the National Policy Plan for Women (PNPM) addresses the gender perspective and biodiversity in three of its chapters. The National Program of Biological Diversity (Pronabio) was established in 1994, and the National Biodiversity Policy, along with the National Biodiversity Action Plan, formalized in 2002 (the Brazilian Biodiversity Strategy was however represented by a set of programs and projects conducted by environmental agencies, in addition to various legal instruments). The National Commission for Biodiversity (CONABIO) was created in 2003. Some of Brazil’s most important efforts to conserve biodiversity and ensure the promotion of ecosystem services in various biomes relate to the creation and consolidation of protected areas, monitoring of habitats and species, and combating deforestation. Brazil’s National Target 11 states, “By 2020, at least 30% of the Amazon, 17% of each of the other terrestrial biomes, and 10% of the marine and coastal areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, are conserved through protected areas foreseen under the National System of Protected Areas (SNUC) Law and other categories of officially protected areas such as Permanent Protection Areas, legal reserves, and indigenous lands with native vegetation, ensuring and respecting the demarcation, regularization, and effective and equitable management, so as to ensure ecological interconnection, integration and representation in broader landscapes and seascapes”.
The country’s updated NBSAP 2015-2020 complies with decision X/2 and also incorporates the provisions of the National Environmental Sector Plan and Strategy for the Development of Samoa, as well as the Gangwon Declaration on Biodiversity for Sustainable Development adopted by Ministers and other heads of delegation at COP12 in 2014. Also considered is the Outcome Statement of the 2014 Conference of the SIDS Accelerated Modalities of Action (S.A.M.O.A.) Pathway, which emphasizes the importance of partnerships for effective NBSAP implementation and its links to sustainable tourism and climate change resilience building. Samoa has adopted all 20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets (with minor modifications) as national targets, each consisting of actions, indicators, implementing and executing agencies, timelines, priorities and costs. Proposed actions emphasize the expansion of the protected areas network (from the current total coverage of 8% to 17%), IAS, species conservation, CEPA, reducing overexploitation and promoting sustainable use. Actions contained in the first NBSAP (2001) related to ABS, traditional knowledge, biosecurity and sustainable financing achieved a low level of implementation and as such are addressed in the updated document. Implementation will be spearheaded and led by the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, with funding for strengthening the capacities of the local communities to be keenly sought. Access to environmental resources is intricately linked to the traditional land tenure system which controls over 80% of Samoa’s land resources. The present NBSAP encourages the exploration of payment of ecosystem services, including those on land under customary control, as incentives to reinforce community participation and commitment to conservation objectives, and to demonstrate the links between conservation, sustainable use and the livelihoods of local resource owners. Until the early 1980s, agriculture was the country’s dominant sector accounting for nearly 90% of exports and around 60% of the country’s total employment. However, over the last 30 years, the contribution of agriculture to the national economy has declined both in terms of GDP contribution and local employment (the most visible cause of this decline relates to the decimation of the taro export industry in 1993 by the Taro Leaf Blight; however, efforts to re-introduce new taro leaf blight resistance varieties have resulted in a remarkable recovery in taro export since 2009). Approximately 24.8% of all households are engaged in fishing with 66% of households fishing for home consumption. An important part of Samoa’s fisheries is the tuna stocks that migrate through its exclusive economic zone (EEZ). Commercial logging and local timber milling have declined markedly since the late 1980s as merchantable forests were almost depleted. Traditional healing methods using herbal medicine are still widely used as an alternative to modern medicine. Samoa ratified the Nagoya Protocol on ABS in 2014 and is currently focused on developing and adopting supportive legislation.
Guinea’s Stratégie nationale sur la diversité biologique pour la mise en oeuvre en Guinée du Plan Stratégique 2011-2020 et des Objectifs d’Aichi
currently awaits Government adoption, which has delayed implementation which began only recently in 2016 and as such has been extended to 2025. The first NBSAP was adopted in 2001. The present Strategy contains nine national priorities focused on the following broadly-described themes: stakeholder involvement and commitment; capacity-building (systemic and institutional); inventorying and valuation of traditional knowledge; reducing or halting pressures on biodiversity; protecting representative ecosystems; valuation of the benefits derived from biodiversity and ecosystem services; participatory planning for traditional knowledge management and capacity-building; coordination; and resource mobilization. Guinea has adopted 18 of the 20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets as national targets. For the first five-year period (2016-2020), activities, indicators, main implementation actors, supporting actors, follow-up actors and timeframes have been established for each national target. The total cost of implementing the Strategy is estimated at USD $ 414 819 000. The country aims to improve institutional arrangements through the creation, by Presidential decree, of a Steering Committee, under the authority of the Ministry of Environment, Water and Forests, as well as a national agency for coordinating NBSAP implementation and monitoring. This Steering Committee will be comprised of representatives from a wide range of ministries, among which include those responsible for: the economy and finance; territorial administration and decentralization; promotion of women, children and youth; tourism; mining; higher education and scientific research; energy; industry and small and medium-sized enterprises. The existing National Biodiversity Unit will serve as the advisory body to the Steering Committee. Guinea’s economy is dominated by the primary sector (primarily agriculture which represented 22% of the GDP in 2013). The country also possesses significant, however underexploited, hydropower potential. It is notably also the second largest producer of bauxite in the world, and also rich in other minerals, such as iron, gold and diamonds. Since presidential elections were held in 2010, some advancements have been achieved related to socioeconomic growth and improved governance due to successful macroeconomic stabilization, the launching of reforms in support of the production sector and improvements in the business climate. In 2014, protected areas comprised 15% of the national territory; the Guinean Government aims to increase this coverage to 25% by 2025. To strengthen the efficiency of protected areas management, a body of conservationists possessing a particular paramilitary status has been created. Guinea is also a member of the UN-REDD programme.
Cabo Verde’s current NBSAP (2014-2030) addresses seven national priorities focused on: 1) engagement of society at large in biodiversity conservation; 2) biodiversity integration in strategies, plans, policies and programs of action; 3) reduction of pressures and threats on marine and terrestrial biodiversity; 4) conservation of priority habitats and sustainable management of natural resources; 5) valorization and increased resilience of ecosystems; 6) enhancement of biodiversity knowledge, monitoring and assessment; and 7) mobilization of funds. Under these priorities, 15 national targets have been set and mapped to achieving relevant Aichi Biodiversity Targets. Each target is complemented by actions and entities responsible for implementation (including relevant ministries, the private sector, municipalities, NGOs and community associations), indicators, reference values (where available), means of verification and associated risks and assumptions. A scheme for NBSAP monitoring and follow-up has been proposed which calls for annual NBSAP implementation evaluations and suggestions for further actions by the technical coordination team. It is also proposed that NBSAP implementation be subject to evaluation every three years based on a report prepared with contributions from the different sectoral ministries and other entities involved (such evaluations should be coordinated by the Directorate General of Environment, with approval from the Interministerial Coordination Committee which is to be established by the National Environment Council). Cabo Verde’s vision for biodiversity conservation for the next 15 years has been developed around three basic principles, including the “fair and equitable sharing of benefits that will ensure the country’s development and welfare of the population”. In accordance with its National Target 11, Cabo Verde is carrying out activities aimed at ratifying the Nagoya Protocol (it is currently a signatory to the Protocol). Having completed its first NBSAP in 1999, some progress was achieved between 2000 and 2013 regarding the establishment of various legal instruments on conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, the declaration of protected areas and the implementation of conservation plans for endangered species. Implementation of the first NBSAP also resulted in the operationalization of three natural terrestrial parks (out of a network of 47 protected areas), and the creation of a corps of trained and functional rangers.
TO TOP ^ Cambodia
Adopted in 2016, Cambodia’s new NBSAP is an update of the first NBSAP (2002), developed with consideration given to the global biodiversity framework, an assessment of implementation of the earlier version, and a Biodiversity Status Report. Legislation, strategies and plans related to biodiversity and sustainable development adopted by Cambodia since 2002 were also reviewed to ensure consistency with the NBSAP and mutual supportiveness. The NBSAP contains 4 overall strategic objectives in line with the strategic goals of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and that support the development goals adopted in the Rectangular Strategy for Growth, Employment, Equity and Efficiency in Cambodia, the National Strategic Development Plan (2009-2013) and the National Green Growth Roadmap (2013-2030). Implementation of the overall strategic objectives is also expected to meet most of the environmental quality objectives proposed in the National Sustainable Development Strategy (2009). Generic actions (total 37) were identified to achieve the 4 overall strategic objectives, with respective responsible ministries and other participating ministries and agencies also indentified. In addition, key actions (total 498) have been identified to achieve 78 strategic objectives distributed under the following 24 broadly-titled themes: protected areas; threatened species; ex-situ conservation; mining; environmental security; land use; water resources; biodiversity and climate change; forestry; freshwater fisheries and aquaculture; coastal and marine resources; animal wildlife resources; agriculture and animal production; energy resources; ABS; customary sustainable use and traditional knowledge; industry, technology and services; resource mobilization; community participation; awareness, education and research and development; legislation and institutional structure; quality of life and poverty reduction; landscapes and seascapes; and CHM. Moreover, to streamline implementation of the NBSAP, the Interministerial Technical Working Group defined 20 specific and timebound national biodiversity targets, associated to relevant global targets, specific actions and indicators. The Interministerial Biodiversity Steering Committee and the National Secretariat for Biodiversity will coordinate implementation of Cambodia’s targets and the NBSAP, including monitoring, evaluation and reporting. The National Council for Sustainable Development will serve as the NBSAP steering committee and be mandated and supported by the Ministry of Environment with respect to clarifying ministerial jurisdictions and the roles and responsibilities of various institutional actors. Cambodia is intent on creating an institutional framework which maximizes synergies and partnerships through the creation of collaborative programmes and activities carried out among the different ministries and their departments, and among different actors (including local communities and indigenous ethnic minorities, the private sector, women’s groups, youth groups) within and across sectors, and among organizations at the national, regional and international levels. Provincial and Local Authorities will be encouraged and supported in the development and implementation of local BSAPs and related targets.
The country’s new National Policy on Biological Diversity (NPBD) (2016-2025) is guided by the national development agenda, including National Vision 2020 and the 11th Malaysia Plan. It also responds to Malaysia’s international commitments under the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity (2011-2020) and the Sustainable Development Goals. The Policy contains five overarching goals: stakeholder empowerment; reducing pressures on biodiversity; safeguarding ecosystems, species and genetic diversity; ensuring fair and equitable sharing of benefits from the utilization of biodiversity; and building the capacity of all stakeholders. These five goals are supported by 17 national biodiversity targets to be achieved by 2025 and which address all key facets of biodiversity conservation: awareness-raising; mainstreaming biodiversity; implementing good management practices in various economic sectors; strengthening protected areas; preventing extinction of species; addressing invasive alien species; and ensuring biosafety. Capacity-building, increasing knowledge and improving financing are also addressed by the targets. Each target is accompanied by actions (total 57) linked to measurable key indicators and lead implementation agencies and key partners. Implementation of the Policy is divided into four phases coinciding with the Malaysia (Development) Plans and their mid-term reviews. The Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (NRE) will lead the implementation process. Actions will also be delivered by State governments who have jurisdiction over the management of inter alia
land, water and forests. There will also be several opportunities for civil society, indigenous peoples and local communities, and the private sector to be active partners in implementation. In addition to the existing National Biodiversity Council, the Policy proposes the establishment of other coordinating platforms, namely, the National Steering Committee for the NPBD, the State Steering Committee for the NPBD, the Meeting of Ministers of the Environment, and the National Biodiversity Roundtable. It is anticipated that the latter will be led by civil society and the private sector and provide technical advice and support to the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment and the National Steering Committee regarding the implementation and monitoring of the Policy. The Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment will monitor progress which will be deliberated by the National Steering Committee and the National Biodiversity Council. The actions of this Policy will be reviewed by the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment at the end of each implementation phase. Malaysia’s first National Policy on Biological Diversity was formulated in 1998.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
While the revised NBSAP (2015-2020) has been adopted at state level and represents the basic document for CBD implementation in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), nature protection is regulated at entity level (Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH) and the Republika Srpska (RS)) and at district level (Brčko (BD)). Five strategic goals are drawn from the global Strategic Plan; 21 SMART targets have been set, including monitoring indicators developed with support provided by the Biodiversity Indicators Partnership. For each target, measures, implementation timelines, activity levels (e.g. state, entity, district, canton, municipality), implementation holders, other participants, and funding sources have been defined. An Implementation Plan has also been prepared comprised of four separate plans – a Communication Plan (which will support the development of a CEPA Strategy); Capacity Development Plan (the 2012 National Capacity Self-Assessment served as a basis for the formulation of this plan); Scientific Technology Development Plan; and a Resource Mobilization Plan. Significant progress has been achieved to date towards Aichi Target 1 (awareness increased), Aichi Target 2 (biodiversity values integrated) and Aichi Target 17 (NBSAPs). Areas in which progress is most weak relate to Aichi Target 3 (incentives reformed) and Aichi Target 10 (pressures on vulnerable ecosystems reduced), while modest progress has been made towards the remaining targets. Educational curricula and activities on environmental protection, including biodiversity, have been harmonized at the entity, district, cantonal and municipal levels. Established in 2013, the national CHM aims to provide comprehensive biodiversity information through effective information services directed to all stakeholders, including the general public and decision-makers, and facilitate technical and scientific cooperation. Significantly, at state level, biodiversity values were integrated in the National Environmental Action Plan of BiH (2003); more recently, the draft Development Strategy of BiH (2010) (not yet adopted) deals with the integration of biodiversity under its strategic “sustainable development” objective. At entity level, the proposed Spatial Plan of the FBiH (2008-2028) (not yet adopted) promotes spatial development with consideration given to biodiversity integration in sectoral plans, including SEA application, while the new draft Spatial Plan of the RS (not yet adopted) dedicates one sub-section to biodiversity and also promotes the integration of biodiversity values in spatial planning. In the post-war period, activities to preserve indigenous genetic resources (primarily plants) have intensified; gene banks have been established within both entities. BiH has great potential for the development of organic agriculture and organic food production (particularly regarding production of plums and blackthorn). Of the three decentralized administrative units, the RS is the only one to date to have adopted a Law on Organic Food Production. Studies indicate that around 160-170 species of medicinal plants in the country are collected and 15-20 species traded commercially. BiH’s first NBSAP (2008-2015) was adopted in mid-2011.
The country’s revised NBSAP (2016-2025) has been prepared in response to decision X/2. It builds upon the first NBSAP (2004) and is consistent with Lao PDR’s Socio-Economic Development Strategy to 2020. It is also mainstreamed with the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment’s 2030 Vision which advocates a green growth path for achieving economic development. Moreover, to ensure that the NBSAP is effectively mainstreamed into relevant sectoral and cross-sectoral strategies and plans, guidance will be drawn from the National Sustainable Development Framework. Decentralized biodiversity planning is strongly encouraged, with Provincial Biodiversity Strategies and Action plans (PBSAPs) for the provinces of Xieng Khouang, Attapeu and Luang Prabang having been prepared to date. The NBSAP contains five key strategies, including cross-cutting themes and sub-strategies, which aim to: protect the country’s diverse and economically important ecosystems, including species and genetic diversity; integrate the value of biodiversity into socioeconomic decision-making to ensure sustainable use and funding; strengthen the knowledge base for strategic decision-making; inspire and enable actions through better CEPA; and enable effective preparation and implementation of plans and programs. A total of 32 national targets are mapped to relevant global targets, baselines and outcome indicators; agencies responsible for implementing a total of 69 timebound actions have been identified. Through its five strategies, relevant targets and actions, the NBSAP also aims to address three levels of capacity development: systemic or policy; institutional or organizational; and human or individual. An indicative outline of components of an overall communication plan has been developed. Although a financing framework has also been worked out, specific actions are required to tap the resources identified. The establishment of a national coordination mechanism (including a CBD committee) has been proposed to facilitate coordinated action to achieve the objectives of the NBSAP and those of the biodiversity-related conventions. The country is participating in global dialogues to increase appreciation of the value of ecosystems and biodiversity, including the valuation of ecosystem services, such as carbon sequestration and water generation, through mechanisms like REDD+ and Payment for Environmental Services (PES). Several pilots on REDD+ and PES have been launched in the country.
TO TOP ^ Bahrain
The 2030 vision of Bahrain’s revised NBSAP (2016-2021) strives to improve the resilience of the country’s four ecosystems (marine and coastal, desert, agricultural) and sustainably manage ecosystem services to ensure the well-being of Bahraini citizens. The Ecosystem Approach has been adopted at national and regional levels. The NBSAP’s five strategic goals address: biodiversity governance in national development strategies; CEPA (Bahrain is the first country in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region to establish its CHM); bridging the gaps between scientists, citizens and decision-makers; strengthening existing ecological functioning and improving ecosystem resilience; and international and regional cooperation. Phase 2 in the NBSAP development process focused on stocktaking and assessment which notably produced seven reports, including a biodiversity baseline assessment and an assessment and mapping of the potential values of ecosystem services. Bahrain has set 12 national targets (mapped to relevant Aichi Biodiversity Targets) with consideration given to emerging national needs, priorities and the conservation status of the country’s ecosystems. Milestones to be achieved over the implementation timeframe to 2021 have also been defined. National targets are associated to a particular ecosystem and linked to priority actions, outputs, indicators, costs, leading agencies and partners, and timelines. The NBSAP also addresses the potential for mainstreaming biodiversity conservation into national policy instruments, such as the Economic Vision 2030 and the Government Action Plan 2015-2018. Established in 2011, the National Biodiversity Steering Committee is responsible for ensuring biodiversity mainstreaming in all sectors. Moreover, the mission statement of the NBSAP declares that, by 2021, biodiversity will be assessed, mapped and valued, and its conservation integrated into all national policies and accounted for in national budgeting. The NBSAP also seeks to empower women in biodiversity conservation, particularly with respect to agriculture. The Royal University for Women is included among the stakeholders involved in biodiversity planning, provision of expert advice, awareness-raising and communication (the Supreme Council for Women is also involved in CEPA matters). Bahrain has identified potential funding sources, including the private sector and High Net-Worth Individuals, to bolster the National Environmental Trust Fund. Completed in 2007, implementation of the first NBSAP was constrained by the lack of Parliamentary endorsement and non-operationalization of this Trust Fund.
Morocco’s revised and updated NBSAP (2016-2020) was developed with the global biodiversity framework taken into account, and puts forward biodiversity as a pillar for sustainable development and the well-being of Moroccan society. Over the last five years, the country has achieved significant progress in developing a constitutional, legal and institutional framework to effectively support action for sustainable development. The right of every citizen to a healthy environment and sustainable development is enshrined in the new Constitution adopted in 2011. In the same year, the Economic, Social and Environmental Council was established. Furthermore, the National Charter on Environment and Sustainable Development was adopted into law in 2014. These events are seen as a turning point in the country’s approach to integrating environmental concerns into development policies at all levels. Six strategic directions endeavour to: strengthen the conservation of species, ecosystems and the services they provide; ensure the sustainable use of biodiversity and biological resources; contribute to improving the living conditions of the Moroccan people; strengthen biodiversity governance; improve, enhance and share national biodiversity knowledge; and promote among citizens the will to change attitudes towards national biodiversity heritage. The NBSAP includes 26 national targets mapped to relevant global targets, and which touch upon the three dimensions (environmental, social and economic) of sustainable development. There are 156 actions in total addressing four key thematic areas: the forestry, agriculture and marine sectors, and climate change. Sectoral strategies currently under implementation, such as the Green Morocco Plan, the Halieutis Plan, the National Strategy for Forestry Development, the Master Plan for Reforestation, the Program of the National Agency for the Development of Aquaculture, and the National Charter for Sustainable Tourism, are integrated in the NBSAP. Programmes are currently being elaborated to develop and value the camel breeding sector which constitutes a major source of prestige and income for the people of southern Morocco; measures include the organization of farmers from a sustainable development perspective. NBSAP implementation will be overseen by the National Biodiversity Committee and supported by a substantial capacity development plan developed in tandem with the NBSAP. Gender considerations are integrated in the NBSAP. Decentralized (regional and local) biodiversity governance is promoted through new regional divisions instituted in 2015. The development of a Resource Mobilization Strategy is scheduled. In June 2015, the country adopted a law to protect its coastline, and is currently carrying out actions to develop legislation for implementing the Nagoya Protocol to which it is a signatory. Morocco adopted its first NBSAP in 2004.
Approved by a Decision of the Council of Ministers on 20 January 2016, Albania’s new NBSAP is formally known as the Document of Strategic Policies for the Protection of Biodiversity to 2020. It was formulated taking into account the Nagoya outcomes, the Document of Strategic Policies for Environmental Protection, as well as the National Strategy for Development and Integration for the period up to 2020. The Action Plan presents national objectives (and associated operational objectives, measures, monitoring indicators, responsible institutions, timeframes and costs) aimed at: transposing and implementing the EU acquis on nature protection by 2020; adopting a revised NBSAP (achieved); designating 17% terrestrial protected areas and 6% marine and coastal protected areas, sustainably managed through the adoption of an integrated approach, by 2020; establishing the national ecological network as an integral part of the Pan European Ecological Network by 2020; rehabilitating at least 15% of degraded areas through conservation and restoration activities, including through implementation of management plans for protected areas, and action plans for species, and especially for habitats; increasing activities in the areas of sustainable agriculture and forestry; implementing the Nagoya Protocol on ABS (Albania is a Party to the Protocol); and raising awareness of biodiversity. Success stories produced from the implementation of the first NBSAP (2000) are linked to the formulation and enforcement of institutional and legislative frameworks, expansion of protected areas coverage, and conservation projects carried out in cooperation with neighbouring countries, to name a few. Albania adopted the Law on Biodiversity Protection in 2006 and amended the Law on Protected Areas in 2008, as well as adopted other relevant laws in the same period. Activities are ongoing with Greece and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia regarding the implementation of the Prespa Lake Basin Integrated Management Project. In 2014, UNESCO’s International Coordinating Council of the Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme proposed that the region of Ohrid and Prespa be considered a cross-border biosphere reserve. Albania continues to participate in European and regional CBD initiatives, particularly activities related to the PAN-European Strategy on Biological Diversity and Landscape Diversity. The country has also produced a Manual for Monitoring Biodiversity which includes standard methodologies to employ when conducting monitoring activities.
The milestone targets for biodiversity and ecosystem services adopted by the Swedish Government, together with the initiatives described in the Bill on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (2014), constitute Sweden's overall strategy for biodiversity and ecosystem services for the period up to 2020. The Strategy contributes to achieving several of the Swedish environmental quality objectives and the generational goal, while also contributing to achieving the targets in the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 and the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity (2011-2020). Work is also being carried out to ensure the sustainable use of natural resources and ecosystem services, in accordance with the goals of the UN Sustainable Development Agenda (2015-2030). The Strategy highlights the essentialness of integration with other policy areas, particularly within the fields of the economy, enterprise, development and culture, as well as decentralized implementation by all levels of government. Activities should also be based on the application of the Ecosystem Approach. To date, 10 milestone targets have been adopted on the following themes: i) ecosystem services and resilience; ii) the importance of biodiversity and the value of ecosystem services; iii) threatened species and habitat types; iv) invasive alien species; v) knowledge about genetic diversity; vi) a holistic approach to land use; vii) protection of land areas, freshwater areas and marine areas; viii) environmental consideration in forestry; ix) varied forestry; and x) a dialogue process in a national forestry programme. Sweden intends to elaborate additional milestone targets at a later date. A report prepared by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency in 2012 comprises a compilation of information on important ecosystems and ecosystem services, and constitutes an important basis regarding efforts to achieve the milestone target on the importance of biodiversity and the value of ecosystem services. Initiatives for achieving this milestone target contribute towards the achievement of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets on biodiversity awareness, integration of values, transformation of incentives, safeguarding ecosystem services, enhancing the resilience of ecosystems, traditional knowledge, improved knowledge, and financial resources (Aichi Biodiversity Targets 1, 2, 3, 14, 15, 18, 19 and 20); they also contribute to achieving the common EU targets of maintaining and restoring ecosystems and their services and helping to avert the loss of global biodiversity (EU Targets 2 and 6).
TO TOP ^ Philippines
The Philippine Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (PBSAP) (2015-2028) constitutes the country’s third NBSAP. Earlier versions were published in 1997 and 2002. The second iteration identified 206 conservation priority areas and species conservation priorities, and was reinforced in 2006 by the identification of 228 Key Biodiversity Areas covering an estimated 10,560,000 hectares. In 1995, a Presidential Memo Order instructed all concerned government agencies and offices and local government units to integrate the NBSAP into their respective programme activities as a matter of national policy. This is further called for in Executive Order 578 of 2006 on "Establishing the National Policy on Biological Diversity, Prescribing its Implementation throughout the Country, Particularly in the Sulu Sulawesi Marine Ecosystems and the Verde Island Passage Marine Corridor", and to support the attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals. The latest NBSAP updating process was managed by a Project Steering Committee, chaired by the Undersecretary of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) and co-chaired by the Deputy Director General of the National Economic and Development Authority. The Steering Committee also included representatives from a wide range of thematic and sectoral departments, the UNDP and the National Commission on Indigenous People. The PBSAP is anchored in the Philippine Development Plan. Both documents aim to pursue economic growth while promoting environmental protection. The PBSAP also complements other existing national plans, such as the National Climate Change Action Plan, Environmental Natural Resource Framework, Women’s Empowerment, Development and Gender Equality Development Plan, National Action Plan to Combat Desertification, Drought and Poverty, National Ecotourism Strategy, National REDD+ Strategy, and the Master Forestry Development Plan.
Earlier NBSAPs lacked specific targets, indicators and a monitoring scheme which are featured in the current PBSAP. Twenty targets, along with indicators, have been set to address and reduce pressures to biodiversity, in accordance with the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. In addition, strategies have been established for each of the country’s 4 main ecosystems (forest, inland wetlands, caves and cave systems, coastal and marine) and an additional 5 thematic areas (agrobiodiversity, urban biodiversity, ABS, IAS, protected areas). “Direct program” and “enabling program” interventions have been established under each of these strategies; each intervention is associated to targets, indicators, implementation timeframes and responsible entities. Moreover, these targets are mapped to achieving both relevant global targets and PBSAP targets. The Philippines is currently implementing the UNDP BIOFIN project. Estimated costs for implementing interventions have been worked out, ranging from PhP 337.9 Billion to PhP 393.3 Billion. A National Committee will be created for overseeing PBSAP implementation and be supported by a Technical Working Group. It is also proposed that a National PBSAP Secretariat be based at the Biodiversity Management Bureau, whose responsibilities will include, among other matters, coordination with Regional Focal Points. A Monitoring and Evaluation Plan will serve as an adaptive management tool that provides relevant information for status assessment on performance targets on a regular basis, and evaluation of the effectiveness of strategic interventions. The Biodiversity Management Bureau intends to enhance the national CHM by developing an Information System Portal for Integrated Biodiversity Management.
The mission statement of Ethiopia’s new NBSAP (2015-2020) declares that, “By 2020, awareness of the general public and policy makers on biodiversity and ecosystems services is raised; biodiversity and ecosystem services are valued; pressures on biodiversity and ecosystems are reduced; the status of biodiversity and ecosystem services is improved; and access to genetic resources and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from their use is ensured”. The NBSAP includes 18 national targets for implementation by 2020, distributed under the five strategic goals of the global Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and mapped to relevant Aichi Targets. Indicators, actions, implementation period, implementing agencies, milestones and a technical rationale are assigned to each target. Implementation will be supported by various strategies and plans, such as the Ethiopian Climate Resilient Green Economy Strategy (2011) advocating a sectoral “green growth” path for development and sustainability (Ethiopia is also a UN-REDD partner), the Growth and Transformation Plan (2010) which is the successor plan to the Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty, and the Ethiopian Sustainable Land Management Investment Framework (2010) under which all stakeholders and actors can join forces to advance sustainable land management. An underlying principle of the NBSAP asserts that due attention be paid to gender equity in biodiversity activities. Furthermore, Ethiopia’s Target 12 aims to improve women’s access to and control over biodiversity resources and ecosystem services by 2020. As a Party to the Nagoya Protocol on ABS, Ethiopia has to date formulated a Code of Conduct to access genetic resources and community knowledge and benefit-sharing; these developments also support implementation of the Proclamation on Access to Genetic Resources and Community Knowledge, and Community Rights (2006) and Regulation (2009). The Ethiopian Biodiversity Institute (EBI) is the Focal Institute to the CBD and has overall responsibility for coordinating NBSAP implementation, and will also facilitate the establishment of the National Biodiversity Technical Committee and National Biodiversity Council. Regional Biodiversity Units and Biodiversity Centres already exist to ensure effective implementation at the grass roots level. Responsibility for developing formats for conducting NBSAP monitoring and evaluation activities lies with the EBI. A key lesson learned from implementing the first NBSAP (2005) was the need to have a mechanism or system in place to realize the timely mobilization of expected resources from both internal and external sources; these matters will be taken into account by the EBI also responsible for developing an NBSAP funding strategy to 2020.
Aligned with the global biodiversity agenda, a key objective of Lebanon’s revised NBSAP (2016-2030) is to mainstream biodiversity into sectoral and cross-sectoral strategies, plans and programmes. Its formal adoption by the National Council for the Environment (headed by the Ministry of Environment) is anticipated to mainstream biodiversity into the respective work programmes of the Council’s member institutions, as well as enhance coordination among them. The NBSAP identifies 13 priority areas: threatened species; genetic diversity; protected areas; sustainable management and use of natural ecosystems and resources; ecosystem restoration; ABS; IAS; CEPA; biodiversity mainstreaming in national and sub-national policies and plans; climate change; research and knowledge transfer; the institutional and legal framework; and resource mobilization (the overall cost of implementation is estimated at USD 40 million). Eighteen national targets and 91 national actions (including responsible entities/partners and timelines) are distributed among the priority areas. Furthermore, as part of the monitoring and evaluation process, available impact indicators are presented (and those requiring establishment noted), along with details on monitoring frequency and data sources. Lebanon intends to review its 2030 targets to ensure alignment with the global post-2020 biodiversity targets which are expected to be closely aligned with the Sustainable Development Goals. A draft Framework Law on Protected Areas and a draft National Law on ABS both await formal adoption. A decree on biosafety was approved by the Council of Ministers in 2014; in the same year, a decree related to hunting insurance, to cover damages that may occur to a third party from hunting practices, based on the proposals of both the Ministers of Environment and Economy and Trade, was also approved. Seven key capacity-building areas have been identified: human resources; coordination between ministries; ecosystems and biodiversity valuation; awareness, education and public relations; legislation and enforcement; ABS; and ecosystem assessment and management. A holistic approach to capacity-building efforts, targeting systemic, institutional and individual levels, is advocated. Under Target 18, actions will be carried out to introduce biodiversity valuation in SEAs and EIAs, develop a national framework to enable the proper evaluation of the economics of ecosystems and biodiversity, introduce the concept of biodiversity valuation and its importance to decision-makers and concerned stakeholders (public sector, private sector, research), among others. An assessment of the first NBSAP (1998) revealed that positive progress had been achieved regarding in situ conservation, research, training, awareness and education, environmental legislation, international cooperation, and mainstreaming biodiversity in SEA and EIA.
Canada's revised NBSAP is constituted by its 2020 Biodiversity Goals and Targets
and the 2006 Biodiversity Outcomes Framework (English
TO TOP ^ Guinea-Bissau
The country’s new Strategy and National Action Plan for Biodiversity (2015-2020) is based on the principles of the Basic Law on the Environment (2011) which aim to achieve sustainable socioeconomic development through proper management of the environment and its components. Its 20 national goals are closely aligned with the global targets, and associated to actions, indicators, lead implementation agencies/partners, timeframes and costs. Among the principles that will guide implementation is respect and reinforcement for the principles of democracy, inclusion and participation; particular reference is made to the involvement of representatives of traditional power, youth, women, decision-makers, the private sector in training, decision-making and policy implementation processes. As a Party to the Nagoya Protocol on ABS, activities have been carried out to raise awareness of the Protocol’s objectives, including its importance to traditional healers (traditional pharmacopoeia is a deeply-rooted practice in rural communities). Furthermore, a draft decree on biodiversity valuation, including matters related to ABS, has been validated. In the last ten years, the Institute for Biodiversity and Protected Areas (IBAP), the Environmental Impacts Evaluation Cell (CAIA) and the first State Secretariat for Environment and Sustainable Development have been established. As a REDD partner country, Guinea-Bissau is also in the process of a preparing a project which seeks access to the international carbon credit market. All protected areas with management plans are currently co-managed with the local community. Local communities are moreover represented in the management council for the community marine protected areas programme (UROK) created by the Government in 2005. The creation of the BioGuiné Foundation in 2011 has also enabled implementation of activities related to sustainable protected areas management and the development of sustainable financing mechanisms for protected areas. The potential of ecotourism development is under consideration, including the important role it can play in determining the values of ecosystem services and goods in protected areas, while ensuring biodiversity conservation and the provision of economic benefits for local communities as well as for the economy in general. At present, cashew production occupies a decisive role in the country’s economy; since 2000, monoculture production of the cashew nut has represented 88% to 98% of the country’s total export revenue. A Working Group on Petroleum and other Extractive (e.g. phosphate, bauxite) Industries has been established, coordinated by the Director of IBAP and integrating various state institutions, and national and international NGOs. A recommendation from the first national conference held in 2010 on the extractive industries was to carry out SEA at all levels of development of mining and oil projects.
The country’s new NBSAP (2015-2035) was developed in compliance with decision X/2. The first NBSAP was approved in 2003 for the 2003-2010 period. The current Action Plan focuses on 4 strategic objectives: to reduce the direct and indirect causes of biodiversity degradation and loss; to improve the state of biodiversity and preserve the diversity of ecosystems, species habitats and genes; to enhance the sharing of benefits from biodiversity and ecosystem services for all sectors of government and society; and to improve implementation through participatory planning, knowledge management and training. Other components of the Plan include: 21 national targets; priority actions; time horizons; performance indicators; budget (tentative); and responsible institutions. Synergies with the National Strategy for Adaptation and Mitigation of Climate Change and the Strategy and Action Plan to Combat Against Drought and Desertification, among other instruments, have been identified. Implementation will be coordinated by the Ministry of Land, Environment and Rural Development (MITADER) and assisted by the National Biodiversity Unit established in 2000. Rapid economic development in the country over the last five years has dictated a strong pressure on biodiversity. In fact, the investment in the infrastructure sectors, mining (coal and minerals), oil and gas, agriculture (mainly commercial large-scale), forests (forest plantations of exotic species and selective logging of native species) and fisheries has resulted in considerable changes in natural ecosystems and biodiversity, which are still little known and reported. While a new Mining Law was adopted in 2014, it falls short of adequately addressing issues on environmental protection and those explicitly related to biodiversity. At present, 26% of the country is covered by Conservation Areas (CAs), comprised of 13 inland CAs and 2 marine CAs, managed by the National Administration of Conservation Areas created in 2011, and supported by the Conservation Areas Law adopted in 2014. The REDD+ Technical Unit has recently been reactivated to promote and coordinate activities related to the REDD+ mechanism in Mozambique. Furthermore, Mozambique has recently adopted a Green Economy Action Plan and a Strategic Plan for the Tourism Sector, among other relevant policies and strategies. The present NBSAP will also address needs related to biodiversity, differentiated by gender, and enhance gender units at the local level, among other actions. A plan for NBSAP implementation, monitoring and evaluation has been outlined which proposes the use of various mechanisms and tools, including the establishment of a capacity building program and a strategy for resource mobilization for biodiversity.
The development of the second edition of Chad’s NBSAP (2014-2020) was based on the terms of the current global biodiversity agenda. The country’s new Strategy focuses on 24 priority themes: energy resources; in situ and ex situ biodiversity conservation; faunal resources; forestry; fisheries; apiculture; agriculture; livestock breeding; modern and traditional industries; land management; biotechnology and biosafety; water resources; environmental emergencies; participation of the population, civil society and the private sector; environmental assessments; awareness-raising, information and education; training and research; institutional and legal aspects; traditional knowledge and spiritual values; invasive alien species; technology transfer; tourism; commerce; and fiscal and credit policies. A total of 125 actions have been defined to address these themes. All actions are costed, assigned lead implementation entities and partners, and distributed among the three specific objectives of the Action Plan aimed at: 1) strengthening the conservation of ecosystems, endangered species and/or species marked with importance; 2) promoting the sustainable use of biological resources of known or potential value; and 3) ensuring the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of biological resources (primarily genetic). Chad achieved the 2010 protected areas target with 11% of its territory protected at that time, and has since increased its protected areas coverage to 12%. As a partner in the REDD+ programme, the country is currently in the process of developing REDD+ national and environmental standards and a REDD+ benefit-sharing mechanism. Oil production provides the bulk of the country’s export revenue today, followed by livestock, cotton and gum arabic production (Chad is responsible for 6.7% of global gum production which represents 7% of its GDP). Prepared in 1999, the country’s first NBSAP was implemented to 2014 and was very instrumental in mobilizing efforts to protect and determine the values of biodiversity.
Egypt’s revised NBSAP (2015-2030) is an update to the first NBSAP (1998-2017) and contains 6 strategic goals aimed at: conserving and managing terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity to ensure sustainable use and equitable benefits for the Egyptian people; the sustainable use of natural resources; access to genetic resources and benefit-sharing (Cartagena and Nagoya Protocols); combating the impacts of climate change and desertification; improving the understanding of biological diversity and ecosystem functioning; and building partnerships and integrating biodiversity into all national development frameworks. Each strategic goal addresses specific themes that are accompanied by baselines and identified challenges. For each theme, Egypt has set a national target (there are 20 in total which have been mapped to relevant Aichi Targets), including priority actions, indicators, responsible institutions and implementation deadlines. The proposed overall budget for NBSAP implementation is USD 273 million and Egypt intends to have developed a resource mobilization strategy and mechanisms for this purpose by 2020. The socioeconomic significance of biodiversity for the country is especially noteworthy. For example, total agricultural production accounted for 13.2% of the GDP and employed 32% of the total work force in 2012. Aquaculture and mariculture production is on the rise (the aquaculture sector produced 986,820 tons equivalent to 81.5% of the total fish production in 2011). Tourism is another main source of national income however is predicted to be affected in the future by climate change (the annual number of tourists visiting Egypt’s coasts is expected to decline because of the potential impact of climate change on coral reefs). Special attention is being given to protect and document local communities’ traditional knowledge and associated uses. It is hoped that Parliament will soon approve the draft law on the regulation of access to genetic resources, related traditional knowledge and the equitable sharing of benefits derived from their use. Examples of the achievements of the first NBSAP include protected areas establishment (by 2013, 14.9% of the country’s total terrestrial area was under protection) and management, and the development of capacity for the Nature Conservation Sector/Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (NCS/EEAA). Its shortcomings are linked to low awareness of the values and importance of biodiversity and limited integration of biodiversity issues in sectoral policies and regulations. These issues are addressed in the updated NBSAP whose activities will be coordinated by the EEAA, with full participation and guidance from the cross-sectoral NBSAP 2030 Steering Committee.
TO TOP ^ Qatar
Most of the elements of Qatar’s original NBSAP (2004) have been retained in the updated NBSAP (2015-2025). The main purpose of Qatar’s new NBSAP is to revisit the eleven strategic goals contained in the original NBSAP, while setting out a more focused path for implementation through the establishment of strategic goals, national targets, priority actions and outcomes that are more specific, realistic and time-bound. The update contains seven strategic goals to be achieved by 2025 focused on: increasing knowledge; increasing awareness and participation; protecting marine and coastal biodiversity; protecting key terrestrial biodiversity through effective management of protected areas; sustainable development through incorporation of biodiversity conservation in national planning; enhancing local capacity; and identifying the main biosafety issues and ensuring equitable access to genetic resources. Qatar’s revised national targets have been aligned with the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity (2011-2020) and its Aichi Targets, and harmonized with recently developed national strategies, including the Qatar National Vision 2030 and the Qatar National Development Strategy (2011-2016). Qatar’s National Vision 2030 (2008) rests on four key pillars: human development, social development, economic development and environmental development. The fact that biodiversity conservation relates to all four key pillars underscores the need for cross-sectoral mainstreaming of biodiversity, including the establishment of cross-sectoral partnerships. The NBSAP was revised with this in mind. Moreover, Qatar intends to have established a cross-sectoral committee on biodiversity by 2016, and have integrated biodiversity considerations in all relevant government sectors and national plans by 2025. Since 2005, Qatar has increased its protected area coverage from 11% to 29%. Considering the country’s total surface area, this percentage represents one of the highest in the world. However, none of the terrestrial or marine protected areas in Qatar have management plans at the moment. In response, by 2025, the country intends to have developed management plans and monitoring programmes for all protected areas, with the participation of local communities, relevant stakeholders and local and international expertise.
The general objective of Nicaragua’s new NBSAP (2015-2020) is to contribute to biodiversity knowledge, conservation and sustainable use, based on a participatory and inclusive approach, and strategic planning established under the National Plan for Human Development, the National Strategy on Environment and Climate Change, and in accordance with the objectives of sustainable development and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. Its specific objectives are: to promote biodiversity conservation in all areas of Nicaraguan society, at both national and local levels, focusing on participation and inclusion; to establish the necessary mechanisms for the sustainable use of biodiversity, integrating measures for mitigating and adapting to climate change and also guaranteeing food security and sovereignty for communities and Indigenous Peoples; to ensure the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of genetic resources, establishing standards and procedures for appropriate access to these resources; implementing policies, strategies and action plans, with prominent civil society participation, allowing for growth in caring for and conserving natural resources and increased prosperity for families; to implement plans for environmental restoration in degraded areas, fragmented forests, wetland systems, nature reserves, biosphere reserves and recover areas of biological interconnectivity for natural resources; to promote activities in the study and scientific research on changes in natural environmental cycles and associated natural resources in the light of climate change and climate variability; and to promote actions for the environmental restoration of agricultural biodiversity of major export crops, such as coffee, peanuts and sugarcane. Nicaragua’s Law on the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity (2012) is based on 12 principles, which also govern the NBSAP, among which include the Principle of Gender Equality, Principle of Social Justice and the Principle of Internalized Environmental Costs. The NBSAP also defines 8 strategic directions, under which 15 strategic targets and associated actions, indicators, actors, and estimated costs totaling USD $16,960,000, are distributed. Also, as mandated in the Law on the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity, the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (MARENA) shall establish a monitoring and tracking system to systematize actions taken by different local actors towards biodiversity conservation. The National System of Protected Areas (SINAP) consists of 74 protected areas (66 terrestrial and 8 coastal marine) and 62 wildlife private reserves which, in total, cover 18% of the national territory.
South Africa’s second NBSAP (2015-2025) is aligned with the priorities and targets in the global agenda, as well as national development imperatives. Six strategic objectives, associated to outcomes and activities, aim to: 1) enhance the management of biodiversity assets and their contribution to the economy, rural development, job creation and social well-being; 2) enhance resilience and ensure benefits to society through investments in ecological infrastructure; 3) mainstream biodiversity considerations into policies, strategies and practices of a range of sectors; 4) mobilize people to adopt practices that sustain the long-term benefits of biodiversity; 5) improve the conservation and management of biodiversity through the development of an equitable and suitably skilled workforce; and 6) support the management, conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity through effective knowledge foundations, including indigenous knowledge and citizen science. Indicators and targets are identified at the outcome level and, as far as possible, have been drawn from existing national or organizational strategic plans. NBSAP preparation, coordination and monitoring is led by the Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) and supported by the South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) in the areas of research, monitoring, knowledge and information, planning and policy advice, among others. NBSAP costing and the development of a resource mobilization plan will be pursued through BIOFIN. The new NBSAP was built on the outcomes of the first NBSAP (2005) and informed by SANBI’s second National Biodiversity Assessment (NBA) (2011) on the state of biodiversity across terrestrial, freshwater, estuarine and marine environments, with emphasis on spatial (mapped) information for ecosystems and species. Unlike the first assessment prepared in 2004, NBA (2011) includes non-spatial thematic elements, such as the state of species of special concern and invasive alien species, among other new work on geographic areas that contribute to climate change resilience. The latter assessment also provides a summary of spatial biodiversity priority areas that have been identified through systematic biodiversity plans at national, provincial and local scales. Furthermore, in accordance with the terms of the Biodiversity Act (2004), the National Biodiversity Framework (NBF) was published in 2009 which aims to coordinate and align the efforts of many organizations and individuals involved in biodiversity management and conservation. South Africa has adopted a landscape approach for managing biodiversity and achieved significant gains through biodiversity mainstreaming initiatives, including the integration of biodiversity into the national development agenda, including the National Development Plan. Activities prioritized for the current NBSAP include, among others, relevant amendments, revisions and updates to the biodiversity sector’s own legislation, including the revision of the Biodiversity Act, and updating the country's legislation on access and benefit sharing.
The “Nature Conservation Action Programme 2020” has been prepared to enhance the ongoing implementation of the National Strategy on Biological Diversity adopted in 2007, and to address a current negative trend in biodiversity due to the failure to implement key policy changes. It is anticipated that implementation of this ambitious Programme will finally reverse this trend. The process for its development included prioritizing targets contained in the Strategy (with consideration also given to implementing the global and EU biodiversity targets), from which the following 10 priority action areas were established and 40 urgent measures to 2020 set: 1) Fields and Meadows - Cultivated Landscapes for Man and Nature 2) Coasts and Marine Waters - More than an Economic Zone 3) Floodplains - More Space to Support Life between Water and Land 4) Forests - Woodland Management in Harmony with Nature 5) Wilderness - Freedom for Natural Adventures 6) Protected Areas, Natura 2000 and Interlinked Biotopes - Habitats and Lifelines for Fauna and Flora 7) Greening our Cities - Engaging with Nature at Home 8) International Responsibility - Nature knows no Borders 9) Knowledge and Understanding - Preserving and Sharing our Knowledge of Nature, and 10) Financing - Nature is a Profitable Investment. Particular attention is devoted to addressing species diversity and landscape quality, areas where the gap between the current status and target value is constantly widening. The Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) will implement the necessary steps for the Programme’s implementation without delay. Where other departments within the German Government are responsible, the BMUB will present specific proposed measures to those departments, and call for corresponding decisions. Where other levels of government, such as Länder and municipalities, are responsible, the BMUB will present new initiatives to bodies such as the Conference of Environmental Ministers and the Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs, or use its own programmes to support model projects so as to drive the implementation of measures forward and achieve progress by 2020. Above and beyond this, the BMUB will take every opportunity to persuade decision-makers in other affected policy-making areas to make long-overdue changes to their policies and encourage them to give higher priority to the effects on biological diversity.
TO TOP ^ Botswana
The country’s NBSAP (2016) is an update of the earlier version (2007) and was prepared to align the document with the global Strategic Plan and its Aichi Targets. Botswana prepared its first NBSAP in 2004. The vision of the present NBSAP states that, by 2025, ecosystem, species and genetic diversity is valued, protected, and used sustainably and equitably, through the involvement of all sectors of society and the provision of sufficient resources for its sound management. Under its five goals, which follow those of the global Plan, 20 national targets have been set and mapped to relevant global targets. Strategies for implementation of each target are put forward as a set of strategic actions tied to lead institutions, implementing partners, non-government participants, estimated costs, indicators and implementation timeframes. A Capacity Building Plan is also presented, along with detailed capacity-building actions for implementing each target. Furthermore, a Communication Plan has been developed aimed at ensuring effective communication, dialogue and information exchange between stakeholders across different levels of NBSAP implementation. The total cost of implementing NBSAP activities is estimated at BWP 316.6 million (in 2014 Pula values) for the 2014-2025 period. Due to current government funding constraints and to the fact that as an upper middle income country Botswana has become less eligible for ODA, the country’s Resource Mobilization Plan highlights the importance of tapping into opportunities for increased funding from the private sector and communities (e.g. through partnerships and private sector investments), and strengthening the relationship with development partners. A Monitoring and Evaluation Plan will track the Resource Mobilization Plan as well as the indicators relating to the implementation of each of the strategic actions. Monitoring will be done by the lead departments at the strategic action level. Institutional coordination will be through the Ministry of Environment, Wildlife and Tourism (MEWT), National Biological Diversity Authority (NBDA) and the MEA Coordinating Committee. Opportunities for synergies with other MEAs have been addressed, with relevant strategic actions linked to each MEA. Successes of the NBSAP (2007) relate primarily to coping with environmental change and biodiversity threats (Strategic Objective 5), and to safe industrial and technological development based on national biodiversity resources for future prosperity (Strategic Objective 8). Botswana encompasses seven of the global ecoregions; all, with the exception of the Southern African bushveld, are reasonably well protected.
Benin’s new Stratégie et Plan d’Action pour la Biodiversité 2011-2020
was formulated with consideration given to the Strategic Plan and its Aichi Targets. It also builds on the accomplishments of the first NBSAP (2002), such as the publication of the Atlas on West African Biodiversity (2010), covering Benin, Côte d’Ivoire and Burkina Faso, the National Red List of Threatened Species (2011) and the National Forest Inventory (2007), while addressing its shortcomings. Seven principles have been adopted to guide implementation that call for: membership of all stakeholders in support of a common vision of biodiversity; a real commitment and involvement of all stakeholders (public institutions, decentralized local communities, private entities, civil society, NGOs, among others) in a dynamic and synergistic planning process; systematic consideration of the NBSAP as a tool for mainstreaming biodiversity in national and local development programs; consistency between the NBSAP and national and sectoral strategies; identification of national and regional synergies among the CBD, biodiversity-related conventions and other MEAs; promotion of public-private partnerships; and the consideration of the Ecosystem Approach in implementation. The Strategy focuses on five key areas: information, education, communication and awareness-raising of all stakeholders to build a commitment to action; conservation of ecosystem resources and the strengthening of biodiversity potential; biodiversity planning, monitoring and evaluation, knowledge management and capacity-building; strengthening the contribution that biodiversity can make to the well-being of the population and to generating revenue; and strengthening the policy, institutional, legislative, regulatory and financial frameworks. Under these five key areas, eight strategic goals and twenty strategic targets have been formulated, the latter of which are respectively linked to expected outcomes, actions, principal indicators, implementation period, responsible actors, partners and estimated costs. The cost of implementing the NBSAP over the 2014-2020 period is estimated at 35,892 billion FCFA. As a Party to the Nagoya Protocol on ABS, Benin is currently carrying out activities to fulfill its obligations under the Protocol, including raising awareness of the Protocol and developing domestic legislation for its implementation.
Madagascar’s revised Stratégie et plans d’actions nationaux pour la biodiversite (2015-2025)
was adopted by the Government Council on 23 February 2016. The country’s first NBSAP was adopted in 2002 and implemented between 2002 and 2012. The development of the revised NBSAP was guided by the current global Strategic Plan for Biodiversity, with consideration also given to the National Environment Management Plan, National Development Plan, and the National Environment Programme for Sustainable Development, among other strategic planning documents. Under five strategic goals, matching those of the global plan, twenty strategic national targets have been set, supplemented by strategic directions, actions, justifications, indicators, timeframes, responsible bodies, and partners which include local communities, NGOs, the private sector and civil society, among others. The country intends to develop an NBSAP implementation mechanism focused in four broad areas: institutional arrangements; financing; information management and communication; and monitoring and evaluation. In this light, examples of respective planned activities include: the creation of a National Biodiversity Committee and Regional Units; the development of a Resource Mobilization Strategy; the strengthening of the national CHM network; and annual systematized monitoring and evaluation of implementation through established indicators, benchmarks and verification sources to refocus and prioritize interventions. The cost of NBSAP implementation to 2025 is currently estimated at USD 203 million, with almost 50% of this total required for the creation and maintenance of terrestrial and marine and coastal protected areas. The results of the project on the global partnership on wealth accounting and valuation of ecosystem services (“WAVES”), which Madagascar has completed, are assisting in integrating the values of biodiversity and ecosystem services in national accounts. There are positive trends regarding implementation of programmes on conservation and valuation of biodiversity and forest ecosystems (in relation to climate change, carbon sequestration and REDD+). Also, as a Party to the Nagoya Protocol on ABS, Madagascar expects to have developed a national implementation strategy for ABS by 2017. The Gender Approach has been adopted as a core element to consider in NBSAP implementation.
The country’s revised NBSAP (2014) has a vision to achieve a country “with resilient ecosystems and biodiversity values for social, political and economic development” through the utilization of traditional knowledge, research, technology, innovations and best practices. In this light, the NBSAP will provide an important contribution to achieving the national development targets contained in Zimbabwe’s current Agenda for Sustainable Socio-Economic Transformation. The NBSAP development process was guided by the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity, the Constitution of Zimbabwe, the National Environmental Policy (2009) and three national studies. The thematic issues addressed by the latter included ecosystem valuation, sectoral mainstreaming of biodiversity, and ecosystem-based adaptation to climate change through the development of a robust PoWPA action plan and sustainable land use plan. The Ecosystems Approach also guided the development of the Strategy. Focused on ten high-priority biodiversity issues, the NBSAP comprises five strategic objectives (which match the five strategic goals of the global Plan), eighteen national targets and associated strategies, indicators, responsible bodies, timeframes and costs. Implementation will be coordinated by the Biodiversity Office in the Ministry of Environment, Water and Climate (MEWC) and guided by the National Biodiversity Forum. Strategic input and guidance from key ministries will be obtained through an inter-ministerial committee. Establishment of biodiversity review platforms at provincial, district and ward levels will ensure consistent participation and information-sharing from the national to community levels. Monitoring, evaluation and reporting progress will be coordinated by the MEWC, with input from the thematic working groups under the National Biodiversity Forum. Baselines will be established and reviewed in the first year of implementation. Implementation will also be supported by overarching strategies on biodiversity mainstreaming, CEPA, capacity-building, research and development, and technology transfer. While current financing opportunities have been identified, it is anticipated that, by 2020, mechanisms for resource mobilization and accounting are established and financial resources from national budgets and other sources for NBSAP implementation increased from current levels. The Ministry of Women's Affairs, Gender and Community Development participated in NBSAP development, as stipulated in the National Gender Policy (2013-2017), and will also be responsible for implementing actions under various 2020 national targets. An independent mid-term review in 2017 and final evaluation will be conducted to measure progress and contribution towards the global targets. By 2020, Zimbabwe expects to have mainstreamed biodiversity into all seven sectors (mining, agriculture, health, manufacturing, transport, energy and tourism) and incorporated biodiversity into national accounting and reporting systems. Zimbabwe developed its first NBSAP in 1998 which covered the 2000-2010 period; challenges to its implementation are taken up in the revised NBSAP.
TO TOP ^ Côte d'Ivoire
The revised NBSAP (2016-2020) focuses on six strategic directions: protection of natural environments and their functions and services; preservation of species diversity and genetic diversity; strengthening of conservation infrastructure; valuation and sustainable use of biodiversity; mobilization of civil society and diffusion of knowledge on living organisms; and strengthening national coordination and international cooperation. Côte d’Ivoire has set 21 general national targets mapped to relevant Aichi Biodiversity Targets. Under each national target, specific targets have also been set which contain priority actions each linked to performance indicators, entities responsible for monitoring indicators, implementation timeframes and contributing entities. Côte d’Ivoire has adopted five essential principles (Precaution, Prevention, Polluter Pays, Subsidiarity, Compensation), along with approaches and concepts that require, for example, adapting biodiversity conservation to the effects of climate change, using the Ecosystem Approach and ensuring sectoral and inter-sectoral mainstreaming. Outlines of strategies for financial resource mobilization and communication have been prepared. Activities will be undertaken to assure the promotion of biodiversity among key targets groups, including decision-makers. The National Council on Nature Protection provides support to the National Agency for Sustainable Development, as well as provides a platform for coordination and consultation with various actors, CBD National Focal Points, and for identifying synergies among the related conventions and multilateral agreements. As a Party to the Nagoya Protocol on ABS, the country intends to have mechanisms in place by 2020 for regulating access to genetic resources, knowledge and practices relevant to biodiversity and for ensuring the sharing of benefits derived from their use. Also, by 2020, Côte d’Ivoire intends to have 100% of protected areas under effective management, as well as 100% of ecosystems and habitats represented within the protected areas network. Côte d’Ivoire’s first NBSAP was implemented between 2004 and 2014.
In December 2015, Armenia adopted a revised National Strategy and Action Plan on the Conservation, Protection, Reproduction and Use of Biological Diversity, and associated Action Plan for 2016-2020, in accordance with Aichi Biodiversity Target 17. The document focuses on 5 strategic directions: improving legislative and institutional frameworks; enhancing biodiversity, ecosystem conservation and restoration of degraded habitats; reducing direct pressures on biodiversity and promoting sustainable use; eliminating the main causes of biodiversity loss through regulation of intersectoral relations and public awareness-raising; and enhancing related scientific research, knowledge management and capacity-building. Distributed among the strategic directions are national targets and associated activities, aims, implementers, timeframes, funding sources and expected outcomes. Two entities, namely, the Division on Biodiversity Policy and the Bioresources Management Agency, under the Ministry of Nature Protection, are responsible for biodiversity management. The Interministerial Coordination Council is tasked with monitoring and assessing implementation. Achievements of the first NBSAP (1999) included: improving legislative and governance frameworks; creating new Specially Protected Nature Areas (SPNAs); establishing preconditions for biodiversity inventorying and monitoring; promoting scientific research; and implementing activities on public awareness-raising and ecological education. Obstacles to implementation related to the underestimation of the importance of biodiversity and ecosystem services (their values and benefits have yet to be assessed and considered in economic development programs); insufficient stock-taking and monitoring of biodiversity components; insufficient cooperation between various state structures and local self-governing bodies; insufficient development of intersectoral relations and weak integration of biodiversity issues in respective sectoral policies; and insufficient mechanisms for enforcing environmental legislation. As a result of an increase in the level of international cooperation, a number of projects were implemented between 1995 and 2014 mainly aimed at: the sustainable management of forest ecosystems, forest rehabilitation, involving local communities; the establishment of new SPNAs, including transboundary SPNAs, and ecological corridors; the protection and sustainable use of freshwater ecosystems; and the conservation of key flora and fauna species and their habitats. In 2013, the Khosrov Forest State Reserve was awarded with the European Diploma on Protected Areas by the European Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, representing the first such case in the region.
The preparation of Iraq’s first NBSAP (2015-2020) responds to the obligations of Parties under decision X/2 to implement the global Strategic Plan for Biodiversity. It also complies with Article 33 of Iraq’s Constitution (2005) which requires the State to protect and preserve the country’s environment and biodiversity. The NBSAP highlights five focal areas covering themes addressed by nine Aichi Biodiversity Targets: awareness; habitat loss; pollution; invasive and alien species; protected areas; species extinction; ecosystem services; traditional knowledge; and financial resources. Under these five focal areas, 23 strategic targets have been set and mapped to achieving relevant global targets, supported by 35 actions with specific implementation timeframes and bodies responsible for each action. A number of stakeholders, including, among others, the State Ministry for Women’s Affairs, Ministry of Oil, Ministry of Planning, Provincial Councils, media and communications agencies, private sector, celebrities, indigenous and local communities, and religious leaders, were selected to participate in the NBSAP consultation process in a particular capacity. A Stakeholder Matrix was also developed summarizing the stake level (high, medium, low) of these stakeholders and the potential impacts or benefits they can generate with respect to biodiversity. The country has also taken efforts to mainstream the NBSAP with existing national strategies, policies and plans in order to avoid duplication of effort and resources and, where possible, harmonize implementation. This relates in particular to the National Development Plan (2013-2017), National Environmental Strategy and Action Plan, Poverty Eradication Strategy, Higher Education Strategy (2011-2020) and the National Energy Strategy. Notably, in compliance with its Target 12, the Law on the Protected Areas System entered into force in 2014. By 2016, Iraq intends to have established and implemented a Resource Mobilization Plan for implementation. In addition, the country intends to have established, by the end of 2018, a national strategy/subnational strategies for the sustainable management of ecosystems to supply important ecosystem services for rural and urban people. Iraq recognizes the need to further develop sound indicators to support the establishment of a mechanism for monitoring and evaluating implementation.
Saint Kitts and Nevis
The revised NBSAP (2014-2020) was prepared in recognition of the fact that the targets, principles and priorities of the first NBSAP adopted in 2004 would have changed given the closure of the sugar industry in 2005 and the transformation of the country’s physical and economic landscapes. The new NBSAP also provides an opportunity for SKN to mainstream biodiversity in the overall development process by setting new targets, principles and priorities which are in line with the global framework. The document will focus on stronger institutional integration and identifies and examines how various provisions of key legislative, regulatory and policy instruments can better influence biodiversity management. It will also focus on broad sectoral participation (including public-private partnerships); strengthening the overall Implementation Plan; providing an enabling/facilitative environment on matters related to conservation, sustainable use, resource access and benefit-sharing; combining species management principles related to both invasive and alien species; raising awareness of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge and related access and benefit-sharing issues. Guidelines on mainstreaming biodiversity conservation into national development were developed as part of the 2014-2020 preparatory process for the following themes/sectors: poverty reduction, agriculture and rural development, environmental protection, land degradation, water resource management, marine resources management, land use planning and infrastructure, gender, health, and climate change adaptation. Twelve national targets have been set and are mapped to relevant Aichi Biodiversity Targets with indicators developed for each. Notably, during the 2013 National Consultation on the Economy, under the theme “The Green Economy as a viable pathway towards a sustainable future”, the Government of SKN indicated that it was determined to make the country the World’s First Sustainable Island State and, to this end, called for the 2013 Rio +20 Conference to focus on the Green Economy. The country is also in the final stages of a process for declaring Sandy Point Reef its first Marine Protected Area, in close consultation with the local community and various user groups. SKN enacted its Biosafety Act in 2012.
TO TOP ^ Malawi
NBSAP II (2015-2025) has been prepared in response to Malawi’s Growth and Development Strategy II (2011-2016) which prioritizes biodiversity management programs, among other socio-economic and environmental issues. It is envisaged that NBSAP II will provide an avenue for implementing decision X/2 and achieving long-term goals on biodiversity conservation and sustainable use, as prescribed in the Constitution of Malawi, among other national and sectoral policies, strategies and plans. NBSAP II contains five strategic goals which aim to: a) improve capacity and knowledge on biodiversity issues; b) increase mainstreaming of biodiversity management into sectoral and local development planning; c) reduce direct pressures on biodiversity; d) improve the status of biodiversity by safeguarding ecosystems, species and genetic diversity; and e) enhance access and benefit sharing from biodiversity and ecosystem services. To attain these strategic objectives, 16 targets have been set and mapped to relevant global targets, to which actions, timeframes and responsible institutions are assigned. It is estimated that USD 117,000,000 are required to successfully implement NBSAP II. A resource mobilization plan has been developed highlighting possible sources of funding, which include the Government of Malawi, local and international donors and the private sector. Monitoring and evaluation plans have also been developed, as have capacity-building and public awareness plans. Malawi’s institutional arrangement is aimed at creating an enabling environment for implementing the Convention and biodiversity-related conventions, including central and local government levels, through which relevant statutory corporation and NGOs participate. Through its Target 14, Malawi intends to, by 2025, strengthen the level of protection on the safe handling, transfer and use of LMOs resulting from modern biotechnology that may have adverse impacts on biodiversity, taking into account risks to human health. In this regard, Malawi will undertake actions to revise the Biosafety Act (2002) and Biosafety (GMOs) Regulations (2008). Adopted in 2006, NBSAP I was successful in implementing a number of conservation programmes and projects for specific biodiversity components and advancing public-private partnerships in national parks, which has led to the quick reintroduction and restocking of important animal species. For example, the concession of the Majete Game Reserve to African Peace Parks has led to the introduction of nearly extinct species, such as the rhino. Most of the targets contained in NBSAP I that were not met (for example, the Red Data list was not updated as planned) have been revised and incorporated into NBSAP II. In 2010, the forestry, fisheries and wildlife sectors contributed 12.8% to the GDP.
The NBSAP (2015-2020) is a revision and update of the NBSAP (1999). Twenty national biodiversity targets are outlined under the 5 strategic goals of the global plan, along with respective indicators, prioritized actions and timeframes, lead agencies and collaborators and budgetary allocations. A Biodiversity Inter-ministerial Steering Committee has been established and will be instrumental in encouraging linkages between sectoral programmes that impact on biodiversity. The new NBSAP has a strong focus on mainstreaming and integration, institutional effectiveness, cooperative governance and partnerships. It has also been designed to be in synergy with relevant national plans, laws and programmes, as well as take into consideration the MEAs and other international agreements. In the quest for sustainable financing for protected areas, The Gambia has successfully developed guidelines for private-sector involvement which paved the way for the establishment of the Abuko Nature Reserve, a private game reserve whose management is led by the Gambian Government, with the full involvement of the Eagle Heights Conservation Centre (a UK charity organization). Moreover, a National Biodiversity Trust Fund has been established into which 50% of all revenues generated from biodiversity conservation is deposited and subsequently used for conservation activities. Development of local capacity is supported by the Decentralization Act adopted in 2002. Protected areas conservation includes providing alternative livelihood for communities, including village banking for women, currently benefitting more than 800 women. Gender and Biodiversity has been identified as one of four cross-cutting issues in implementation, along with Education, Health and Biodiversity and Information, Education and Communication. To date, inadequate ability to use cost-benefit analysis to make a case for biodiversity has often led to low national budgetary allocation and its relegation to a lesser important department compared to agriculture, education or health. The Gambia intends to complete and publish valuation studies on biodiversity and ecosystem services by 2017 to give greater visibility to issues. A monitoring and evaluation plan is also integrated in the document to assist in determining the extent of progress in NBSAP implementation. The Biodiversity/Wildlife Act (2003) is currently under review. By 2016, The Gambia intends to have mainstreamed ABS issues in this existing (revised) legislation. The present NBSAP also provides an orientation for the subsequent development of a Capacity Development Plan, a CEPA Plan and a Resource Mobilization Plan.
On 18 December 2015, the Norwegian State Council approved the new National Biodiversity Action Plan, presented in a report to the Storting (white paper). The first such plan (white paper) was published in 2001. Today, Norway is actively promoting a transition to a greener national economy and the long-term maintenance of ecosystem goods and services for the benefit of current and future generations. Twenty-six environmental targets have been adopted covering 6 priority areas: biodiversity, climate change, pollution, outdoor recreation, cultural heritage, and polar regions. Included among them are 3 national biodiversity targets that are aligned with Norwegian policy for biodiversity management. This policy is designed to contribute to achieving national and international biodiversity targets, primarily the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, and concentrates in particular on: more clearly-targeted nature management, particularly in regard to forests, wetlands, cultural landscapes, mountains, polar ecosystems and, to some extent, marine waters; climate-resilient nature management; strengthening municipal biodiversity expertise (a pilot project on municipal biodiversity sub-plans will be initiated); safeguarding threatened species and habitats, through instruments such as the Nature Diversity Act; the long-term conservation of a representative selection of Norwegian nature; knowledge-based management (the environmental monitoring system and rigorous indicators for pressures and ecosystem services will be further developed); and the adaptation of tools and instruments to the country’s different ecosystems. The national policy for biodiversity management also acknowledges Norway’s responsibility to reduce environmental pressure caused by Norwegian trade and investment activities outside of the country. Norway is also supporting implementation of the Convention’s programme of work on Article 8(j) under Section 8 of its Nature Diversity Act, which requires authorities to attach importance to any available traditional knowledge when making official decisions that will affect Norwegian nature. In addition, regulations on traditional knowledge associated with genetic material are being drawn up under the Nature Diversity Act and will implement Norway’s obligations as a Party to the Nagoya Protocol on ABS. The most important driver of biodiversity loss in the country is still land conversion and land use change. To address this situation, current land use management policy encourages, among other measures, the establishment of “green infrastructure”, promoted under Target 2 of the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020.
Uruguay’s new Estrategia Nacional de Biodiversidad
for 2016-2020 addresses the main problems and drivers associated with biodiversity loss and degradation in the country. It was developed with consideration given to the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and its Aichi Targets, and with particular attention given to the incorporation of climate change, invasive alien species, biodiversity valuation and the implementation of the Nagoya Protocol. Uruguay has developed national targets linked to relevant global targets. The Strategy identifies eight themes (comprised of two central themes on biodiversity conservation and biodiversity mainstreaming in sectors, and six themes addressing cross-cutting issues) and specific lines of action. The eight themes are: conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity; sectoral incorporation of biodiversity considerations; education, communication and dissemination of information regarding conservation; knowledge generation; information management; regulatory framework updating; strengthening of participation and access to benefits; and resource mobilization. In view of the expansion and intensification of economic and productive activities in the country in recent years, with trends indicating that activities will continue in this direction, sustainability scenarios are promoted through the integration and coordination of such activities with biodiversity conservation. Key achievements of Uruguay’s first NBSAP (1999) include, among others: the adoption of the Law on the National Protected Areas System (2000); preparation of a list of ecosystems and species prioritized for conservation; biodiversity integration in the curricula of primary, secondary and technical (professional) education; and the development of a regulatory framework for land use planning, including environmental and biodiversity variables. Uruguay has developed its national Clearing-house Mechanism to enable the effective exchange of information at the national and global levels, and among different categories of users. It will also serve as a tool for monitoring and reporting on the status of biodiversity and the progress made within the framework of this Strategy. By 2020, Uruguay intends to have 80% of its agricultural land following guidelines so as to contribute to the maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem services.
TO TOP ^ Myanmar
Myanmar’s revised NBSAP for 2015-2020 was adopted in December 2015. The most significant change in relation to the first version adopted in 2012 is the use of the 20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets to structure the analysis. The revised NBSAP provides a strategic framework to address new and emerging challenges arising from political, economic and social reform in the country, as well as takes into account new data, information and opportunities. Targets and actions are aligned with the global framework. Moreover, the targets (which include indicators) have been designed to be specific and realistic given the five-year implementation timeframe and available human resources. Key targets relate to, among other matters: i) the launching of an initiative to restore millions of hectares of forest that are commercially exhausted and subject to conversion to plantations or agriculture; ii) expanding the protected area network to cover 15% of the country's coral reefs and key gaps in the terrestrial system, including mangrove forests, through both government and community-based approaches; iii) developing an ecosystem-based fisheries management plan with the private sector and civil society participation and endorsement and developing an inter-agency system to control illegal and destructive fishing in the Myeik Archipelago; and iv) ensuring that national law recognizes customary tenure as a way to protect indigenous knowledge and genetic plant resources, and provides a practical incentive for community participation in biodiversity conservation. Myanmar has embarked on a programme of economic liberalization and re-integration with the global economy and is expected to continue to grow rapidly which will inevitably increase pressure on natural resources and biodiversity. The revised NBSAP provides a detailed framework to address these pressures and guide and direct activities. Its provisions are linked to the National Environmental Policy, Forest Policy, Myanmar Agenda 21 and the National Sustainable Development Strategy.
Approved by Government Decree, Kyrgyzstan’s biodiversity conservation priorities for 2014-2024 have been formulated with the current Strategic Plan for Biodiversity taken into account. These priorities have been translated into four strategic targets focused on: 1) integrating biodiversity conservation issues into the activities of State bodies and public organizations by 2020; 2) reducing the impact on biodiversity and promoting its sustainable use; 3) improving the protection and monitoring of ecosystems and species diversity; and 4) improving the social importance of biodiversity and ecosystem services, increasing the benefits of sustainable ecosystem services and traditional technologies. Under these strategic targets, 13 objectives are distributed, together with associated actions, implementation timeframes, parties responsible for implementation (including local self-governance authorities, local state administrations, and city administrations on agreement), costs, funding sources, implementation arrangements and expected outputs. The total cost of implementation is estimated at 1076687,8 Soms. A short-term evaluation of implementation of the Action Plan will be carried out in 2020 and 2024. A group of independent experts will be convened to determine the effectiveness of implementation. In general, biodiversity loss in the country is occurring at the ecosystem level, with most ecosystems impacted by human activity to a greater or lesser extent. There is a positive trend regarding the expansion of the network of specially protected natural areas (SPNA) which today covers 1.2 million hectares or 6% of the national territory; under Strategic Target 3, Kyrgyzstan intends to further increase coverage to 10% by 2024. However, deterioration in the conservation status of SPNAs is common due to the location of human settlements within their boundaries, the absence of a mechanism for ecotourism development, among other factors, which could soon lead to the loss of the country’s most valuable natural sites. Although completed in 1998, Kyrgyzstan’s first NBSAP was not adopted. A second NBSAP was adopted in 2002 for the 2002-2006 period whose achievements can be linked to: SPNA expansion; the annual planting of 3000 hectares of forests; the publication of the first national forest inventory for 2008-2010, including the creation of a database; the enhancement of the legal framework for biodiversity protection; and, since 2005, the integration of the principles of sustainable development in the country’s educational system.
United Republic of Tanzania
The country’s revised NBSAP (2015-2020) seeks to address national targets based on national priorities that contribute to the global targets. It also addresses emerging issues such as climate change and variability, invasive species, GMOs, biofuel development, mining, oil and gas exploration and continuous anthropogenic impacts that were insufficiently addressed in the first NBSAP (2001). Guidance for developing this document was provided by the NBSAP Forum. Although various sectoral and cross-sectoral mainstreaming activities have been carried out to date, it is recognized that more effort is required, especially given regressive trends in biodiversity occurring in the country. In the last few decades, Tanzania has lost at least one-third of its important ecosystems despite the fact that 40% of the total land area is designated as forest and wildlife protected areas and 6.5% as marine protected areas (there are plans to increase this coverage to 10% by 2020). This NBSAP contains 5 strategic goals, 20 national targets mapped to relevant global targets, priority actions, implementation timeframes, performance and verifiable indicators and allocates responsibilities for implementation to government ministries, departments and agencies, local government, private sector, research and academic institutions, NGOs and CBOs. It also fosters the development and implementation of Sub-national Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans. An Implementation Plan focuses on arrangements for implementation and proposes the establishment of an administrative mechanism to support the National Focal Point; it also focuses on capacity development, communication and outreach, resource mobilization, national CHM development and monitoring and evaluation. Tanzania also recognizes the need to formulate new policies for new and emerging policy issues, and review others, as well as the need to strengthen implementation of existing policies, plans and strategies. The goals of the NBSAP consider gender as a cross-cutting issue. Also, key areas for synergies with the biodiversity-related conventions have been identified. The national economy depends significantly on agriculture, livestock, forestry and fisheries, which in total account for approximately 65% of the GDP, 60% of the total export earnings and employ over 80% of the population. Ecotourism and sport tourism are other important sources of revenue and heavily dependent on the country’s biodiversity wealth.
The revised NBSAP (2016-2025) has been endorsed by the President of the Republic of Maldives and responds to the country’s commitment under decision X/2 to implement the global biodiversity framework. The document is also a response to Maldives new Constitution (2008) which underscores the importance of conserving and sustainably using biological resources for the benefit of present and future generations, and that protection of the environment is both a duty of the State and local councils. It addresses six broad areas for which separate strategies are presented to: strengthen governance, policies and strategies for biodiversity; enhance communication and outreach through awareness programmes and capacity-building; work together globally for biodiversity conservation; ensure the sustainable use of biological resources; address threats to biodiversity; and strengthen information management and resource mobilization. Each strategy is complemented by SMART targets and suggested actions (with each action assigned a separate indicator, baseline, lead implementation agency, stakeholders and implementation timeframe). Implementation Plans have also been formulated for the following key areas: capacity development, technology needs assessment, communication and outreach, resource mobilization (it is estimated that NBSAP implementation will cost at least MVR 342 million), and for national governance and a structure for coordinating implementation. Over the years, substantial progress has been made to mainstream biodiversity in national development planning. The new NBSAP stresses further efforts regarding sectoral mainstreaming, at all levels of government, while also taking into account synergies among the biodiversity-related conventions. Though mainstreaming biodiversity in the private sector remains a challenge, Maldives intends to address this matter through awareness-raising programmes and promoting private-sector initiatives through collaborative partnerships. According to the Valuing Biodiversity Report (2009), Maldivian biodiversity contributes 71% of employment, 89% of the GDP and 98% of exports. Among those sectors entirely dependent on biodiversity, the tourism sector contributes the largest amount towards the country's GDP, with eco-tourism being promoted nowadays as a means for the sustainable management of protected areas. Shortcomings of the first NBSAP (2002) included, among other factors, a lack of targets related to traditional knowledge on biodiversity and an adequate monitoring mechanism, both of which are covered in the revised document. A significant development with regard to biodiversity was the pledge by the President of the Maldives to make the entire country a Biosphere Reserve by 2017 (an implementation plan for this was subsequently endorsed by Cabinet in January 2013).
TO TOP ^ Poland
The Programme of Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity and Action Plan for the 2015-2020 period was adopted by a Resolution of the Council of Ministers on 6 November 2015. It is a continuation of the earlier document prepared for 2007-2013. Its development was motivated by the obligations of countries under the global Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. The Programme’s main challenge will be to contribute to achieving Target 1 of the EU Strategy on implementing the Birds and Habitats Directives. Its seven specific objectives include: improving the level of knowledge and increasing the activity of society insofar as biodiversity actions are concerned; improving the nature protection system; preserving and restoring natural habitats and the populations of endangered species; maintaining and reconstructing ecosystem functions; increasing the integration of the operations of the economic sectors in biodiversity protection targets; limiting hazards resulting from climate changes and pressures from invasive species; and increasing Poland’s participation in the international forum. For each specific objective, tasks (and their justification), leading institutions and indicators have been established. A systematic review of implementation will be conducted in 2018 and 2021, with base and target implementation levels and evaluation methods established for this purpose. The Programme has been designed with consideration given to the natural resources of the whole country, however the majority of actions will be carried out in protected areas and so-called green infrastructure, part of which are ecological corridors spatially connecting the protected areas system. A wide group of parties will be involved in implementation including, among others, central and local government units, scientific research units, business, NGOs and citizens. Legal instruments, market instruments and horizontal actions on scientific research, environmental education, information, and sectoral and spatial planning, among other actions, will be further developed as necessary. The National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management (and similar provincial funds) and the EU LIFE Fund will provide important financial contributions for implementation. Financing for biodiversity protection increased significantly during the implementation period of the earlier NBSAP (2007-2013), with roughly 1 billion Euro allocated to carry out at least 500 projects during this timeframe. In spite of this, only 16% of the tasks of the earlier NBSAP have been realized (some are being continued), due to limited financing of actions, inadequate integration of biodiversity in sectoral policies, or to the scale of scheduled activities.
Closely linked to the five goals of the global agenda, the most important element of Nigeria’s revised NBSAP (2016-2020) is to mainstream biodiversity into development planning to enhance sustainable development. The first NBSAP was launched in 2006 however not adequately implemented. Key lessons learned have been considered in the revised document which includes a plan for capacity development and technical capacity needs assessment, a communication and outreach strategy (including the development of the National CHM) and a plan for resource mobilization. Fourteen SMART targets have been established and mapped to relevant Aichi Targets, accompanied by actions, impact indicators and performance indicators. National programmes, institutions and timeframes to support implementation have been identified as has the application of actions to sub-national entities. The Biodiversity Steering Committee comprised of relevant multi-stakeholder institutions will be responsible for implementation and report to the Federal Executive Council (Council of Ministers) and the House Committee on Environment (Parliamentary Committee). The Biodiversity Steering Committee will keep implementation under review based on regular reports from the National Biodiversity Monitoring, Evaluation and Coordinating Unit. A monitoring plan has been developed which includes a matrix that is applicable to both impact indicators and performance indicators. Although crude oil accounts for about 90% of Nigeria’s exports and more than 80% of government revenue, the agricultural sector (in spite of having suffered from years of mismanagement, inconsistent and poorly conceived government policies, among other issues) still accounts for over 26.8% of the GDP and two-thirds of employment. The major focus of the country’s long-term vision for biodiversity management is the consideration of genetic materials as a strategic but fragile resource to be conserved, sustainably utilized and perhaps, more importantly, to be deployed as natural capital for Nigeria’s socio-economic development. Ethno-botanical studies have revealed the importance of hundreds of different kinds of herbs used for curing different kinds of diseases in different parts of Nigeria. Accordingly, trade in medicinal plants and animal parts has grown and now forms a major category of merchandise in village markets in rural and peri-urban settlements. Reliable data on the medicinal plant resources in Nigeria is held by the National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development. Gender considerations are addressed in the revised NBSAP, with Nigeria’s Target 14 indicating that, by 2020, the country intends to build the capacity of key actors and carry out gender mainstreaming for the achievement of its biodiversity targets.
Approved in 2012, Timor-Leste’s first NBSAP is closely linked to the National Strategic Development Plan of Timor-Leste for the next two decades and consistent with other policy frameworks, such as the National Adaptation Programme of Action on Climate Change, National Action Programme to Combat Land Degradation, Fisheries Sector Plan and the Forestry Sector Plan. It also serves as a guiding policy framework for district and sub-district authorities, civil society and the private sector. The development of the NBSAP was guided by the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. It contains 5 Priority Actions, 5 Priority Targets and 21 Strategic Actions, as well as additional detailed sub-actions for implementing the Nagoya outcomes over the decade. In 2015, Timor-Leste completed a revised edition of the NBSAP to reflect the establishment of further sub-actions distributed among the NBSAP’s 21 Strategic Actions.
The NBSAP uses the Ecosystem Approach and notably contains both a CEPA Strategy and Action Plan as well as a Partnership Strategy for addressing financing needs. A priority target of the NBSAP is to establish, by 2015, a national biodiversity monitoring and reporting system using the CHM as an operational tool. The NBSAP also outlines the strategy to ratify and implement the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-sharing.
The Russian Federation’s Strategy and Executive Plan for the Conservation of Biodiversity (2014) builds upon the earlier National Strategy for the Conservation of Biodiversity (2001) which was developed to serve as a framework for long-term biodiversity planning. The National Plan for the Conservation of Biodiversity was also developed in 2001 and identified priority areas (such as polar desert, tundra and forest-tundra ecosystems) in which to focus activities. The key distinction between the two NBSAPs is the inclusion of national targets in the current document, formulated with consideration given to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and for which indicators are available. A number of advancements relevant to biodiversity conservation and coherent with the global biodiversity framework have occurred since 2001. Examples include the establishment by decree in 2004 of a new system of federal executive bodies, and the adoption by decree in 2008 of the Concept Document for the Long-term Development of the Russian Federation to 2020 (further supported by the adoption of the Federal Law on Strategic Planning in 2014). Of particular note was the adoption, by decree in 2002 and by the President in 2012, of the country’s Ecological Doctrine, comprising the Principles of Government Policies in the Sphere of Ecological Development to 2030, premised on the concept that environmental protection and sustainable natural resource use are essential for national long-term socioeconomic development and for the well-being of future generations. Specific industries are targeted under this ecological policy. Also, under a government environmental protection program for the 2012-2020 period, a special sub-program on biodiversity conservation and restoration is being implemented, concentrating on improving the status of the protected areas network, rare and endangered plant and animal species, scientifically-sound decision-making for biodiversity conservation and bioresource use, and the fulfillment of national commitments under the CBD and other international agreements. Decentralized biodiversity management is advocated, with the country’s regions accorded a high level of independence and responsibility in this area. This approach is further supported by the Federal Law on Local Self-Governance. The first NBSAP (2001) addressed the conservation of the socio-cultural diversity of the country’s indigenous populations which comprise over fifty groups. Furthermore, a 2020 national target (mapped to achieving Aichi Biodiversity Target 18) aims to ensure, under legislation, that traditional knowledge and traditional ways of economic activity and hunting are taken into consideration in planning and implementing activities in areas of traditional occupancy, and well as the effective participation of indigenous and local communities in the resolution of related issues.
On 19 October 2016, Uganda submitted the final version of its revised NBSAP (2015-2025) (NBSAPII) whose theme is "Supporting Transition to a Middle Income Status and Delivery of Sustainable Development Goals". The final advance copy of this document, received on 22 December 2015, had been previously posted here. A key difference between these versions is the integration of gender issues in the final version, aimed at implementing core elements of the CBD Gender Plan of Action. Proposed activities include the development of gender-responsive guidelines for implementing NBSAPII and the development and implementation of a gender-responsive NBSAPII monitoring and evaluation strategy, including SMART indicators. Uganda's revised NBSAP further addresses both the decade’s Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and the Strategic Plan for the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. The new document is linked to Vision 2040, the National Development Plan and the Sustainable Development Goals. Seven strategic objectives have been defined, each tied to an Action Plan, including national targets for biodiversity and biosafety mapped to relevant Aichi Targets, with associated key outcome indicators, 2014 baselines, output indicators, lead implementation agencies referred to as “Target Champions”, partner institutions and implementation costs. Two new strategic objectives are included in NBSAPII: to harness modern biotechnology for socioeconomic development with adequate safety measures for human health and the environment (Strategic Objective 6); and promote innovative sustainable funding mechanisms (Strategic Objective 7). An annual state of biodiversity report will provide a baseline of implementation and serve as a guide for future strategic planning. Uganda is also a participant in BIOFIN. The Policy Institutional Review, the Biodiversity Expenditure Review, the Financial Needs and Gap Analysis and the Biodiversity Financial Plan are outcomes of the BIOFIN process and will support resource mobilization for implementing NBSAPII. The estimated cost of NBSAPII implementation is USD $ 105,809 million. Although not a strategic objective per se
, a separate Action Plan has been prepared for critical new and emerging issues related to oil and gas discovery and production, biofuel production and natural disasters. In accordance with the National Environment Act (1995) and the Local Governments Act (1997), environmental management, including biodiversity, is a decentralized function, with considerable capacity having been built in this regard at the district and local levels through the National Environment Management Authority (NEMA). Uganda also intends to harmonize NBSAPII implementation as far as possible with that of the two sister Rio Conventions and other relevant international agreements. A key obstacle to the implementation of NBSAPI, adopted in 2002, was identified as the lack of a Clearing House Mechanism (CHM) to facilitate information-sharing among institutions involved in biodiversity conservation. This obstacle has been overcome, with Uganda’s National CHM now operational and very active in NEMA. Despite limited data on biodiversity valuation in Uganda, past estimates put the gross economic output attributable to biological resource use in the fisheries, forestry, tourism, agriculture and energy sectors at USD $ 546.6 million a year and indirect value associated with ecosystem services and functions at over USD $ 200 million a year.
TO TOP ^ Mongolia
Adopted on 29 June 2015, the second Mongolian National Biodiversity Program (2015-2025) takes the Aichi Biodiversity Targets into consideration and is coordinated with national and sectoral environmental policies. It contains 14 goals that have been mapped to the relevant global targets, 29 objectives and 74 outputs distributed among 4 strategies focused on: 1) increasing awareness and knowledge on biodiversity conservation and sustainable use among both decision-makers and the general public; 2) developing and implementing science-based policy on conservation and sustainable use of biological resources; 3) sustainable use of biodiversity; and 4) improving policies and the legal environment for the conservation and use of biological diversity and ecological services. Each goal is supported by indicators, with an assessment of the current state and points of justification also provided. The degree of implementation of the first NBSAP adopted in 1996 is particularly noteworthy; studies estimate that 96% of the total actions were achieved. Mongolia has also achieved a steady increase in the number of protected areas over the years. As of 2014, 99 protected areas comprising 27.2 million hectares, or 17.4% of the total area, have been established. A report on implementation of the current Biodiversity Program (2015-2025) shall be submitted by the government entity responsible for environmental affairs to the Mongolian Government once every three years, and every five years to the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity.
Viet Nam’s new National Biodiversity Strategy to 2020, with a vision to 2030, is an integral part of the country’s Socio-Economic Development Strategy (2011-2020). The country intends to protect and sustainably use biodiversity resources to provide the basis for Viet Nam's sustainable development in the current context of climate change. Three specific targets are identified in this document which aim to contribute to achieving Strategic Goal B (reduce direct pressures and promote sustainable use), Strategic Goal C (improve biodiversity status by safeguarding ecosystems, species and genetic diversity) and Strategic Goal D (enhance benefits to all from biodiversity and ecosystem services) of the current global Plan. Major tasks to be undertaken towards this end are outlined, as are solutions and arrangements for implementation. Some 20 million Vietnamese people depend on fisheries for most or part of their income, while approximately 25 million people live in or near forests and derive 20-50% of their income from non-timber forest products, including hundreds of species of medicinal plants and latex plants. Eco-tourism is also becoming popular in protected areas which brings benefits to the local people providing related services. Many species of plants and animals are associated with Viet Nam’s history and culture, and considered sacred objects of worship among the Vietnamese people. In 2010, agriculture contributed to over 18% of the GDP and 28% of total exports. Viet Nam’s Biodiversity Law (2008) marked an important milestone for conservation that identified the principles and priorities of biodiversity conservation at all levels, from national and ministerial to local levels, creating the legal basis for local community involvement in the conservation of natural resources through new mechanisms of co-management and benefit-sharing.
Niue’s second NBSAP was adopted in 2015, and developed with consideration given to the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and its Aichi Targets. Its development was also guided by the information contained in the package of NBSAP Capacity Building Modules. Niue completed its first NBSAP in 2001. The new NBSAP is mainstreamed in the ‘Environment’ section of the country’s key planning document, Niue National Strategic Plan 2014-2019 (NNSP), soon to be completed, which also contains indicators to measure progress. The Government has also recently changed its departmental structure to enhance delivery of its Strategy which included the merging of the three agencies with particular involvement in biodiversity conservation (Department of Environment, Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries and Niue Meteorological Service) into a single agency (Ministry of Natural Resources). Niue’s Biodiversity Action Plan is grouped under eight themes: 1) conservation and sustainable management of terrestrial habitats 2) conservation of terrestrial species 3) conservation and sustainable management of marine ecosystems and species 4) management of invasive species 5) management of waste and pollution 6) management of water resources 7) climate change and 8) traditional knowledge and access to benefit sharing. Under each theme, objectives have been established, along with associated actions, activities, targets, means of verification and responsible entities. Four brief strategies on Mainstreaming, Communication and Outreach, Resource Mobilization and Capacity Development have also been produced to assist with implementation. Niue is primarily an agriculturally-based economy. However, there is currently an increased effort to develop a tourism industry for economic development, particularly focused on eco-tourism/adventure tourism. Visitor numbers increased between 2003 to 2013 and are projected to further increase. By December 2016, Niue intends to have developed Eco-Tourism Guidelines promoting activities that use coastal and inshore resources in a sustainable manner. Niue has also proposed that a supplement to the NBSAP be produced every two years, tied to the reporting to the COP cycle, as new information is obtained, projects proceed and new issues emerge.
Eritrea’s revised NBSAP (2014-2020) is aligned with existing national policies and legislation as well as with the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and its Aichi Targets. It presents Eritrea’s overall policy position on biodiversity, and attempts to position this policy in the context of its major development objectives for the next six years. Its mission is to reduce biodiversity loss by 2020 and stabilize the state of the natural environment by 2040. In order to accomplish this, Eritrea recognizes the critical importance of multi-sectoral involvement and the role of decentralized and international institutions in implementation. Twenty general targets and eighteen ecosystem-specific (terrestrial/ coastal, marine, islands/agricultural) targets have been developed, complemented by priority actions, timeframes, performance indicators, implementing institutions, information sources and costs (in USD). The establishment of a mechanism for monitoring and evaluation will be given priority in the early stages of NBSAP implementation. The National Union of Eritrean Women (NUEW) is a major player in mobilizing local communities, especially women, in activities that contribute to development and conservation issues (including participation in policy planning and monitoring) and promote income-generating activities. The National Union of Eritrean Youth and Students (NUEYS) is one of the largest national CBOs in the country with wide networks and rich experience in implementing projects related to the conservation and development of biodiversity resources, among other types of development projects. As a pilot country for the Global FNR_Rio Project on integrated processes and approaches to facilitate national reporting to the Rio Conventions, the Department of Environment has developed a manual on integrated reporting at a national level based on the current reporting formats of the CBD, UNCCD and UNFCCC. Eritrea is also a participant in The Great Green Wall initiative focused on combating desertification and its consequences in countries bordering the Sahara Desert (Senegal, Niger, Nigeria, Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, Chad, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Djibouti).
TO TOP ^ Zambia
Zambia’s vision for biodiversity conservation is driven by Vision 2030 which promotes economic development that takes into account social and environmental safeguards and is operationalized in the country’s five-year national development planning cycle (soon to enter its 7th phase). Considered highly relevant to Zambia’s priorities, the 5 strategic goals of the current global plan and its Aichi Targets provide the overarching framework for Zambia’s second NBSAP for 2015-2025, which includes 18 national targets, accompanied by 45 strategic interventions, key performance indicators, key activities, responsible entities, narratives and assumptions. NBSAP-2 is underpinned by 11 principles promoting sustainable use, responsibility, equity, participation, awareness-raising, co-existence, knowledge, informed decision-making, strategic partnerships, enhanced conservation and financial sustainability. The document has been developed as a transformative strategy emphasizing evidence-based interventions, fully participatory processes, the important role of protected areas, incorporation of climate change resilience principles, restoration activities, the need for diverse financing mechanisms and a supportive policy, legal and regulatory framework. In the last five years, Zambia has undertaken other important initiatives supportive of biodiversity conservation. Key among these include completion of its Strategy on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) (2015), Forestry Policy (2014), Forestry Act (2015), Water Resources Management Act (2011), and the ongoing development of a Wetlands Policy and revision of the Wildlife Policy and Act. Among its other targets, by 2020, Zambia expects to have integrated biodiversity values into its Seventh National Development Plan (SeNDP), provincial and district development plans and planning processes, as well as incorporated reporting systems in national accounting, as appropriate. NBSAP-2 will also address the establishment of a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation framework, however there will still be a need to establish baselines for the various biodiversity components where gaps have been identified in the monitoring and evaluation plan.
In November 2010, the Council of Ministers adopted the revised Belarusian Strategy and Action Plan on the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biological Diversity for 2011-2020. Two editions of this document have been developed for the respective 2011-2015 and 2016-2020 time periods. Of particular note is that the latter edition takes the global biodiversity framework into account (the previous edition did not), and contains 13 national targets mapped to the Aichi Targets, along with 70 measures, responsible organizations, implementation timeframes and anticipated results. A positive development is that the stability of forest ecosystems and preservation of associated biodiversity can be predicted following an increase in total forest area, high resistance to various factors and the adoption of ecologically-oriented measures. However, as a result of both natural processes (e.g. forest diseases, drying out) and the felling of old-aged forests, an overall decline is observed in populations of wild animal and plant species inhabiting mature broad-leaved forests. Among the species affected are birds (e.g. Stock dove Columba oenas
), mosses (e.g. Neckera pennata
) and lichens (e.g. Calicium adspersum
). In addition, the area represented by mires has shrunk significantly over the last 40 years due to drainage and other causes, which has necessitated including several associated wild animal and plants in the Red Data Book of the Republic of Belarus. Among other targets, Belarus expects to, by 2020, establish a regulatory and legal framework for organic agriculture, create mechanisms to stimulate organic production, and optimize the structure of cultivated areas (including increasing the area under perennial grasses to 1 million hectares). By 2020, Belarus also intends to develop biodiversity-friendly management plans for the basins of the Dnieper, Western Dvina, Western Bug, Neman and Pripyat rivers, decrease the inflow of biogenic contaminants to water bodies by 30%, as well as restore 15% of degraded and inefficiently used ecological systems. In 2014, the National Strategy for the Development of the Network of Specially Protected Natural Areas until 2030 was approved by resolution. Considerable success has been achieved over the last decades in regard to the conservation of the European Bison, a globally threatened species.
Senegal’s new Stratégie Nationale et Plan National d’Actions pour la Biodiversité
was formulated with the guidance in Decision IX/8 taken into account. Its vision to 2030 considers the global biodiversity agenda and the country’s new socioeconomic development plan to 2035, known as “Plan Sénégal Emergent” (PSE), among other plans. Four strategic directions aim to: improve biodiversity knowledge and strengthen institutional and technical capacity; reduce pressures and restore and conserve biodiversity; promote biodiversity accounting in socioeconomic development policies; and promote the sustainable use of biodiversity and mechanisms for accessing biological resources and equitably sharing the benefits derived from them. The current Strategy covers a five-year period (2015-2020). Ten specific objectives, 21 action areas, responsible institutions, timeframes and implementation costs are identified. The NBSAP moreover contributes to implementing the Law on the General Code of Local Government (2013) through promoting the conservation and management of natural resources by local communities, as well as joint management by local communities and Departments. Furthermore, the NBSAP proposes the establishment, by decree, of a new National Biodiversity Committee supported by a permanent secretariat, as well as the establishment of a National Biodiversity Information System and National Biodiversity Observatory. Outline strategies for developing a mechanism for monitoring and evaluation and plans for communication, capacity-building and resource mobilization have been prepared. Senegal’s first NBSAP (1998) succeeding in achieving a new generation of protected areas (marine protected areas, community nature reserves, pastoral units, community biodiversity reserves) and increasing awareness and capacity-building for protected areas in general. Senegal expects to update its draft framework law on biodiversity and protected areas by 2016. Local initiatives to expand the marine protected area network are in process, and should contribute to achieving the global target to protect 10% of national marine and coastal areas by 2020.
With consideration given to the global biodiversity framework, the Republic of Congo’s new Stratégie Nationale et Plan d’Actions sur la Diversité Biologique
(2015) has a vision to 2030 and aims to integrate the values of biodiversity conservation, the sustainable use of its components, and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of biogenetic resources, in national development plans. The NBSAP is closely aligned with the current National Poverty Reduction Strategy. Twenty national targets have been formulated, the majority of which are to be implemented by 2020 (and others beforehand). The NBSAP also identifies 92 actions, indicators and multisectoral entities to intervene in implementation. Considerable efforts have been taken by Congo to date in relation to certification schemes, forest management, protected areas (currently covering 13.2% of the national territory), sustainable resource exploitation (especially forest resources), ecosystem knowledge and the valuation of traditional knowledge. At present, Congo’s economy is essentially based on natural resources, notably oil, followed by wood products. An example of an outcome of the Law on the Forest Code, adopted in 2000, relates to 17 forest concessions that exist today, under sustainable forest management, comprising 52.34% of the surface conceded to exploitation. Congo has also begun activities aimed at exploiting the potential of its rich mineral resources, with a view towards the contribution this sector can make to socioeconomic development. The fisheries and aquaculture sector is also being considered in the latter regard, as well in regard to the role it can play in providing for the country’s nutritional and employment requirements. NBSAP implementation, monitoring and evaluation will be assured by a National Steering Committee and the creation of a biodiversity management body. Congo’s first NBSAP was adopted in 2002.
TO TOP ^ Equatorial Guinea
The development of Equatorial Guinea’s revised and updated Estrategia Nacional y Plan de Acción para la Conservación de la Diversidad Biológica
was guided by the global biodiversity agenda, COP decision IX/8, the Ecosystem Approach, among other guidance. Its Strategic Vision extends to 2050, while 17 national targets to 2020 address 15 priorities broadly described as: sectoral mainstreaming; social awareness-raising; legislation; sustainable use for poverty reduction; livelihood alternatives; protected areas; pressures on forest ecosystems; traditional knowledge; carbon accreditation; biodiversity and adaptation to climate change; bioprospecting; data collection and access; monitoring; financing; mainstreaming in education (capacity-building). The need for institutional strengthening to enable implementation success is underscored throughout the NBSAP. Furthermore, the Action Plan contains 38 specific objectives and associated actions, responsible entities, participants, timeframes and indicators. The petroleum sector is the main contributor to the national economy at present and notably represented 85.9% of the country’s GDP in 2012. The second largest contributor is the forestry sector whose objectives and actions were not considered in the first NBSAP, adopted in 2005, however this gap is addressed in various 2020 targets. The country has recognized the urgency to sensitize the petroleum industry in biodiversity conservation initiatives, as well as the need for diversification in this production sector and in others, including agriculture, fishing, aquaculture and ecotourism, as addressed in the National Plan for Socioeconomic Development to 2020. Around 18.5% of the national territory is under some of form of protection (this figure increases slightly if marine protected areas adjacent to these areas are taken into account). The participation of women in implementation is highly promoted in the new NBSAP. It is anticipated that a decree to operationalize the National Environment Fund (FONAMA) will be adopted by 2020, thereby increasing opportunities for funding and mobilizing resources for NBSAP implementation.
Togo’s Stratégie et Plan d’Action National pour la Biodiversité
(2011-2020) was adopted in 2014 and developed on the basis of the global framework, stressing sectoral, intersectoral (cross-cutting), participatory and inclusive implementation at national, regional and local levels. Its vision to 2025 seeks to establish a new equilibrium among economic, social and environmental development activities. Twenty national targets have been developed and are distributed among 5 strategic directions aimed at: fostering a common culture; strengthening advantages derived from biodiversity and ecosystem services for all; improving the legal and institutional framework and governance; developing knowledge on national biological resources; and strengthening technical and human capacity. The targets moreover address 9 priority themes. Key actions, baselines, indicators, areas of intervention and key actors have been established. Notably, the Action Plan will be reviewed in 2016 with necessary additional actions included in Phase 2 (2016-2020) of implementation. Having identified lack of communication as a major weakness in implementing its first NBSAP (2003), Togo has prioritized the development of a Communication Plan for the current NBSAP. It is anticipated that a National Biodiversity Committee will be operationalized by 2015 to monitor activities. NBSAP implementation has been costed at USD $32,293,000 however a concrete resource mobilization plan is yet to be worked out. In 1999, Togo began a process to rehabilitate and requalify protected areas, through a joint Government/EU programme and with the participation of local communities, which has produced positive outcomes. The current legal framework is favorable to the development of community forests. The management of such forests by local populations has proven to be a viable alternative for restoring degraded areas and conserving biodiversity, with consideration given to the needs of the populations and the generation of income through rational resource exploitation.
Slovakia adopted a revised NBSAP to 2020 in 2014. An English version of the Strategy is provided below, with a translation of the Action Plan in preparation. A summary of the NBSAP will be provided upon receipt of the latter.
Republic of Moldova
The revised National Strategy on Biological Diversity (2015-2020) and its Action Plan were adopted by Government Decision No. 274 on 18 May 2015, with consideration given to the goals of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and its Aichi Targets, the Strategic Plan for the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety 2011-2020 and the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. The new NBSAP contains five 2020 “Specific Objectives” which aim to: a) ensure sustainable management and institutional efficiency; b) reduce pressures on biodiversity; c) implement measures to stop threats to biodiversity; d) implement measures to increase the benefits derived from natural resources and ecosystem services; and e) provide scientific support for biodiversity conservation, access to information and promote education for sustainable development. The scope of actions to be undertaken towards each Specific Objective has been defined, and the actions themselves are prioritized, costed and assigned monitoring indicators, funding sources and institutions responsible for implementation. The results expected from implementation have also been formulated. A Monitoring Group will be established by order of the Minister of Environment and develop annual reports on implementation progress. Among other outcomes, it is anticipated that NBSAP implementation will result in the integration of biodiversity conservation in the most important policies; development of efficient financial tools and mechanisms for biodiversity and natural ecosystems conservation; extension of State protected natural areas and the creation of a national ecological network from 5.5% to 8% and of afforested areas from 11.1% to 15%; establishment of the first tri-Party (Romania-Republic of Moldova-Ukraine) biosphere reserve; promotion of environment-friendly practices in organic farming; projects for local communities for the sustainable development of genetic resources; promotion of biotechnology for reproducing rare, vulnerable and economically valuable species. The Parliament of the Republic of Moldova adopted the country’s first NBSAP in 2001.
TO TOP ^ Seychelles
A revised NBSAP (2015-2020) was endorsed by the Cabinet of Ministers in July 2015. NBSAP 2.0 contains 20 objectives developed with consideration given to the global framework, as well as 31 projects to be implemented over the 6-year duration that have been respectively mapped to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets they will contribute to. This document is to serve as the primary mechanism for CBD implementation and be updated periodically in accordance with COP decisions. The biodiversity component of the National Sustainable Development Strategy (SSDS) (2012-2020) is the primary mechanism for mainstreaming biodiversity into and across development sectors, with tourism and fisheries being the country's main such sectors. A trend of using revenue derived from tourism for mainstreaming biodiversity activities in this sector has achieved notable success with respect to biodiversity conservation, small island ecosystem rehabilitation and the eradication of invasive alien species. Mainstreaming in the fisheries sector has been less successful to date. The terrestrial Protected Areas Network today constitutes 46.6% of Seychelles’ total landmass, and official approval has been given to further increase this to more than 50%. It should however be mentioned that most of Seychelles’ endemic biodiversity is located on its ancient granitic islands where a considerably lower percentage of the landmass (22.3%) is protected. Marine protected areas constitute less than 1% of the EEZ today however a process has been initiated to designate 30% of the EEZ as protected and half of this area (15% of the EEZ) as strict no-take zones. An NBSAP Implementation Unit will be established and integrated into the administration framework for SSDS implementation to facilitate biodiversity mainstreaming. In addition, an NBSAP Partnership Forum will be established whose members will be responsible for reporting to the NBSAP Implementation Unit on the status of implementation of their respective projects, among other matters. Seychelles has developed an initial biodiversity metadatabase and a priority gap analysis on national biodiversity data. Moreover, a project to develop a strategy and action plan to facilitate NBSAP funding has been prioritized and is being facilitated by Seychelles’ participation in the UNDP Biodiversity Finance Initiative (BIOFIN) currently under implementation. The country’s first NBSAP (1997) was considered particularly successful in mobilizing biodiversity stakeholders, identifying priorities and providing civil society with a framework for engagement which has contributed to the emergence of a dynamic and effective biodiversity NGO sector.
The Interim National Constitution of Sudan (2005), in its Article 11 (1), states that "the people of the Sudan shall have the right to a clean and diverse environment; the State and the citizens have the duty to preserve and promote the country’s biodiversity". On 25 June 2015, Sudan’s Council of Ministers adopted a revised NBSAP (2015-2020) strategically oriented on the sustainable use of natural resources, maintenance of ecosystem services and biodiversity mainstreaming across sectors and society for achieving socioeconomic development. The Action Plan addresses 5 thematic areas (education, awareness and training; legislation; policies; conservation; sustainable use) for each of the following 7 “biodiversity components”: plant agrobiodiversity; forestry biodiversity; rangeland and livestock biodiversity; wildlife, marine and inland waters ecosystems; biotechnology and biosafety; invasive alien species; climate change impacts. Each biodiversity component contains targets mapped to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, accompanied by costed and timeframed actions, including agencies responsible for implementation. While the Higher Council for Environment and Natural Resources (HCENR) is responsible for overall implementation, a Technical Committee composed of a group of biodiversity experts has been proposed to work closely with and under the HCENR. Sudan has political commitment to mainstream biodiversity components and ecosystems as high development priorities. The new NBSAP takes into account Sudan’s National 25-Year Strategy (2002-2027), Five-Year Plan (2012-2016), Five-Year Program for Economic Reform (2015-2019), National Plan for Poverty Reduction, among other instruments. The Plant Genetic Resources Unit of the Agricultural Research Corporation has achieved notable progress in regard to the establishment of an electronic gene bank documentation system which includes passport data on existing Plant Genetic Resources (PGR) collections, which are uploaded and made available on the Internet through a regional data portal for the Eastern Africa Plant Genetic Resources Network (EAPGREN). Sudan became a Party to the Nagoya Protocol in October 2014.
Latvia's Environmental Policy Concept
(EPC) 2014-2020, adopted in 2014, covers biodiversity protection issues linked to the implementation of the goals and objectives of the Convention. In this light, the EPC is considered equivalent to a revised NBSAP. It is available in Latvian only at the moment. An English version is forthcoming (a summary of the EPC will be provided upon receipt of this version).
Adopted in August 2014, Austria’s new Biodiversity Strategy 2020+
promotes implementation through shared responsibility and holistic solutions. It contains 12 targets developed with the Aichi Biodiversity Targets taken into account and distributed among 5 fields of action: (1) knowing and acknowledging biodiversity (2) sustainable use of biodiversity (3) reducing pressures on biodiversity (4) conserving and developing biodiversity (5) securing global biodiversity. The targets’ priorities have been designed to orient the Federal Government, Federal Provinces and municipalities, NGOs, among other stakeholders, in carrying out measures to promote the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services over the long term. For each target, evaluation parameters, implementation (and further) stakeholders have been established. The National Biodiversity Commission is composed of representatives from all societal groups and will assist and review implementation on an annual basis. Based on the Commission’s reporting, adjustments and further strategic planning will be developed from 2020 onward. Funds for implementing the Strategy will be secured from public and private funds as well as through the EU co-financing system. Examples of measures to be implemented through the Strategy include: cross-sectoral platforms on Biodiversity and Health and Business and Biodiversity; adapted education syllabuses across all levels of education; assessment and regular monitoring, primarily of target features defined under EU legislation; expanded organic farming; improved coordination of spatially-effective sectoral planning between and at all levels of planning, with a view on biodiversity and ecosystem services; consideration of biodiversity-related results of Strategic Environmental Assessments; implementation of the Alpine Convention's Tourism Protocol; increased integration of biodiversity aspects in existing corporate social responsibility (CSR) systems. Notable achievements have been made to date in establishing protected areas. Land protected under various nature conservation laws today comprises 27% of the national territory. Of this area, 16% is designated as Natura 2000 area, national park or nature conservation area and thus strictly protected; almost 11% are less strictly protected sites such as landscape conservation areas.
TO TOP ^
Hungary’s revised National Strategy for the Conservation of Biodiversity (2015-2020) was adopted by Parliament on 9 June 2015. It was developed with consideration given to the terms of both the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020, adopted during the Hungarian EU Presidency in 2011, and the current global Strategic Plan for Biodiversity. Moreover, the objectives of the present Strategy and those of the Fourth National Environmental Programme, Fourth National Nature Conservation Basic Plan and the National Sustainable Development Framework Strategy are mutally supportive. The document addresses the country’s biodiversity situation, as revealed from a SWOT analysis, with emphasis placed in six strategic areas: protection of areas and species subject to nature conservation; maintenance of landscape diversity, green infrastructure and ecosystem services; issues related to agriculture; sustainable forest and game management and protection of water resources; combating invasive alien species (non-indigenous species); and Hungary’s role in fulfilling obligations arising from international agreements related to biodiversity. Within these strategic areas, twenty objectives have been defined, each involving several specific goals whose implementation is supported by measures and monitored by indicators. Actors, responsible institutions and funding sources have also been identified. The status of implementation will be evaluated in 2017 and 2021 (i.e. within one year following the end of the implementation period); activities will be supported by the National Biodiversity Monitoring System introduced in 1998 and which conducts monitoring at national (central) and territorial (local) levels. Hungary is also a proponent of the Green Infrastructure concept which is closely related to the Ecosystem Services approach. At present, the country’s ecological network consists of protected natural areas and Natura 2000 sites that cover more than 36% of the territory and are considered to be the backbone to Hungary’s green infrastructure. Mainstreaming of biodiversity information and awareness-raising is also occurring through the Ecoschool Network established in 2000. In 2012, more than 560 kindergartens were proud holders of the Green Kindergarten title. Hungary was the first EU Member State to ratify the Nagoya Protocol on ABS. The country's previous Biodiversity Preservation Strategy for the 2009-2014 period was approved as an annex to the Third National Environmental Programme.
Adopted by Cabinet in May 2015, Guyana’s new NBSAP 2012-2020 contains a vision to 2030 and constitutes the country’s third NBSAP. Developed with consideration given to the global biodiversity agenda, 9 strategic objectives have been established to: (i) improve biodiversity status (ii) mainstream biodiversity in key productive sectors (iii) promote CEPA matters (iv) improve implementation, monitoring and reporting for MEAs, among other commitments (v) enhance national, regional and international partnerships (vi) consolidate and harmonize policy, legal, regulatory and administrative frameworks (vii) improve monitoring, including within productive sectors (viii) strengthen the knowledge base and capacity (ix) secure adequate resources. Priority actions, lead implementation agencies and targets have also been identified. A Communications Strategy to support actions taken to address the NBSAP's priorities has also been developed. Information that was key to informing the revision process related to the contribution of natural resources and biodiversity/ecosystem services to the economy (more than 95% of foreign exchange earnings in 2013 notably related to their use); low carbon development (through the Low Carbon Development Strategy, work is ongoing to establish a REDD+ framework and a monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) system); increased investment in ecotourism, including in collaboration with the private sector (visitor arrivals are increasing and Guyana is receiving regional and international acclaim as a tourist destination); increased projection in the growth of the mining (gold) industry; and the increasing threat of land degradation (it is projected that the rate of degradation will increase to between 200,000 and 250,000 hectares annually over the next 5 to 10 years). With gold production from small- and medium-scale miners having risen by 48% between 2007 and 2011 and investor confidence unshaken, prospects for large-scale gold mining in Guyana are very real. The adoption of innovative technology is unfolding nowadays to deal with issues associated with mercury abatement, improved efficiencies in recovery to offset the cost of production, and to reduce threats to the environment. A national policy on access to genetic resources and fair and equitable benefit-sharing has been developed. In April 2014, Guyana acceded to the Nagoya Protocol on ABS. Guyana and the European Union are currently negotiating a Voluntary Partnership Agreement under the existing EU Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) Action Plan which is expected to contribute to the sustainable management of Guyana's forests, employment and economic development.
Denmark 7 April 2016 - The following NBSAP document "Danish Nature Policy - Our Shared Nature" is currently under revision by the Danish Government.
Adopted in 2014, the Danish Nature Policy – Our Shared Nature contains a long-term vision to 2050 and serves as Denmark’s revised NBSAP, concretizing implementation of both the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and its Aichi Targets and the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. The Policy contains 22 initiatives that have been mapped to achieving the global and EU targets and that are distributed among three main focus areas: (i) to establish more and better interconnected nature (including marine habitats); (ii) to strengthen initiatives for wild animals and plants; and (iii) to improve a sense of community through nature experiences and outdoor activities. What is known as the Danish “Green Map” will serve as the strategic framework and plan for policy implementation, contributing to ongoing and new initiatives, including actions related to international and Natura 2000 sites. Broad stakeholder participation, identification of synergies and establishment of partnerships at all levels is encouraged, with municipalities being particularly responsible for targeted nature management. The Danish Nature Foundation was recently established by the Danish Government, the Aage V. Jensen Nature Foundation and the Villum Foundation to support implementation (DKK 500 million have been allocated as initial capital). Initiatives to better integrate farmers in nature management are under investigation. Denmark has produced a digital collection of nature maps, including one on biodiversity detailing Red List species and other endangered species. At the moment, two large projects are being carried out under the EU LIFE programme to create more coherent natural habitats and support both water and climate measures. A new national forest programme is moreover soon to be launched and will address, among other matters, the protection of important forests on private property. Denmark’s level of development assistance expenditure, which averaged DKK 2.4 billion per year between 2006 and 2012, has been maintained in the Danish Development Assistance Strategy.
TO TOP ^ Peru
Peru’s Estrategia Nacional de Diversidad Biológica al 2021 y su Plan de Acción 2014-2018
was developed in accordance with the 1997 Law on Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity and adopted by decree in 2014. Its development featured a broad, regionally-balanced and participatory process, including representatives from five national organizations of Indigenous Peoples, including the National Organization of Indigenous Andean and Amazonian Women, the private sector and civil society. The new Strategy contains 6 strategic objectives to 2021 focused on: biodiversity status and ecosystem services; national development; reducing pressures; strengthening capacity at the three levels of government; improving knowledge and technologies and re-valuing traditional knowledge associated with the biodiversity of Indigenous Peoples; and strengthening cooperation and the participation of all actors in biodiversity governance. Thirteen national targets have been set (and mapped to the global targets), along with 2013 baselines and indicators. In addition, 147 actions are prioritized, scheduled and assigned entities responsible for implementation (a decentralized approach is promoted with regional and local governments assigned responsibilities). NBSAP considerations have been mainstreamed in various instruments, such as the Bicentennial Plan “Peru 2021”, National Environmental Action Plan, Environmental Agenda, and the Ministry of Environment’s Multi-annual Sectoral Strategic Plan. A CEPA Strategy and Resource Mobilization Strategy are currently in development. By the end of the first half of 2015, Peru aims to have adequate incentives, developed and coordinated across sectors and between levels of government, for engaging the private sector in biodiversity conservation initiatives.
The development of Jordan’s revised NBSAP (2015-2020) was guided by past experiences and lessons learned from implementing the first NBSAP, adopted in 2003, the guidelines set by the CBD for this process, as well as by the current global biodiversity agenda. Twenty-nine national targets have been established under 5 strategic goals that focus on: good governance and mainstreaming; reducing human-induced pressures; protected areas, priority species and genetic resources; ecosystem services and climate change; knowledge management and monitoring. Each national target is assigned key performance indicators (KPIs), potential lead agency (ies), priority actions (there are over 300 actions all together) and implementation deadlines. The new NBSAP addresses the shortcomings of the previous NBSAP (which as of 2014 had only been 50% implemented) by seeking to adopt a financing framework using internal, external and innovative funding sources; a national outreach and awareness-raising program; a national-capacity-building program for the Ministry and its partners and stakeholders, including local communities and the private sector; a revised governance framework for implementation and its monitoring; improving capabilities for inter-institutional coordination, national mainstreaming and knowledge management; among other matters. Although primary ownership of the NBSAP lies with the Ministry of Environment, the National Biodiversity Committee (NBC) established in 2005 operates as its executive arm and is gradually becoming an active platform for improved involvement of civil society in the decision-making process. Jordan also anticipates amending its Environment Protection Law (2006) by 2017 which will enhance the legal biodiversity framework by including several bylaws specifically on protected areas, genetic resources and biodiversity and species conservation, as well as a revised EIA Bylaw (2005). The National Action Plan (NAP) to Combat Desertification (2006) is also under review.
To facilitate implementation of its new NBSAP 2013-2020, which takes into account the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, Burundi has notably developed an associated Resource Mobilization Strategy, Capacity Development Strategy and CEPA Strategy. Moreover, the country adopted a Bill on Biodiversity in 2013. Twenty-two national biodiversity objectives are distributed among the NBSAP’s five strategic goals which aim to: 1) manage the underlying causes of biodiversity loss through the involvement and commitment of all stakeholders at all levels; 2) reduce direct pressures on biodiversity and biological resources; 3) improve the state of biodiversity through safeguarding ecosystems, species and genetic diversity; 4) value and sustain the benefits derived from biodiversity and ecosystem services; and 5) reinforce NBSAP implementation through participatory planning, efficient knowledge management and capacity development. A suite of indicators has been adopted and will be used by the National Biodiversity Committee to monitor and evaluate NBSAP implementation. A National CHM Strategy and Action Plan to 2020 has also been completed. Five regional plans for implementing the NBSAP exist, as do plans for integrating biodiversity into six sectors (Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock; Ministry of Energy and Mines; Ministry of the Interior; Ministry of Transportation, Public Works and Equipment; Ministry of Commerce, Industry, Postal Services and Tourism; and the highest levels of decision-making). Burundi's CEPA Strategy identifies rural women as a specific target group for whom particular communication approaches related to biodiversity conservation will be adopted. Over the last decade, CEPA activities have been conducted by the Burundi Association of Women and the Environment, a national NGO, aimed at raising awareness among women’s groups on issues related to forestry, agroforestry and biodiversity conservation.
The vision of the National Biological Resources (Biodiversity) Policy and Strategic Plan of Action for the 2015-2035 period is to achieve excellence in biodiversity management for enhancing the quality of life of the country's citizens. Four strategic objectives aim to: promote and implement biodiversity management strategies across sectors to ensure sustained social, economic and ecological benefits; promote green and well-balanced multisectoral development, through the wise use of a wide range of biological resources and the protection of ecosystem services; establish research and development networks and cooperation that can impact national economic growth and development, through the implementation of biodiversity-related conventions and as an ASEAN Member State; and support initiatives to increase biodiversity awareness, knowledge, understanding and experience among all levels of society. Policy strategies have been established for 4 specific themes: unique habitats; ecosystems and environmental stability; industrial application; and the international agenda. The country has also prepared a Strategic Plan of Actions which addresses 13 specific themes: terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity resource planning and management; protection and management of areas designated under the Heart of Borneo Initiative, and other reserved areas; sustainable natural resources management; a national communication strategy and outreach program for the Heart of Borneo Initiative; nature and ecotourism development; research and development for physical infrastructure; standard operating procedures, protocols and guidelines for Brunei Research Council laboratories and culture collection; operational capacity of and the efficiency and effectiveness of services provided by the Brunei Research Council; enhancement of international recognition and prestige of established centres; development of physical infrastructure re the Tropical Biodiversity Centre, Brunei Research Council, Marine Biodiversity Centre and the Traditional and Herbal Research Centre, including displays for biodiversity promotion and education; biodiversity awareness in education; excellence in biodiversity education for international prestige; and the establishment of a traditional and herbal research centre for the preservation of indigenous knowledge on plant use and its commercial potential. Key activities, including respective implementation timelines, are also defined in the document which constitutes the first NBSAP prepared by Brunei Darussalam.
The preparation of the second edition of Niger’s Stratégie Nationale et Plan d'Actions sur la Diversité Biologique
, adopted in 2014, was guided by the objectives of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity (2011-2020) and the National Plan for Social and Economic Development (2012-2015). Niger has undertaken measures to mainstream biodiversity, integrally or partially, in several additional planning frameworks, including the National Environmental Plan for Sustainable Development. Gender consideration is set down as a principle in the new NBSAP. A decentralized bottom-up approach to implementation is being promoted. It is anticipated that the main impact of implementation will be a reduction in the level of poverty for Niger’s population. The revision contains 5 strategic objectives that have been mapped to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets: i) conserve and sustainably exploit ecosystems, species and genetic resources; ii) reduce various forms of pollution; iii) improve and develop tools for managing protected areas; iv) take into account biodiversity in policies and strategies; v) address the effects of climate change. Eighty actions have been formulated, along with associated responsible actors, indicators, verification sources, costs per year (including funding gaps), hypotheses and risks. The total estimated cost of NBSAP implementation to 2020 is FCFA 420 647 660 000. Needs regarding capacity-building and access to technologies for implementing the new NBSAP have been identified, as have activities required to increase levels of communication and public awareness. Niger intends to adopt a system for monitoring and evaluation based on the principles of Results-based Management (RBM).
TO TOP ^ Namibia
Namibia’s Second National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (2013-2022) (NBSAP2) was adopted in 2014. The sustainable management of biodiversity is enshrined in Namibia’s Constitution and integrated in its long-term National Development Strategy (Vision 2030). NBSAP2 has 9 key priorities: mainstreaming biodiversity; improving communication of biodiversity-related issues; addressing critical threats to biodiversity; contributing to national development objectives; strengthening the policy-making framework for biodiversity management; generating reliable baseline information; capitalizing on synergies with the Rio and other Biodiversity-Related Conventions; enhancing regional cooperation; and mainstreaming gender considerations. It is aligned with the five strategic goals of the global framework and contains 17 SMART national targets mapped to the Aichi Targets. NBSAP2 is also aligned with the SADC Regional Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. Moreover, it contains 38 strategic initiatives, with associated activities, that have been formulated to guide actions that will lead to the achievement of the 17 targets. Activities have designated lead agencies and partners and associated baselines (where available), key performance indicators, timeframes and costs (a conservative estimate for implementing NBSAP2 is N$ 494 million). Implementation will be led by natural resources management-related ministries and target key groups not typically directly responsible for biodiversity management, such as the Office of the Prime Minister, Ministry of Finance, National Planning Commission, parliamentarians, traditional authorities, regional councils and local authorities, private sector. Notably, a CEPA Strategy for implementing NBSAP2 has also been elaborated. Monitoring and evaluation will be coordinated by the newly established Division of Multilateral Environmental Agreements, under the Ministry of Environment and Tourism, with support from the cross-sectoral NBSAP2 Steering Committee. By 2022, Namibia hopes to have increased mobilization of financial resources from all sources compared to the 2008-2012 period. Among other successes, NBSAP1 implementation led to the proclamation of a first Marine Protected Area, the world’s largest Trans-frontier Conservation Area and 32 community forests. The beneficiation of communities continues to be at the heart of the country’s sustainable development process.
Mali’s Stratégie Nationale et Plan d’Actions pour la Diversité Biologique
(SNPA/DB) was revised in 2014, taking into account the global framework and emphasizing biodiversity conservation as a development concept. It contains five strategic directions: i) integrate biodiversity conservation in government and civil society actions to manage the underlying causes of biodiversity loss; ii) reduce direct pressures on biodiversity and encourage sustainable use; iii) improve biodiversity status by safeguarding ecosystems, species and genetic diversity; iv) reinforce the advantages for all derived from biodiversity and the services provided by ecosystems; and v) reinforce implementation by means of participatory planning, knowledge management and capacity reinforcement. Nineteen national targets have been developed, along with 94 priority actions to be implemented from 2015 to 2020. The Action Plan identifies responsible institutions and partners, and costs and timeframes associated with implementing actions. Indicators for monitoring the achievement of each action have also been established. The estimated total cost of NBSAP implementation over the next 5 years has been placed at FCFA 44 290 000 000. Unlike the first NBSAP, adopted in 2001, the new NBSAP addresses for the first time, or emphasizes, matters such as: gender, poverty reduction, rights of local and indigenous communities, invasive plants, commerce, tourism, transboundary issues, climate change. A mechanism for improving the mobilization of financial resources has been proposed. An analysis has also been conducted regarding the country’s capacity-building needs. Mali also acknowledges the need to establish mechanisms to ensure mainstreaming in development planning processes and to monitor and evaluate implementation.
Antigua and Barbuda
Adopted in 2014, the first NBSAP of Antigua and Barbuda was developed on the basis of the framework provided in the draft prepared in 2001, and with consideration given to the application of the current global targets to the country’s biodiversity status. The Strategy contains four major objectives: (1) develop and establish a national system, including protected areas, for the management and conservation of biodiversity conservation; (2) strengthen the capacity of governmental natural resources management institutions, as well as non-governmental organizations, to support the objectives and achieve the overall aim of the NBSAP; (3) develop, improve, enact and enforce ecological legislation that provides adequate protection of biological diversity; and (4) strengthen public awareness of environmental issues, ecological education and public participation in decision-making. Twenty national targets, accompanied by implementation activities and indicators, have been formulated in alignment with the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, and agencies to engage in implementing activities have been identified. Support activities to be carried out over the 2014-2020 period have also been developed through stakeholder consultations to ensure effective implementation. The NBSAP emphasizes the importance of achieving an integrated, coordinated and inter-sectoral approach to biodiversity policy planning and management. Implementation will be led by the Environment Division, with assistance provided by the National Coordinating Mechanism (NCM) for Environment Conventions which was formally established by the Environment Protection and Management Bill (2014). This new legislation has also enabled the country to initiate work on the creation of a sustainable financing mechanism for biodiversity and particularly for protected areas management known as the SIRF (Sustainable Island Resource Fund).
Adopted in 2014 as a Ministerial Decision, Greece’s first NBSAP aims to halt biodiversity loss and the degradation of ecosystem services by 2026. The Strategy’s implementation period is 15 years (2014-2029). It consists of 13 general national targets, under which 39 specific targets have been respectively formulated, to address the following themes: (i) increasing scientific knowledge; (ii) preservation of national natural capital; (iii) national system of protected areas; (iv) conservation of genetic resources; (v) synergistic policies to conserve biodiversity; (vi) conservation of landscape diversity; (vii) biodiversity and climate change; (viii) biodiversity and invasive alien species; (ix) international and transnational conservation; (x) public administration and the protection of biodiversity; (xi) integrating biodiversity conservation in the value system of society; (xii) participation of society in biodiversity conservation; and (xiii) valuation of ecosystem services and promotion of the value of Greek biodiversity. Greece’s national targets have been mapped to both the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and EU Biodiversity Targets. The Strategy will be reviewed and amended every five years and action plans prepared for five-year periods. Actions for the achievement of all 39 specific targets have been established for the first five-year period (2014-2019), as have some indicative implementation indicators. During this first period, Greece intends to establish a monitoring system to quantifiably measure the status of implementation of the Strategy. The Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change is the main institution responsible for implementation.
TO TOP ^ Mauritania
The primary goal of Mauritania’s new National Biodiversity Strategy (2011-2020) is to maintain the functions of ecosystems over the long term, including their capacity to adapt and evolve in relation to environmental changes, particularly climate change and desertification processes. The document is based on six strategic orientations: the creation of the desire to act on behalf of biodiversity; the preservation of life and its ability to evolve; investment in biodiversity conservation; assuring the sustainable and equitable use of biodiversity; assuring policy coherence and the effectiveness of actions; and the development, sharing and utilization of knowledge. In addition, 14 national targets have been set, together with actions, indicators and costs for implementing actions. Progress achieved to date towards the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and relevant Millennium Development Goals is also outlined in the Strategy. The National Action Plan for the Environment (PANE) and the National Strategy for Sustainable Development (SNDD) together define environmental policy. The PANE serves as a coherent environmental framework for Mauritania and, notably, its second phase (PANE II) for 2012-2016 has mainstreamed biodiversity in all its considerations, promotes a decentralized and synergistic approach to environmental management, including with the participation of local actors. Biodiversity is also integrated in the Strategic Framework for Poverty Reduction (CSLP) and the National Action Plan to Combat Desertification (PAN/LCD), among several other planning documents. Moreover, as a result of an increase in institution building in recent years, there now exists greater opportunities for harmonizing actions and mainstreaming in sectors. Examples of current national priorities include: sectoral reform focused on human, material and financial resources, consideration of inter-sectoral matters, restructuring; Good Environmental Governance promoted in PANE II; preservation and valuation of natural resources; and the promotion of renewable energy sources.
United Arab Emirates
The new (and first) Biodiversity Strategy of the United Arab Emirates includes a series of main orientations and national goals in line with the “Emirates vision 2021”, in addition to the Emirates' Strategy for Green Development, the National Strategy for Coastal and Marine Environment, the Biosafety Strategy and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. The main orientations focus on: 1) mainstreaming biodiversity in all economic and social sectors; 2) reinforcement of knowledge sharing and capacity building for upgrading and addressing biodiversity management; 3) improvement of biodiversity status through habitat protection, genetic diversity and restoration of degraded ecosystems; 4) reducing pressure on marine and terrestrial biodiversity; and 5) enhancing regional and international cooperation on biodiversity cross-cutting issues. Twenty-one national targets with action-driven and outcome-oriented measures, grouped under 5 thematic areas, have been set out. The new biodiversity strategy includes particular engagements on capacity building, communication and public awareness, resource mobilization, and on a national knowledge sharing platform in line with the CHM of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Progress on the implementation of the strategy and action plan will be monitored and assessed and findings will be reported by representatives from each Emirate.
Although prepared prior to the adoption of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and its Aichi Targets in 2010, India’s NBAP 2008 is nevertheless broadly aligned with the current global biodiversity agenda. In this regard, India decided that a revision of the NBAP 2008 was not necessary, and instead prepared an addendum in 2014 to the NBAP 2008 consisting of 12 national biodiversity targets developed within the framework of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. These national targets are mapped to the achievement of the latter as well as complemented by indicators and a monitoring framework. An overview of implementation of the NBAP was prepared in 2019.
Bhutan’s “National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plan” (2014) is the country’s fourth NBSAP document. Prepared by a National Task Force comprised of key biodiversity stakeholders, under the coordination of the National Biodiversity Centre, it considers key gaps identified from a review of earlier NBSAPs and seeks to, among other matters, strengthen coordination mechanisms, mainstreaming in sectorial development plans and programs, capacity, awareness, and promote ownership of the NBSAP as a guiding document at national, sectorial and local levels. Twenty national targets have been established and are mapped to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. Each target is complemented by a rationale, strategies, actions, indicators, timelines, priority ranking and cost estimates on implementation. Additionally, a framework for NBSAP implementation, monitoring and evaluation identifies responsible thematic groups and stakeholders. Since the first NBSAP was formulated in 1997, Bhutan has adopted 12 acts, policies and strategies related to biodiversity conservation. Notably, the safeguarding of Bhutan’s biodiversity is enshrined in its Constitution (2008). The Biodiversity Act of Bhutan was adopted in 2003. More recently, the Food and Nutrition Security Policy of Bhutan (2014) promotes biodiversity conservation for food security and resilience for all time thereby contributing to Gross National Happiness. Bhutan currently has 70.46% of its total area under forest cover and 51.44% of the total area secured as protected areas and biological corridors.
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Afghanistan’s first NBSAP (2014-2017) contains 11 preliminary targets focusing on: protected areas; conserving selected taxonomic groups; conserving genetic diversity of valuable species and maintaining associated indigenous and local knowledge; sustainably managing sources from which biodiversity-based products are derived; decreasing the rate of loss and degradation of natural habitats; alien species; climate change and pollution; ecosystem capacity and sustainable livelihoods; traditional knowledge and the rights of ILCs; access and benefits sharing; and financial and technological resources. All of these targets include a timeframe and implementation responsibilities and have been mapped to the achievement of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. The NBSAP is mainstreamed with the Environment Sector Strategy and the National Priority Programme 1 - National Water and Natural Resources Development Programme, among other strategies. In addition, the UNFCCC National Adaptation Plan of Action (2009) extensively references biodiversity and its role in supporting ecosystems, and especially rural communities, to adapt to climate change. Pursuant to the Environment Law (2007), the National Environmental Protection Agency (NEPA) is mandated with overall responsibility for NBSAP implementation, in partnership with the Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock and other government organizations, and assisted by international organizations and NGOs. In terms of decentralizing actions for implementing the NBSAP, the Sub-National Government National Priority Programme - Subnational Governance Strategy will be key to this process. Further, through environmental plans, of which biodiversity is a subcomponent, contained in the National Development Plan (2015-2019), NBSAP implementation at the provincial level (there are 34 provinces) will be facilitated (NBSAP updates for the 2015-2019 period will elaborate extensively on this objective). Afghanistan’s National Development Strategy (2008-2013) currently serves as its National Poverty Reduction Paper; its cross-cutting environmental issues section contains a section on biodiversity which illustrates how Afghanistan will link up its development, security, and environmental issues, combining with sectoral policies and plans. For NBSAP implementation to be successful, the country further recognizes the need to develop a plan for capacity development, a communication and outreach strategy, and a plan for resource mobilization. To monitor activities, a comprehensive list of indicators will be developed for the updated NBSAP (2015-2019).
Republic of Korea
NBSAP (2019-2023) constitutes the second NBSAP prepared by the Republic of Korea since the adoption of the current Strategic Plan for Biodiversity in 2010, and the fourth NBSAP prepared since becoming a CBD Party in 1995. The new NBSAP is guided by five strategies on: mainstreaming biodiversity; managing threats to biodiversity; strengthening biodiversity conservation; benefit-sharing and the sustainable use of biodiversity; and laying the groundwork for implementation. The five strategies are respectively linked to the five strategic goals of the global framework and their relevance to the SDGs highlighted. They include action plans, under which 19 national targets are distributed and associated to responsible government authorities and implementation timeframes. Indicators have also been defined for each strategy (status at 2018 and that targeted for 2023 are indicated). In contrast to the first two NBSAPs, the third NBSAP (2014-2018) and current NBSAP were accorded legal status. Implementation of the third NBSAP resulted in several advancements, including: creation of the National Biodiversity Committee; adoption of the Act on Access to and Utilization of Genetic Resources and Benefit-Sharing (2017); and government investment of over KRW 1 trillion per year in biodiversity actions. Proportionally, the largest share (over 50%) of this investment was allocated to activities related to the sustainable use of ecosystem services, followed by activities to reduce threats to biodiversity, and then to activities on biodiversity mainstreaming. Other outcomes included the development of a national assessment framework for ecosystem services, assessment and mapping of local ecosystem services, development of forest management technology to enhance forest ecosystem services, valuation of rice paddy ecosystem services, research on climate change adaptation, incorporation of biodiversity values in legal plans for different sectors, including forestry and oceans, and laying the groundwork for biodiversity research, including the establishment of new institutions and research programmes. Prioritized actions to be carried out by 2019/2020 relate to: development of biodiversity content in school curriculum; streamlining relevant laws related to internationally endangered species, including improving the transfer and acquisition process for CITES species; improving the Conservation and Management of Marine Ecosystems Act; increasing the number of wildlife rescue and management centers to 17; designating areas for protecting marine organisms and promoting ecotourism in regional hubs; prioritizing investments in the development of highly-valued research materials, such as those related to infectious diseases, microorganisms or biological models; construction of the Honam National Institute of Biological Resources; fostering education leaders in the conservation of marine organisms for the ministries of Sustainable Ocean Initiative (SOI) partnership countries and implementing practical training projects mainly for site directors from developing countries; and pursuing work on the national standardization of the Korean Traditional Knowledge Resource Classification (kTKRC). It is anticipated that, by 2023, the number of local biodiversity strategies will have risen from 9 (2018 status) to 17. Other activities planned in this implementation period include laying down the foundation for ecosystem services assessment, including through revising the Act on the Conservation and the Use of Biodiversity (2012), as appropriate, and preparing guidelines for assessing ecosystem services.
Adopted by Government Decree on 8 May 2014, Georgia’s new NBSAP (2014-2020) was prepared in the light of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and its Aichi Targets. In contrast to Georgia’s earlier NBSAP (2005), the current NBSAP addresses implementation from a more holistic, cross-cutting and ecosystem-based perspective. CBD’s Gender Plan of Action was also fully considered in the course of its preparation. National targets have been set to achieve both the 2030 Vision and the strategic goals and targets of the global agenda and are accompanied by indicators, objectives, critical assumptions, actions, timeframes, responsible implementing bodies, and sources of potential funding. An overview of the country’s biodiversity is provided with respect to eight themes: species and habitats; protected areas; forest ecosystems; agricultural biodiversity and natural grasslands; inland water ecosystems; The Black Sea; cross-cutting issues and governance; and CEPA, with actions for implementing each national target linked to the theme of relevance. A Committee for Supervising and Monitoring NBSAP Implementation will be established by the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources Protection and ensure broad stakeholder engagement, including with the economic sectors and local authorities. Georgia also intends to develop a National Resource Mobilization Strategy.
Actions for implementing the Aichi Biodiversity Targets have been integrated into several Dutch policy plans which together serve as a revised NBSAP, thereby fulfilling the requirements of Aichi Biodiversity Target 17. Based on the recommendations of the Taskforce on Biodiversity and Natural Resources, the “Natural Capital Agenda: conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity” (2013) sets the implementation agenda to 2020 in the Netherlands and in the Dutch Caribbean. The Agenda considers the provisions of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and its Aichi Targets, the EU Biodiversity Strategy, as well as Dutch international development policy. Emphasis is placed on strengthening the economy-ecology relationship, with four main themes defined (sustainable production and consumption: sustainable supply chains; sustainable fisheries and protection of marine biodiversity; sustainable agriculture and protection of biodiversity; valuing natural capital). General objectives and specific action points are identified for each theme, with activities to be implemented by all stakeholders, including civil society and the private sector. Related policy plans include, among others, the Natural Way Forward (Government Vision 2014) and the Nature Policy Plan (The Caribbean) 2013-2017.
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Liechtenstein’s National Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 is accompanied by an Action Plan to 2020 and constitutes the country’s first NBSAP submission to the Convention. It was originally prepared in the 2010 International Year of Biodiversity and adjusted in 2014. The Strategy is based on one overall target which is to ensure the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. In addition, 4 sub-targets have been established addressing: i) biodiversity as the core element for nature conservation, including food and livelihood, with regard for its value and effects on nature; ii) the legally binding designation of nature protection areas to ensure and support biodiversity; iii) the sustainable use of Liechtenstein’s resources with consideration given to the biodiversity targets; and iv) Liechtenstein’s responsibility for its fair share of global biodiversity. Distributed among these 4 sub-targets are 12 strategy elements for which actions, bodies responsible for implementation and timeframes have been established.
Guatemala's revised NBSAP (2012-2022) is the main instrument for implementing the National Biodiversity Policy which was adopted in 2011 for mainstreaming biodiversity in support of socioeconomic development; this approach exemplifies a paradigm shift in the manner in which biodiversity is addressed in the country, with the original NBSAP (1999) having stressed a purely conservationist approach. Responsibility for implementation of all policy related to biodiversity is assigned to the National Council for Protected Areas (CONAP). The revised NBSAP focuses on the five thematic areas outlined in the Biodiversity Policy: 1) biodiversity knowledge and valuation; 2) biodiversity conservation and restoration; 3) sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystem services; 4) role of biodiversity in climate change mitigation and adaptation; and 5) policy implementation. The Strategy contains 5 operational strategies, 11 strategic objectives, 14 national targets (aligned with the Aichi Biodiversity Targets), while the Action Plan contains 139 actions for implementing the Strategy. Indicators have been developed for monitoring and assessing implementation. Further, a preliminary version of the financial requirements and budget for NBSAP implementation has been prepared. Recognition is also given to the fact that the development of a Resource Mobilization Strategy is essential and should consider national, regional and international sources, and those that are public and private in nature.
Nepal’s revised NBSAP (2014-2020) has a long-term vision (35 years) and includes specific short-term (up to 2020) strategies and priorities for action. The latter are clustered into 6 sectoral thematic areas (protected areas, forests outside protected areas, rangelands, wetlands, agriculture, mountains) designed to address key biodiversity threats, gaps and issues, the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and the Millennium Development Goals. Strategies and priority actions have also been developed for 15 cross-sectoral thematic areas focused on: policy and legislation, institutions, mainstreaming, harmonization among biodiversity-related conventions, capacity, landscape management, invasive alien species, climate change, gender and social inclusion, traditional knowledge and indigenous and local communities, knowledge generation and management, technology, communication, extension and outreach (CEO), fund generation and mobilization, and monitoring and evaluation. Where appropriate, quantitative targets have been set against the priority action. The strategies generally indicate the agency responsible for implementation and supporting agencies, while the strategy on monitoring and evaluation also sets out performance indicators, means of verification and a time schedule. The National Biodiversity Coordination Committee (NBCC) serves as the key national institution for managing biodiversity, and also facilitates and monitors activities carried out by institutions at the district and local levels. The framework for the Local Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan is intended to serve as a guide to the Village Development Committees (VDCs) and municipalities in preparing their own BSAP. A preliminary estimate of costs for implementing the NBSAP based on the recommended priority actions and past funding trends has been prepared.
Adopted in 2012 and developed in line with the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020, Estonia’s “Nature Conservation Development Plan until 2020” (NCDP) serves as the country’s revised NBSAP. The NCDP is also aligned with the Estonian Sustainable Development Strategy until 2030 and the Estonian Environmental Strategy until 2030 and promoted as a strategic base document for mainstreaming into all sectors. The NCDP comprises 3 main goals to ensure: (i) that people know, appreciate and conserve nature and know how to use their knowledge in their everyday lives; (ii) the favourable conservation status of species and habitats and the diversity of landscapes so that habitats function as a coherent ecological network; and (iii) the long-term sustainability of natural resources, and the preconditions for this, and that the principles of the Ecosystem Approach are followed in the use of natural resources. Measures and activities have been developed to achieve each goal. The total cost for implementing the NCDP over the 2012–2020 period is 582.2 million euros. Progress achieved on implementing the NCDP will be reported to the Government once a year with revisions deemed necessary initiated by the Ministry of the Environment who will involve all relevant ministries, including the Ministry of Finance, and parties in the revision process.
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Cameroon’s NBSAP II, completed in 2012, is a revision and update of the 2000 NBSAP, proposing a new policy orientation to reverse and halt the current trend in biodiversity loss as a way to establish a strong nature base that is indispensable for the country’s socioeconomic growth. Of importance is Cameroon’s 2035 vision for growth and development and its priority orientations, defined within the Growth and Employment Strategy Paper (GESP) which provides development options to boost key production sectors that are largely dependent on biodiversity (the document highlights activities that are unsustainable within each of these sectors and their negative impacts on biodiversity). NBSAP II will be implemented through to 2020 and contains 4 strategic goals, 20 national-level targets and 10 ecosystem-specific targets, priority actions, timeframes for action, performance indicators and actors/organizations responsible for implementation. It has been prepared with consideration given to the framework provided by the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and its Aichi Biodiversity Targets. A monitoring and evaluation framework has been conceived as well. In addition, NBSAP II provides an orientation for the subsequent development of a Capacity Development Plan, CEPA Plan and a Resource Mobilization Plan for its implementation.
Dominica's revised NBSAP promotes the pursuit of a ‘green’ development path in keeping with the Government’s pronouncement that declared Dominica the ‘Nature Isle’. Dominica is aligning its development agenda and biodiversity conservation strategy with the global biodiversity objectives. All of the goals and targets of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 are therefore considered relevant and will be addressed to the extent possible within the development framework, and as far as they amplify the 'Nature Isle' concept and influence biodiversity management in Dominica. However, the country has selected the following five 2020 targets as national priorities and developed twelve strategies and accompanying actions for achieving them.
- By 2020 at the latest, all residents of the Commonwealth of Dominica will be aware of the value of biodiversity, and the steps they can take to conserve and use it sustainably.
- By 2020, at least 15% of areas under agriculture, aquaculture and forestry are managed sustainably, ensuring conservation of biodiversity.
- By 2020, pollution, including from excess nutrient, has been brought to levels that are not detrimental to ecosystem function and biodiversity.
- By 2020, at least 20% of terrestrial, inland water and 15% of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem service, are conserved through comprehensive ecologically representative and well-connected systems of effectively managed, protected areas and other means, and integrated into the wider land and seascape.
- By 2020, ecosystem resilience and the contribution of biodiversity to carbon stock has been enhanced, through conservation and restoration, including restoration of at least 15% of degraded ecosystems, thereby contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation, and to combating desertification.
Endorsed by Cabinet in 2013, Tuvalu's first NBSAP (2012-2016) addresses eight thematic areas: climate change and disaster risk management; traditional knowledge, cultural practices and indigenous property rights; conservation of species, ecosystems (marine, coastal, land terrestrial) and genetic diversity; Community - empowerment, involvement, awareness, understanding and ownership; sustainable use of natural resources; trade, biosecurity and food security; waste and pollution management; and management of invasive species. Strategy goals, objectives, actions, key performance indicators, key implementing bodies and stakeholders have been identified for each thematic area. Five cross-cutting issues necessary for effective implementation have also been established, namely: capacity building, education, training, awareness and understanding; sustainable development and environment management; mainstreaming and financing mechanisms; legal framework for biodiversity and law enforcement; and monitoring and evaluation. The planning process has emphasized inter alia
an integrated approach to implementation, broad stakeholder engagement with a view to building "ownership" of the NBSAP by Tuvaluans, and the application of traditional knowledge, together with innovations and best practices, in activities. Tuvalu recognizes the importance to increase awareness among government and non-government stakeholders in order to acquire the support needed for implementation.
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In November 2013, Belgium's Interministerial Conference for the Environment adopted an update of the National Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. Based largely on the previous Strategy (2006-2016), the update incorporates provisions aligned with the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity (2011-2020) and the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. It will guide activities for revising federal and regional biodiversity action plans and be promoted in sectoral policy-making. Its main focuses are: a) tackling emerging risks and the impact of internal trade of live specimens; b) protecting and restoring biodiversity and associated ecosystem services through protected areas - green infrastructure - no net loss; identifying pathways of introduction on IAS; c) phasing out perverse incentives and using guidelines on the integration of the values of biodiversity and ecosystem services in development strategies, planning processes and reporting systems included; developing an approach to include these values in national accounting; d) implementing the Nagoya Protocol; e) mapping ecosystem services in Belgium and assessing their values; f) ensuring the implementation and enforcement of biodiversity legislation; g) involving provinces, cities and other local authorities; h) boosting the mobilization of resources (including through innovative mechanisms) and enhancing capacities. The Strategy contains 15 priority strategic objectives and 85 operational objectives that have been mapped to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and to the targets of the EU Biodiversity Strategy. Specific actions and indicators for the Strategy will be developed at a later stage (during the implementation process).
El Salvador’s new Biodiversity Strategy (2013) was developed in accordance with the provisions of the Environment Law (Art. 69), constituting one of four national strategies that have been developed for implementing the National Policy for the Environment (2012) whose overall goal is to reverse environmental degradation and reduce vulnerability to climate change. (National Strategies have also been developed on climate change, water resources and environmental sanitation). The new Biodiversity Strategy focuses on massive restoration and conservation undertakings, including in regard to the country’s ecosystems, with a view towards recovering the capacity required to sustain current and future development. Particular emphasis is placed on soil and land uses. It is structured along 3 main goals, and identifies respective priority areas: 1) biodiversity mainstreaming in the economy (agriculture, fisheries and aquaculture, tourism); 2) restoration and conservation, including critical ecosystems (mangroves and beach ecosystems, rivers and wetlands, gallery forests and other forest ecosystems); 3) biodiversity for the people (rescue of traditional conservation practices for genetic resources, rights of use of biological resources, local economic options). To enable implementation, five critical themes are highlighted (awareness-raising, research, education and training, technology, financing), as is action required at the institutional level (inter-institutional coordination, institutional strengthening, local governance and management models, monitoring, reporting and verification, normative and regulatory legislation). The accompanying Action Plan is currently in development.