Please note that this country profile has been prepared by the Secretariat on the basis of information provided in the NBSAP and national reports, but has not been reviewed by the Party concerned.

Main References

National Website

NOTE: Visitors to the CBD website are advised to consult section VII of the sixth national report for updated information on the themes contained in the country profile below.

Biodiversity Facts

Status and trends of biodiversity, including benefits from biodiversity and ecosystem services

Madagascar is a megadiverse country with a high concentration of endemic species. Its ecosystems include many types of forests, savannah, steppes, rivers, lakes, wetlands, mangroves, drylands and reefs. Currently, these unique ecosystems are home to approximately 12,000 species of vascular plants (96% endemic), 586 species of ferns (45% endemic), 194 species of palms (97% endemic), 1000 species of orchids (85% endemic), 389 species of reptiles (90% endemic), 278 species of amphibians (100% endemic), 282 species of birds (37% endemic), 159 species of fish (66% endemic), 104 species and subspecies of lemurs (100% endemic), 60 species of non-flying small mammals (92% endemic), 43 species of bats (73% endemic) and 13 species of carnivore (77% endemic)... More »

Main pressures on and drivers of change to biodiversity (direct and indirect)

The general trend of biodiversity degradation, both for flora and fauna, is primarily caused by destructive human practices, such as the clearing of natural habitats (0.55% per year) and overexploitation of natural resources. Hunting is also a major threat to large species in Madagascar. More recently, the impact of climate change on biodiversity has become apparent, particularly in the marine and coastal environments... More »

Measures to Enhance Implementation of the Convention

Implementation of the NBSAP

The National Strategy for Sustainable Management of Biodiversity (NSSMB) was established in 1996. The principles of the NSSMB are: to contribute to the improvement of the living conditions of the entire population by reducing poverty, based on knowledge (modern and traditional), ownership, and a sense of common welfare; to be part of the development process (at the local, regional and national levels); to take the development of international trade into account; and to promote realistic alternatives... More »

Actions taken to achieve the 2020 Aichi Biodiversity Targets

A notable success in the implementation of the NSSMB and the National Environmental Action Plan is the increase in protected areas from 3% in the past to about 8% of the country’s total area (4,751,895 ha) in 2009. The Humid Dense Forest of the East, composed of 6 national parks with a total area of about 479,661 ha, has been nominated as a World Heritage site... More »

Support mechanisms for national implementation (legislation, funding, capacity-building, coordination, mainstreaming, etc.)

The Environmental Units Platform serves as an interface between environmental authorities, other sectoral ministries, decentralized structures, operators and other partners, offering support and advice on environmental issues relevant to each concerned ministry. The functions of Madagascar’s Clearing-House Mechanism (CHM) and knowledge management on biodiversity and biosafety are ensured by the National Office for the Environment... More »

Mechanisms for monitoring and reviewing implementation

The country has a national environmental dashboard that regularly generates reports on the status of the environment. Although initially designed to be a decision-making tool, the national environmental dashboard proved useful to the different types of actitives undertaken in relation to research and training at the country level... More »

National Contacts

Full details of national contacts »

Convention on Biological Diversity

Mme Rantonirina Rakotoaridera
CBD Primary NFP
M. Sahoby Yvy Randriamahaleo
SBSTTA NFP, Protected Areas NFP
Mme Attale Ravaoarimalala
M. Tefinirina Rajerisoa
M. Hery Rajaomanana
Mme Hanitra Lalaina Randrianasolo
Resource Mobilization FP
Mme Raveloson Miora Andriamanohisoa
Marine and Coastal Biodiversity NFP
Mme Tahiry Fanomezana Rakotomamonjy
Traditional Knowledge NFP

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

Mme Agnes Raherimalala
Cartagena Protocol Primary NFP
M. Jean Roger Rakotoarijaona
Dr. Desire Randriamasimanana
Cartagena Protocol emergency contact point