Decision 15/5 : Monitoring framework for the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework
The Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework is accompanied by a detailed monitoring framework comprised of a set of agreed indicators for tracking progress towards the Goals and Targets of the Framework. It includes headline indicators which are recommended for national, regional and global monitoring, and more detailed component and complementary indicators. The monitoring framework will provide information on how the world is faring in terms of achieving the Goals and Targets of the framework. It will continue to be developed and enhanced in the coming years by the Subsidary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Avice and the Conference of the Parties. To help with this process an Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group for the monitoring framework has also been established.
Decision 15/6 : Mechanisms for planning, monitoring, reporting and review
An enhanced planning, monitoring, reporting and review mechanism was adopted to help track the progress in the implementation of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework. This mechanism, as well as the broader issues related to enhanced responsibility and transparency, is reflected in Section J of the Framework on ‘Responsibility and Transparency’. The enhanced multidimensional approach to planning, monitoring, reporting and review includes the following elements:
(a) National biodiversity strategies and action plans (NBSAPs), revised or updated in alignment with the Kunming-Montreal global biodiversity framework;
(b) National reports, making used of the agreed indicators as appropriate, submitted in 2026 and 2029;
(c) Global analysis of information in NBSAPs to assess the contribution towards the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework considered at meetings of the Conference of the Parties;
(d) Global review of collective progress in the implementation to be considered at the seventeenth and nineteenth meetings of the Conference of the Parties;
(e) Voluntary peer reviews (VPR) of NBSAP Revision and Implementation;
(f) Further development and testing of an open-ended forum for voluntary county reviews;
(g) Information on non-state actor commitments towards the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework;
Decision 15/7 : Resource Mobilization
The mobilization of adequate financial resources is key for the successful implementation of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework and is reflected in Goal D, Target 19 and further fleshed out in the complementary decision on resource mobilization. Recognizing the urgency to increase international biodiversity finance, COP in decision 15/7, decided to establish the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework Fund under the Global Environment Facility (GEF). Parties requested the GEF to take the requisite steps with a view to the establishment of the fund in 2023. The COP also adopted building blocks for the first phase of a strategy for resource mobilization, seeking to increase both international and domestic biodiversity finance from all sources. Parties decided to review and strengthen the strategy at its next meeting, including by exploring proposals for a global instrument on biodiversity finance based on a gap analysis of the international biodiversity funding landscape. The COP encouraged Parties to develop national finance plans or similar instruments in order to give effect to resource mobilization at the domestic level. Parties established an advisory committee on resource mobilization to advance the requisite analytical and conceptual work during the intersessional period in the lead up to COP 16.
Decision 15/8 : Capacity-building and development and technical and scientific cooperation
In decision 15/8, the Parties, among other things, adopted a long-term strategic framework for capacity building and development (Annex I) to support nationally determined priorities for the implementation of the Kunming-Montreal global biodiversity framework. The long-term framework outlines the expected high-level capacity results; provides a menu of guiding principles and key strategies and approaches for improving the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of capacity-building and development initiatives and programmes; and describes mechanisms to facilitate and support its implementation at the global, regional and country level. For further information, please refer to the capacity development pages.
COP 15 also established a technical and scientific cooperation mechanism comprising a network of regional and/or subregional support centres to be coordinated at the global level by a coordination entity (Annex II). It also established an informal advisory group on technical and scientific cooperation to provide strategic advice on practical measures, tools and opportunities to promote and facilitate technical and scientific cooperation, technology transfer, capacity-building and development, knowledge management, and the clearing-house mechanism in support of the Kunming-Montreal global biodiversity framework (Annex III). For further information, please refer to technical and scientific cooperation pages.
Decision 15/9 : Digital Sequence Information
Digital sequence information (DSI) on genetic resources emerged as a cross-cutting issue during the UN Biodiversity Conference in 2016. Since then, a number of activities, including an ad hoc technical expert group (AHTEG), studies, an informal advisory group, and a range of informal meetings have taken place to deliberate the principle of fair and equitable sharing of the benefits that arise from the use of DSI and a potential policy governance framework. DSI was also taken up in the context of the AHTEG on the post-2020 global biodiversity framework leading up to the fifteenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP 15).
Part two COP 15 was held in Montreal in December 2022. At this meeting, the COP adopted the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (decision 15/4) and a number of related decisions, including decision 15/9 on digital sequence information on genetic resources.
Some fundamental principles for the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the use of DSI were agreed upon and a multilateral mechanism for benefit-sharing from the use of DSI, including a global fund, was established. Parties also agreed on a fair, transparent, inclusive, participatory and time-bound process to further develop and operationalize the mechanism that was agreed upon, encompassing a number of activities for the intersessional period leading up to COP 16.