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Monaco - Overview

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The designations employed and the presentation of material on this map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity or the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.


Biodiversity Facts

Status and trends of biodiversity, including benefits from biodiversity and ecosystem services

Monaco is located on the northern Mediterranean coast and bordered by France on its other three sides. It is the second smallest and the most densely populated country in the world. This narrow strip of hilly and rocky land comprises 202 hectares only, of which 53 hectares have been reclaimed from the sea. This process of creating new land has resulted in the alteration or disappearance of a large portion of the country’s shallow coastal areas... More »

Main pressures on and drivers of change to biodiversity (direct and indirect)

The main causes of biodiversity loss are habitat degradation and loss, terrestrial and marine pollution, invasive alien species, and climate change.

Measures to Enhance Implementation of the Convention

Implementation of the NBSAP

Monaco has not yet developed an NBSAP however its policy on sustainable development aims to preserve Monaco’s natural heritage and implement its climate and energy plan, among other objectives.

Actions taken to achieve the 2020 Aichi Biodiversity Targets

Monaco’s industrial sector comprises 100 small, non-polluting and high value-added industries.

Monaco has established a series of positive incentives relevant to biodiversity and the environment (e.g. grant for the purchase of a clean vehicle; grant for the installation of a solar thermal system; incentive for electrical production from photovoltaic devices)... More »

Support mechanisms for national implementation (legislation, funding, capacity-building, coordination, mainstreaming, etc.)

Monaco regularly updates its regulations to meet the requirements of international conventions. In 2011, Chapter 4 (“Exploitation of Living Resources”) of its Maritime Code was amended by ordinance to update the list of species protected within the context of the fisheries sector, with insertion of species contained in Annex 2 of the Barcelona Convention... More »

Mechanisms for monitoring and reviewing implementation

Monaco conducts a series of scientific inventories and mapping of its territory on an annual basis to assess habitat quality and establish appropriate management measures. Issues related to the identification, management and eradication of invasive alien species are taken into consideration.

National Contacts

Full details of national contacts »

Convention on Biological Diversity

Madame Céline van Klaveren-Impagliazzo
CBD Primary NFP, CHM NFP
M. Raphael Simonet
Protected Areas NFP

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

Madame Céline van Klaveren-Impagliazzo
BCH NFP

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  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme