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Indonesia - Overview

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Biodiversity Facts

Status and trends of biodiversity, including benefits from biodiversity and ecosystem services

Indonesia’s archipelago comprises approximately 17,000 islands, of which around 990 are permanently inhabited. There are 7 major biogeographic regions in Indonesia, centered on the major islands and their surrounding seas. Conservation International considers Indonesia to be one of the 17 “megadiverse” countries, with 2 of the world’s 25 “hotspots”, 18 World Wildlife Fund’s “Global 200” ecoregions and 24 of Bird Life International’s “Endemic Bird Areas”... More »

Main pressures on and drivers of change to biodiversity (direct and indirect)

The main factors affecting biodiversity loss and species extinction in Indonesia are habitat degradation and fragmentation, landscape changes, overexploitation, pollution, climate change, alien species, forest and land fires, and the economic and political crises occurring in the country.

Lowland forest, which is the most diverse area for biodiversity, is the most threatened forest due to the conversion of land use, moving farms, irreversible forest management, development of infrastructure, mining, fires and various illegal activities... More »

Measures to Enhance Implementation of the Convention

Implementation of the NBSAP

In 1993, the National Development Planning Agency produced the Biodiversity Action Plan for Indonesia (BAPI). The document was published prior to CBD ratification in 1994. The BAPI prioritized in situ conservation measures, both inside and outside protected areas, as well as ex situ conservation. In 2003, a second document titled the “Indonesian Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (IBSAP)” was developed with a focus on achieving five goals: 1) to encourage changes in attitude and behavior of Indonesian individuals and society, as well as in existing institutions and legal instruments, so as to increase concern about conservation and utilization of biodiversity, for the welfare of the community, in harmony with national laws and international conventions; 2) to apply scientific and technological inputs, and local wisdom; 3) to implement balanced conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity; 4) to strengthen institutions and law enforcement; and 5) to resolve conflicts over natural resources... More »

Actions taken to achieve the 2020 Aichi Biodiversity Targets

In situ conservation is carried out through the establishment of conservation areas, such as biosphere reserves, wildlife sanctuaries, national parks, ecotourism parks, forest parks and hunting parks. Coverage of these areas increased from 7.628 million ha in 1981 to 27.968 million ha in 2007. Community-based forestry projects, covering 2 million ha, have also been established... More »

Support mechanisms for national implementation (legislation, funding, capacity-building, coordination, mainstreaming, etc.)

Biodiversity issues have been integrated into the sectoral strategic plans of the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Ministry of Forestry, Agency for Agriculture Research and Development (under the Ministry of Agriculture), and the Research Center for Biology of the Indonesian Institute of Sciences.

One policy priority in the Ministry of Forestry’s Strategic Plan (2005-2009) is the rehabilitation and conservation of forest resources... More »

Mechanisms for monitoring and reviewing implementation

Indonesia is in the process of updating the Indonesia Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (2003) to 2020. The updated IBSAP will be mainstreamed into sectoral policies and programmes through its integration in the Medium-term National Development Plan (2014-2019). The updated IBSAP will also include elements for monitoring and evaluating implementation at the national and local levels... More »

National Contacts

Full details of national contacts »

Convention on Biological Diversity

Mr. Arief Yuwono
CBD Primary NFP, ICNP ABS NFP
Dr. Dedy Darnaedi
SBSTTA NFP
Dr. Elizabeth Anita Widjaja
SBSTTA NFP
Dr. Teguh Triono
GTI NFP
Dr. Didik Widyatmoko
GSPC NFP
Dr. Irawati
GSPC NFP
Dr. Utami Andayani
GSPC NFP
Mr. Sonny Partono
Protected Areas NFP

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

Mr. Arief Yuwono
Cartagena Protocol Primary NFP
Ir. Antung Deddy Radiansyah
BCH NFP

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  • United Nations Environment Programme