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India - Overview

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Biodiversity Facts

Status and trends of biodiversity, including benefits from biodiversity and ecosystem services

India is one of the recognized mega-diverse countries of the world, harbouring nearly 7-8% of the recorded species of the world, and representing 4 of the 34 globally identified biodiversity hotspots (Himalaya, Indo-Burma, Western Ghats and Sri Lanka, Sundaland). India is also a vast repository of traditional knowledge associated with biological resources... More »

Main pressures on and drivers of change to biodiversity (direct and indirect)

The main threats to biodiversity include: habitat fragmentation, degradation and loss; over-exploitation of resources; shrinking genetic diversity; invasive alien species; declining forest resource base; climate change and desertification; impact of development projects; impact of pollution. In the backdrop of the varying socio-cultural milieu and often conflicting demands of various stakeholders, there is an urgent need for augmenting and accelerating the efforts for conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, and for the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilisation of genetic resources... More »

Measures to Enhance Implementation of the Convention

Implementation of the NBSAP

Pursuant to the CBD, a first major step was the development of the National Policy and Macrolevel Action Strategy (1999) that called for consolidating existing biodiversity conservation programmes and initiating new steps in conformity with the spirit of the Convention. This was followed by implementation of a UNDP/GEF-sponsored NBSAP Project (2000-2004) that yielded micro-level action plans adequately integrating crosscutting issues and livelihood security concerns... More »

Actions taken to achieve the 2020 Aichi Biodiversity Targets

The protected area network in India has been used as a tool to manage natural resources for biodiversity conservation and for the well-being of resource-dependent populations. So far, India has established a network of 679 Protected Areas (PAs), extending over 1,62,365.49 km2 (4.9% of the total geographic area) and comprising 102 National Parks, 517 Wildlife Sanctuaries, four Community Reserves and 56 Conservation Reserves... More »

Support mechanisms for national implementation (legislation, funding, capacity-building, coordination, mainstreaming, etc.)

The conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, based on local knowledge systems and practices, are engrained in Indian ethos and enshrined in the Constitution of India (Article 48A and Article 51(g)). Key laws, strategies and policies related to biodiversity include the Biodiversity Act (2002), National Wildlife Action Plan (2002-2016), National Environmental Policy (2006), NBAP (2008) and NAP for Climate Change (2008)... More »

Mechanisms for monitoring and reviewing implementation

Various monitoring programs have been put in place in several ecosystems as well as for particular species (e.g. monitoring of the Illegal Killing of Elephants (MIKE); participatory natural resource monitoring in selected villages in Uttara Kannada district; monitoring of climate change and forests; monitoring of genetic variation using techniques such as DNA fingerprinting under LaCONES; pollution monitoring and control; monitoring for Success in World Natural Heritage Sites under the UNESCO-IUCN project ‘Enhancing Our Heritage: the management effectiveness evaluation of Keoladev National Park, Rajasthan and Kaziranga National Park’; and water quality monitoring stations which have been further upscaled to over 158 in 10 rivers)... More »

National Contacts

Full details of national contacts »

Convention on Biological Diversity

Mr. Hem Pande
CBD Primary NFP, CHM NFP, ICNP ABS NFP, GTI NFP, Resource Mobilization FP
Dr. (Ms.) Sujata Arora
SBSTTA NFP, GSPC NFP
Dr. V. B. Mathur
Protected Areas NFP
Mr. A.K. Goyal
Resource Mobilization FP

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

Mr. Hem Pande
Cartagena Protocol Primary NFP
Dr. Ranjini Warrier
BCH NFP

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