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Ghana - Overview

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Main References

National Website

Biodiversity Facts

Status and trends of biodiversity, including benefits from biodiversity and ecosystem services

Ghana is situated in West Africa and possesses tropical high forests and savannahs. There are a total of 3,600 species of flora in the country representing the three major taxonomic groups. There is only one known gymnosperm, the West African cycad (Encephalartos barteri), which is indigenous to Ghana. Current records reveal that there could be as many as 221 species of amphibians and reptiles, 728 species of birds (15 species of waterbirds occur in internationally-important numbers) and 225 mammalian species... More »

Main pressures on and drivers of change to biodiversity (direct and indirect)

Major threats to biodiversity include land-use conversions, habitat degradation, over-exploitation, invasive alien species, climate change, predation, wild fires and poaching. Land use conversions involve large-scale farming and mono-cultural plantations (e.g. teak (Tectona grandis) which is an exotic tropical hardwood species planted in lieu of native species)... More »

Measures to Enhance Implementation of the Convention

Implementation of the NBSAP

Some of the obstacles to NBSAP implementation include: inappropriate methods of mainstreaming biodiversity issues into sectoral and sub-sectoral programs due to lack of coordination among the biodiversity-related MEAs, lack of information, indiscriminate use of agrochemicals, unsustainable eating habits and lack of ability to use cost-benefit analysis for biodiversity, lack of resource mobilization strategies to ensure sustainability... More »

Actions taken to achieve the 2020 Aichi Biodiversity Targets

The rate of degradation and loss of habitat are not decreasing due to increasing social and economic pressures. Approximately 16% (more than 38,000 km2) of the total land area of Ghana is under some form of protection; another 20-30% or more is under plantation of predominantly cash and food crops. The protected areas in the forests, dry and sub-humid lands (savannah) as well as inland water and marine and coastal areas have been the most effective areas for national implementation of the Convention... More »

Support mechanisms for national implementation (legislation, funding, capacity-building, coordination, mainstreaming, etc.)

Ghana has developed a Shared Growth Development Agenda (GSGDA) (2010-2013) which has strategies for the promotion of science, technology, maintenance of the quality of the environment and integration of environmental concerns into development policies. There are three main policies for forestry (Forest and Wildlife Policy (1994), Wildfire Policy, National Bio-safety in biotechnology guidelines)... More »

Mechanisms for monitoring and reviewing implementation

Pair trawling was recognized as a threat and is banned on the coast of Ghana. The ban is enforced by the Navy that is involved with arresting offenders and imposing punitive measures. However, in general, there is a lack of compliance with and monitoring of the policies of fisheries and agriculture, amongst others. The current number of forest reserves (291) and wildlife protected areas (15) constitute the permanent forest estate of Ghana which is under the control and monitoring of the Forestry Commission... More »

National Contacts

Full details of national contacts »

Convention on Biological Diversity

Mr. Fredua Agyeman
CBD Primary NFP, SBSTTA NFP, ICNP ABS NFP
Mr. Eric Amaning Okoree
CHM NFP, Traditional Knowledge NFP
Prof. Alfred A. Oteng-Yeboah
SBSTTA NFP
Dr. Lawrence Aboagye Misa
ICNP ABS NFP, GSPC NFP

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

Mr. Fredua Agyeman
Cartagena Protocol Primary NFP
Mr. Eric Amaning Okoree
BCH NFP

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  • United Nations Environment Programme