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Nepal - Overview

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Please note that this country profile has been prepared by the Secretariat on the basis of information provided in the NBSAP and national reports, but has not been reviewed by the Party concerned.

Main References

National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (v.2)

Fifth National Report



Biodiversity Facts

Status and trends of biodiversity, including benefits from biodiversity and ecosystem services

Nepal’s biodiversity is a reflection of its unique geographic position, wide altitudinal variations and diverse climatic conditions that result in five main physiographic zones (from tropical to nival) within a short horizontal span. Situated in the central Himalaya, about 86% of the total land area is covered by hills and high mountains, and the remaining 14% comprises the flat lands of the Terai that are less than 300m in elevation... More »

Main pressures on and drivers of change to biodiversity (direct and indirect)

Despite the importance of biodiversity, ecosystems are being reduced at an alarming rate due to forest fire, habitat destruction, growing human population, overharvesting, unmanaged tourism, pollution, overfishing, poaching, indiscriminate product extraction, infrastructure expansion, climate change, etc.

Primary threats to biodiversity in the mountains and high Himalayas include poverty, ecological fragility and environmental instability, inappropriate management of natural resources and faulty farming practices... More »

Measures to Enhance Implementation of the Convention

Implementation of the NBSAP

The Nepal Biodiversity Strategy Implementation Plan (2006-2010), developed in 2006, identifies 13 priority concept projects to be implemented by relevant executing agencies (mostly national) in consultation with the concerned stakeholders. The objectives of the Nepal Biodiversity Strategy Implementation Plan set for the period of 2006-2010 were to: 1) conserve biodiversity of Nepal within and outside protected areas 2) identify, develop and establish legislative, policy and strategic measures necessary to conserve, sustainably utilise and provide access to and share the benefits of Nepal’s biological resources 3) conserve endangered species of wildlife 4) develop legislation, sub-sectoral policies and strategic measures 5) develop sustainable eco-friendly rural tourism 6) domesticate non-timber forest product and explore marketing opportunities for poverty reduction... More »

Actions taken to achieve the 2020 Aichi Biodiversity Targets

Nepal has established an impressive system of protected areas for the conservation of biodiversity, focusing on species, ecosystems, habitats and biomes. Initiatives from the Government, NGOs and community-based organizations have led to the formation of Forest User Groups for in situ conservation of biodiversity. Therefore, community involvement, buffer zones, leasehold for the poor and private forest programmes have been highly encouraged and implemented throughout the country... More »

Support mechanisms for national implementation (legislation, funding, capacity-building, coordination, mainstreaming, etc.)

A wide array of biodiversity conservation policies, plans and legislative instruments have been formulated and promulgated, providing opportunities to maintain habitats, and/or reduce the population decline of important species. Nepal has signed more than 20 international agreements and obligations, translating many of them into national policies and acts... More »

Mechanisms for monitoring and reviewing implementation

The Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, with its five departments (Forest, National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, Plant Resources, Forest Research and Survey, Soil Conservation and Watershed Management) and two divisions (Environment and Monitoring and Evaluation) are primarily responsible for project implementation, monitoring and evaluation... More »

National Contacts

Full details of national contacts »

Convention on Biological Diversity

Mr. Braj Kishor Yadav
CBD Primary NFP, CHM NFP, ICNP ABS NFP, Resource Mobilization FP
Mr. Sagar Kumar Rimal
SBSTTA NFP
Ms. Madhu Devi Ghimire
GTI NFP
Mr. Hari Bhadra Acharya
Protected Areas NFP

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

Mr. Braj Kishor Yadav
Cartagena Protocol Primary NFP, BCH NFP

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  • United Nations Environment Programme