Status and Trends of Biodiversity
The main ecosystems in Uzbekistan include lowland desert, mountain and inland water ecosystems, some of which are included as “Eco-regions 200.” They provide important habitats for migratory species. More than 27,000 species are found in Uzbekistan. Among them there are over 15,000 animals and 4500 higher plants. These include: 83 fish; 3 amphibian; 59 reptile; 424 bird and 97 mammal species. Among them, 30 reptiles, 8 birds and 15 mammals are endemic. The major threats to biodiversity in Uzbekistan include unsustainable agriculture, pesticides, soil erosion, water pollution, deforestation, shrinking of lakes and climate change. In addition, land clearing for agriculture, water irrigation projects, overuse of pastures as well as mining and drilling activities have strong impacts on ecosystems in Uzbekistan. There are 27 mammals, 62 birds, 14 reptiles and 10 fish in which are identified as endangered species. 182 animal species and 301 plant species are considered extinct.
Number and Extent of Protected Areas
24 protected areas have been established, of which there is 1 Ramsar site and 1 Biosphere Reserve. Protected areas account for 5.8% of the total land area of the country.
Percentage of Forest Cover
Forests cover a total of 1,969,000 ha, with 1,669,000 ha of natural forest and 300,000 ha of plantations.