Implementation of the Convention
Measures Taken to Achieve the 2010 Target
To better understand Brazil’s extraordinary biodiversity there are several ongoing projects for the identification of species. These include the Ducke Reserve Flora Project, which has recorded approximately 5,000 woody plants over 5 years. Projects aimed at the protection of threatened species include the program for the protection of endangered species of the Brazilian Atlantic forest, which now covers less than 8% of its original surface and is still subject to intense destruction. There is also the Groupers Project which ensures the protection of the itajara grouper for 5 years and reinforces the need for scientific research on its biology. Other projects include the Muriqui Preservation Programme, the Piabanha Projects, the Chelonia Project, and the Turtle Friend Project. There are also several ex-situ conservation programmes such as for the reintroduction of manatees and rock cavies.
The Project for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Brazilian Biodiversity supports the elaboration of a national report on invasive alien species, which will compile important information on the country’s needs and priorities. There is also specific legislation for problematic species and ongoing projects include the Alien Plants project and a Global Invasive Species Program. Sustainable natural resource use initiatives include a financial compensation programme for smallholder farmers who maintain permanent preservation areas with native vegetation cover and an Atlantic forest incentive prize for municipal initiatives fostering a decentralized environmental management approach.
Initiatives in Protected Areas
Considering only the federal units and excluding Private Reserves of the Natural Heritage, approximately 7% of the Brazilian territory is protected under conservation units. Of this area, 43% is under integral protection and 52% is destined for sustainable use. Brazil’s protected areas include 8 Ramsar sites, the largest of which is the Reentrâncias Maranhenses Environmental Protection Area covering over 2.6 million ha. Projects to increase the area under protection include the enlargement of the Grande Sertão Veredas National Park and the Ticuja National Park, as well as the creation of a new ecological station, biological reserve and national park. This will result, among other things, in the addition of 110,243 ha of protected areas to the Atlantic Forest Biome. In addition, management plans were created for 23 protected areas over the period 2002-2004 and several others are under preparation.
Initiatives for Article 8(j)
Mechanisms are in place to allow the participation of traditional knowledge holders in the decision-making processes, such as the Genetic Heritage Management Council, the National Biodiversity Commission, and the National Environmental Council. Through the National Biodiversity Strategy Project, Brazil supported the elaboration of a synthesis on biodiversity-related traditional knowledge in Brazil through an inventory of all work published during the last 20 years on the knowledge and use of biodiversity by traditional peoples in Brazil. Most titles refer to Amazonian populations, followed by coastal and Cerrado populations, but it is worth noting that of the 206 indigenous nations in Brazil, only 106 had their traditional knowledge studied. Several projects are being implemented such as Zero Hunger and Sustainable Development in Indigenous Communities, Ethnic Identity and Cultural Heritage of Indigenous Peoples, and the Brazilian Indigenous Peoples Program. There is also a Brazilian Program for Valuing and Protecting Traditional Knowledge Associated to Biodiversity, which involves communities possessing traditional knowledge in the implementation of legislation on access and benefit-sharing, through the creation of a network for information dissemination and for processing complaints.