Implementation of the Convention
Measures Taken to Achieve the 2010 Target
The current system of specially protected natural territories (EPNT) in Russia has been in place for about 100 years and now comprises more than 13,000 sites, covering about 11% of Russia's territory. State nature reserves and national parks represent the most essential parts of the EPNT system embracing about 41 million hectares of the territory of Russia. The number of state nature reserves and national parks is 101 and 39, respectively.
The legislative basis to provide EPNT activities is available in the country. The government of the Russian Federation has laid down provisions for the creation of 9 new state nature reserves and 12 national parks by 2010. It is worth mentioning that 8 new state nature reserves and 8 new national parks are currently under development, in addition to the state nature reserves and national parks that have been established over the 2005-2007 period.
Another instrument that serves biodiversity conservation goals in Russia is the Red Book of the Russian Federation that is maintained on a regular basis. The Red Book of the Russian Federation, along with other information, contain data on the status of endangered animal and plant species. Constituent entities of the Russian Federation also develop Red Books for their regions. Based on this information, necessary actions, including the development of strategies for the conservation and restoration of these species, are taken.
The National Strategy of Biodiversity Conservation in Russia has been developed. Along with other goals, it aims to:
• develop and implement strategies and action plans aimed at the conservation of specific types of ecosystems, such as drylands, wetlands, mountains • develop and implement strategies and action plans aimed at the conservation of species of endangered plants and animals • involve and develop economic mechanisms for biodiversity conservation • undertake scientific environmental research, as well as legal, economic and educational analyses and research • conduct education and public awareness activities • prevent the spread of invasive alien species and genetically modified organisms
The restoration of bison species in their natural habitats is an example of successful restoration activities and implementation of the National Strategy of Biodiversity Conservation in Russia. Strategies aimed at the restoration of the Amur tiger, Far Eastern Leopard, snow leopards and bison have been developed. These restoration activities are carried out in collaboration with various NGOs, international and national organizations.
Some progress has been achieved in regard to forest conservation. A voluntary forest certification, supported by the Federal Forestry Agency of the Russian Federation, is being developed. The conservation and sustainable use of forests are its key principles.
There is a stronger control system for trade in rare species that falls under CITES. Russia is developing and implementing policies and programmes to address threats to biodiversity due to global warming in the Russian arctic region.
Current national legislation generally corresponds with international norms, with consideration given to the specific lifestyle of indigenous people, recognizing their traditional dependence upon the environment. Indigenous people, their knowledge and practices, are becoming more widely integrated in the management process for socio-economic development in regions which also promotes biodiversity conservation.
Initiatives in Protected Areas
The current system of especially protected natural territories (EPNT) in Russia has been established for about 100 years and is now composed of over 13,000 sites, covering about 11% of the Russian territory.
The legislative base to provide EPNT activities is in place in Russia. The Russian Federation Government has laid down provisions for creating reserves and national parks in its Special Order dated 23.05.2001 N 725-r. A number of constituent entities of the Russian Federation are expanding regional systems of EPNT. The Russian Federation system of EPNT is effective enough to perform global ecosystem functions.
Initiatives in Access and Benefit Sharing
In Russia the implementation of the Convention requirements related to access to genetic resources is mainly through the formulation of relevant scientific research strategy and identification of legal, economic and institutional measures to apply results of the researches.
Thematic Report on Access and Benefit Sharing - Russian
Thematic Report on Access and Benefit Sharing - Russian
Initiatives for Article 8(j)
The National Strategy of Biodiversity Conservation in Russia envisages a comprehensive list of objectives to ensure respect, preservation and maintenance of knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities reflecting their traditional lifestyles and having importance for biodiversity conservation and sustainable use.
The current national legislation in this regard generally corresponds with the international norms in many aspects and considers lifestyles specific to indigenous people, recognizing traditional dependence of indigenous population upon the environment. Numerous indigenous people are being involved and their knowledge and practices used more widely in the regional management system of the social and economic development, which promotes biodiversity conservation as well.
At the federal and local levels, non-governmental organizations of indigenous people have been influential enough to advocate actively interests of indigenous people. Activities of these organizations promote the development of traditional land management and preservation of traditional knowledge.