Convention on Biological Diversity Identification & Monitoring // Tested Indicators Monday // 4.30.2007 Available and potential indicators reported by 52 Parties and other Governments between May 2001 and February 2003 Indicators for general application Total area of protected areas (use IUCN definition of protected areas)Percentage of protected area to total areaSize and distribution of protected areasPercentage area in strictly protected statusNumber of endemic/threatened/ endangered/vulnerable species by groupSoil qualityExistence of institutional capacity, policy and regulatory framework for the planning, management and conservation of biological diversitySpecies threatened with extinction (number or percent)Endemic species threatened with extinctionEndemic species in protected areasThreatened species in protected areasDiversity of native faunaSpecies with decreasing populationsSpecies richness (number, number per unit area, number per habitat areaDensity of road networkRecorded species present by groupSpecies used by local residentsPopulation growth and fluctuation trends of special interest speciesThreatened species in ex-situ collectionsSpecies group: total number versus threatened speciesTemporal change in number of species (increase/decrease)Species with stable or increasing populationsSpecies threatened with extirpationSex ratio, age distribution and other aspects of population structure for sensitive species, keystone species, and other special interest speciesIndigenous species present by groupChange in number and/or distribution of keystone or indicator speciesThreatened species with viable ex-situ populationsChange in habitat boundariesNumber of introduced species and genomesChange in composition of species over timeNon-indigenous species present by groupChanges in average size of a particular habitat typeChange in presence, location, area, numbers of invasive plant or animal speciesQuantity of specimens or species of economic/scientific interest removed from the environmentChanges in limiting factors for key species e.g. nest holes for parrots, fruit bat roosting treesSlope failure (landslides)Diversity in total area of a particular habitat typeSpatial differences in the number of rare vs. common speciesChanges in largest block of a particular habitat typeSpecies risk indexSpecies with small populations vs. larger population sizeSpatial differences in the restricted vs. wide range speciesPercentage of area dominated by non-domesticated speciesRepresentativeness of intra-specific variability of endangered and economically important speciesVolcanic unrestPresence of taxa on environmental integrityKarst activityRelative wilderness indexChange in mean nearest distance between blocks of a particular habitat typeDegree of connectivity of food webChange in average width of break in an identified habitat corridorPercentage of area dominated by non domesticated species occurring in patches greater than 1,000 km2Frozen ground activity Indicators of forest biodiversity Total forest areaTotal forest area as a percentage of total land areaPercentage forest cover by forest type (primary, secondary or plantation)List of flora and faunaPercentage protected area of total forest areaReforested and afforested areasForest area change by forest type (primary, secondary or plantation)Number of extinct, endangered, threatened, vulnerable and endemic forest dependent species by group (e.g. birds, mammals, vertebrates, invertebrates)Number and size of forest firesChange in land use, conversion of forest land to other land uses (deforestation rate)Contribution of forest sector to GDPArea and percentage of forest area affected by anthropogenic effects (logging, harvesting for subsistence)Absolute and relative abundance, density, basal area, cover, of various speciesPercentage forest managed for wood productionExistence of procedures for identifying endangered, rare, and threatened speciesNumber of threatened, keystone, flagship speciesExisting strategies for in situ/ex situ conservation of genetic variation within commercial, endangered, rare and threatened species of forest flora and fauna.Percentage protected area with clearly defined boundariesAnnual volume and area of timber harvested-indigenous and plantationArea and percentage of forest area affected by natural disasters (insect attack, disease, fire and flooding)Number and extent of invasive speciesPercentage forest protected areas (by forest type, age, class, and successional stage)Wood harvesting intensityManaged forest ratioChanges in the proportions of stands managed for conservation and utilization of genetic resources (gene reserves, seed collection stands, etc.)Per capita wood consumptionExtent of mixed standsEstimate of carbon storedPercentage forest land managed for recreation and tourism to total forest areaNumber of forest dependent species whose populations are decliningFragmentation of forestsThreatened tree species as a percentage of the 20 most used for commercial purposesArea and extent of degraded lands reclaimed through forest operationsArea and percentage of forests managed for catchment protectionSelf-regenerating area as a percentage of total areaPopulation levels of representative species from diverse habitats monitored across their rangeSelf-regenerating area per habitat typeRatio between exotic species and native species in plantation areaForest conversion affecting rare ecosystems by areaArea and length and numbers of biological corridorsRelationship between forest cover and frequency of flooding Indicators of agricultural biodiversity Use of agricultural pesticidesAgricultural area by crops (cereal, oil crops, forage, woodlands)Change in area of agricultural land (conversion to or from agriculture)Agricultural area (intensively farmed, semi-intensively farmed and uncultivated)Species diversity used for foodIntensification and extensification of agricultural land useErosion/Loss of genetic diversity patrimonyReplacement of landraces with few imported onesCrops/livestock grown as a percentage of number of 30 years beforeReplacement of indigenous cropsNumber of species threatened by agriculture by group (e.g. birds, mammals, vascular plants, vertebrates, invertebrates)Accession of crops and livestock in ex-situ storage (number or percentage)Number of vertebrate species using habitat on agricultural land by species.Accessions of crops generated in the past decade (per cent)Differences in species diversity and abundance of arthropods and earthworms in organically and conventionally cultivated arable landCoefficient of kinship or parentage of cropsRate of change from dominance of non-domesticated species to domesticated speciesInbreeding/outbreeding rateRate of genetic interchange between populations (measured by rate of dispersal and subsequent reproduction of migrants) Indicators of inland waters biodiversity Surface water quality: Nitrogen, Dissolved oxygen, pH, pesticides, heavy metals, temperatureGround water quality: nitrates, salinity, toxicantsBiological Oxygen Demand (BOD) on water bodies (re: eutrophication)Fish family diversityWetland areaGroundwater level (water table level)Benthic macroinvertebrates: communitiesStream flowNumber of inland fish species introducedNumber of endemic flora and faunaNumber of extinct, endangered, threatened/endangered/vulnerable/ endemic inland water species by group (e.g. birds, aquatic mammals, invertebrates, amphibians, vascular plants, bottom fauna)Macrophytes: species composition and depth distributionThreatened freshwater fish species as a % total freshwater fish species knownChanges in fish catches by speciesIndicator speciesNumber of exotic flora and fauna species (e.g. fish, aquatic weeds)Changes in distribution and abundance of native flora and faunaSpecies richness (number per unit area, number per habitat)Stream sediment storage and loadExtent of wetland drainage and fillingChanges in vegetation type along water coursesWater resource vulnerability indexRatio between maximum sustained yield and actual average abundanceGlacier fluctuations Indicators of marine and coastal biodiversity Change in proportion of fish catches by species per specific seasonThreatened fish species as a percentage of total fish species knownEscherichia coli counts and nutrient levels as % of baseline levelsLake levels and salinityShoreline positionPercentage coastal zone with populations exceeding 100 inhabitants/km2Coral chemistry and growth patternAnnual rate of mangrove conversionAlgae indexNumber of large scale bottom trawling vessels per 1 000 km of coastal areaSurface displacementFrozen ground activityAmount of poison chemicals and dynamite used for reef fishing.