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Bolivia (Plurinational State of) - Main Details

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Status and Trends of Biodiversity


The varieties of physical components, which have a correlation with the country’s biological diversity, include 4 biomes, 14 ecoregions and 199 ecosystems. The main biomes are jungle, forest, savannah, tundra, steppe, desert and wetlands. At the moment, more than 14,000 higher plant species, 325 mammals, 186 amphibians, 260 reptiles, 550 fish species and 1,379 birds are inventoried. There is a large amount of endemism found within the vertebrate species, with 16% of mammals, 22% of fish, 20% of reptiles and 42% of birds endemic to Bolivia. The actual state of ecosystems varies according to the country’s regions. The regions most affected are the deserts, steppe, tundra, inter-Andean valleys and the Chaco due mainly to overgrazing, inadequate agricultural practices, tree felling and burning of forests. Other ecosystems are threatened by: demographic pressures, loss of forest cover, inappropriate use of technology, ecosystem use above their productive capacity and potential. Almost 2% of flora and 10.7% of vertebrate species are considered threatened.

Number and Extent of Protected Areas

There are over 40 protected areas in existence, legally created but with no proper management, and correspond to about 16% of the total national territory.

National Biodiversity Strategy Action Plan

Major features of National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan

The National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan was designed with 5 areas of intervention: conservation of ecosystems, species and genetic resources of important cultural, ecological and economic value; attraction of investments in products and environmental services of biodiversity; strengthening of national capacity for management of biodiversity; and education, sensitization and social control for the management of biodiversity. These 5 areas integrate the priority themes identified in the national counsel such as institutional capacity, financial resources and species and ecosystem restoration, and include more than 22 programs and 125 work projects.

Implementation of the Convention

Initiatives in Protected Areas

The National System of Protected Areas (NSPA) was created with the main objective of strategic in situ conservation of different components of Bolivia’s biodiversity, so much in quantity as in quality. It is estimated that, from the total native plant and vertebrate species, 68% and 80% respectively are represented in the NSPA.

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  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme