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Kyrgyzstan - Main Details

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Status and Trends of Biodiversity


Kyrgyzstan is a mostly mountainous country, and covers a vast array of climatic habitats, ranging from polar to subtropical to temperate ecosystems, and providing the country with rich biological resources. With only 0.13% of the world’s landmass, Kyrgyzstan has 1% of the world’s known species. Species richness includes: 3,786 higher plants; 75 fish species; 4 amphibians; 33 reptiles; 368 birds and 83 mammals (including the Snow leopard, which is of spiritual significance to the Kyrgyz culture). There are 22 identified ecosystems in Kyrgyzstan. Most ecosystems are degraded, due mainly to overgrazing, logging, poaching and hunting. The severe economic crisis following independence in 1991 has also put severe pressure on biodiversity resources. Serious constraints hamper efforts to reduce or slowdown biodiversity loss including: the lack of a national coordinating body between agencies, ministries, NGOs and local communities; shortage of economic incentive measures; lack of political and public understanding of the role and importance of biodiversity; and complex regulating mechanisms. Due to a lack of institutional capacity, scientific information on the current state of biodiversity in Kyrgyzstan, excluding the most common species is lacking.

Number and Extent of Protected Areas

System of protected areas existing in Kyrgyzstan was formed 55 years ago, and there are 85 various objects forming a network of protected areas today; total area is 905 thousand hectares or 4.5 % of the republican territory.

National Biodiversity Strategy Action Plan

Major features of National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan

The overall objective of Kyrgyzstan’s NBSAP is the protection and sustainable use of biological diversity for socio-economic development. It provides a framework for biodiversity conversation, outlines mechanisms to deal with current issues regarding the protection and use of natural resources, and serves as an integrated action plan, giving precise details, time-scales, budgets and targets. This is a 5-year plan, and sets 11 targets that aim to be achieved. The main objectives are: to restore and conserve the most important species, ecosystems and landscapes; to increase the size of forested areas by 0.3%; to increase protected areas to 4.8%; to reduce pollution; to improve ecological legislation (by 2003); to improve public awareness on environmental issues; to enhance public institutions and NGOs through capacity building; to attract internal and external investors; and to assist in the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity while implementing a poverty reduction programme.

Implementation of the Convention

Measures Taken to Achieve the 2010 Target

Kyrgyzstan’s 2010 target is set within the nation’s Comprehensive Development Framework of the Kyrgyz Republic to 2010 (CDF). This programme sets out goals and trends for sustainable development. Main provisions of this document are aimed at creating specific measures required to make improvements in the political, social and economic situation. They include objectives and measures on environment protection to be implemented through 5 main tasks: improvement of the national policy; reduction of man-made impact on environment; reduction of level of land degradation; increased efficient use of water resources; reclamation of agricultural land; and biodiversity conservation and reproduction. State Forestry Programme currently implemented aims to ensure reforestation by 2010. The first step was to establish new protected areas covering more than 100 thousand hectares. At present, the protected areas cover about 4.8 % of the country’s territory, with an objective of 10% by 2010. In order to halt alien species introduction a project of plant guarantying was established, but for the moment it is not sufficient. A national programme for capacity building was developed, but implementation is hindered by lack in funding.

Initiatives in Protected Areas

In the Kyrgyz Republic, the Law “On Protected Areas” was adopted and entered into force as of May 28, 1994. There are definitions of various categories of protected areas but there is no explanation of the guidelines. Other documents on this topic are not developed.

Initiatives for Article 8(j)

Kyrgyzstan is developing a draft law for research and use of traditional knowledge as well as capacity-building for indigenous peoples. The Republic has not yet developed a national plan for the study and preservation of traditional knowledge, despite the fact that there are more than 40 tribes with a rich and proud heritage. However many steps have been taken to maintain traditional knowledge linked with production of medicine and natural dyes. Some projects are under way, such as the GEF in-situ/on-farm project, which studies, collects and shares information on traditional use of fruit cultures and their wild congeners. A draft law “On protection of traditional knowledge and genetic resources linked with traditional knowledge” was submitted to Parliament, which sets basic provisions for the state policy and legal, economic and social guarantees in the field of traditional knowledge. These provisions tend towards the sustainable development of the country and encourage conditions for fair and equitable distribution of benefits deriving from the use of traditional knowledge.

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  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme