Implementation of the NBSAP
Nicaragua elaborated the National Biodiversity Strategy in 2001, which is based on 6 objectives and strategic lines, namely:
• Improve biodiversity conservation, with consideration given to its integral role in the country’s development.
• Promote the economic viability of biodiversity, taking into account its richness and economic value, as well as the costs of its degradation for the country.
• Improve the country’s capacity in the fields of scientific research, monitoring and technical assistance for conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.
• Develop mechanisms and institutional tools to improve the country’s coordinated response capacity to address biodiversity degradation.
• Develop and implement legal tools to improve the country’s response capacity to address biodiversity degradation and loss.
• Improve the country's capacity to give attention to issues of education and citizen participation in actions that directly or indirectly promote respect for environmental conservation in Nicaraguan society, and that encourage changes in the attitudes of men and women regarding the sustainable management of the country’s biodiversity.
The defined strategic lines are:
• Biodiversity Conservation
• Economic viability of sustainable use of biodiversity
• Strengthening of an information and monitoring system for biodiversity
• Institutional management and inter-institutional coordination
• Harmonization of regulatory policies and legal framework
• Education and citizen participation
Nicaragua is currently in the process of updating the Biodiversity Strategy and will mainstream the mandates specified in the National Human Development Plan (NHDP 2012 -2016) in the updated version.
Actions taken to achieve the 2020 Aichi Biodiversity Targets
As stated in the previous section, Nicaragua is in the process of revising the National Biodiversity Strategy, a part of which is to mainstream the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. The guidelines of the National Human Development Plan (NHDP), which is the framework driving the country’s development, are contributing to implementing the global targets. The NHDP establishes the policies for the protection of Mother Earth, climate change adaptation and integrated disaster risk management, with the following areas of action, which are closely related to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets:
• Environmental Education for Life
• Defense and Environmental Protection of Natural Resources
• Forestry Development
• Conservation, Recovery, Collection and Water Harvesting
• Climate Change Mitigation, Adaptation and Risk Management
• Sustainable Land Management
• Regulate and control environmental pollution for the conservation of ecosystems and human health
• Prevent environmental impact of economic activities taking place in the country
Support mechanisms for national implementation (legislation, funding, capacity-building, coordination, mainstreaming, etc.)
The Government of Reconciliation and National Unity has established participatory public management and direct democracy as a practice promoting the participation of citizens, allowing for a wider involvement of organized citizenry and resulting in greater decision-making power, assumption of shared and harmonized responsibilities in local human development management among the different levels of government.
The Government promotes the establishment of strategic alliances for prosperity among the national government, local governments and organized citizens for municipal strengthening; promoting local development; direct democracy and decentralization to develop spatial planning that generates beneficial policies for families, with social audit.
These participatory mechanisms are strengthened by the operations of Sectoral Cabinets at the community, municipal, departmental and national levels, as well as by the Family, Health and Life Councils; Care of Water Sources Council and Disaster Prevention Councils. Other local organizational schemes are the Committees for the Protection, Care, Conservation and Collaboration of Protected Areas, the Committees for the Shared Management of Protected Areas, Committees for Potable Water and Sanitation, Basin Committees, the Environmental Youth Movement, among other organized groups.
Parallel to these organizational processes, the development and adoption of legal instruments, such as laws, mandatory regulations, ministerial resolutions and municipal ordinances, have been promoted, encouraging the protection and sustainable use of biodiversity. Among the more noteworthy are:
• Law No. 738
on the declaration of the Wildlife Refuge System of Cayos Perlas (21 October 2010) published in the Official Journal La Gaceta (No. 229 – 30 November 2010).
• Law No. 765
on the promotion of agro-ecological or organic production as a technological mechanism of the Strategy for Sovereignty and Food Security to ensure the sustainability of agriculture, protection and restoration of ecosystem integrity, biological diversity and natural processes that sustain life and achieve the common good of Mother Earth and humanity (April 2011).
• Law No. 807
on the Use and Conservation of Biodiversity which aims to regulate conservation and sustainable use of existing biological diversity in the country, ensuring fair and equitable participation and sharing of benefits arising from its use, with particular attention to indigenous and Afro-descendant communities, and respect for and recognition of intellectual property rights, traditional and customary ways of local communities (2012).
• Law No. 833
on the Creation of the Isla de Ometepe Biosphere Reserve and the Istian Inculta Peña Wildlife and Wetland Refuge; this law also modified the categorization of the Madera Volcano from natural reserve to national park (19 February 2013).
Also worth mentioning is the progress achieved in research and monitoring of species, as well as the implementation of projects aimed at supporting the sustainable use and conservation of biodiversity.
Mechanisms for monitoring and reviewing implementation
The National Environmental Information System (SINIA) is an established system for integrating the national environmental information network, constituted by public and private institutions, environmental organizations, universities, research centres, municipal and regional governments. These entities generate, exchange and make use of technical and scientific information on the state of the environment and natural resources, while also providing information for improving environmental management and increasing public awareness and education.
SINIA collects, systematizes and facilitates access to information and indicators at the national, regional and international levels. Through SINIA, national biodiversity indicators are monitored every two years and published in the magazine “Medio Ambiente en Cifras” (environment in figures).