Implementation of the NBSAP
Serbia’s Biodiversity Strategy (2011-2018) was adopted in 2011 in relation to the Law on the Verification of the Convention on Biological Diversity. The Biodiversity Strategy has been harmonized with the National Strategy for Sustainable Development, and with the principles of European Union (within the context of aligning Serbian legislation with EU legislation). The Biodiversity Action Plan defines 11 strategic areas, 28 objectives and more than 140 activities.
A preliminary analysis of NBSAP implementation established that most progress has been achieved in regard to the two strategic areas of ‘Conservation of Biodiversity’ and the ‘Protected Areas System’. No progress has yet been achieved regarding analysis of sensitivity to climate changes, using existing geographically explicit models for assessing the sensitivity of inland and freshwater ecosystems to climate changes. Also, the implementation of activities and measures which relate to protected areas financing have been insufficient to date. In 2013, a review of the NBSAP (2011-2018) was initiated, with consideration being given to the Nagoya outcomes. Activities are ongoing.
Actions taken to achieve the 2020 Aichi Biodiversity Targets
Serbia has determined that greater emphasis should be placed on objectives related to halting biodiversity loss through the integration of biodiversity in activities of Government and society (re Strategic Goal A of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020), and on factors which can lead to biodiversity threats (re Aichi Biodiversity Targets 1, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10). In particular, goals which relate to Strategic Goal B, including the management and utilization of fish stocks, invertebrates and aquatic plants, should be better defined. As well, ecosystem services need to be included in the Serbia’s redefined goals related to Strategic Goal D.
Support mechanisms for national implementation (legislation, funding, capacity-building, coordination, mainstreaming, etc.)
Examples of supporting legislation include:
Law on the Verification of International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture
Law on Incitements in Agriculture and Rural Development
Law on Agriculture and Rural Development
Law on Energy
Law on Mining and Geological Researches
Law on Nature Conservation (which is the framework law)
Law on Organic Agriculture
Law on Game and Hunting
Law on Waters
Law on Environmental Protection
Law on the Means for the Protection of Plants
Law on the Conservation and Sustainable Utilization of the Fish Stock
Law on Tourism
Law on Planning and Construction
Law on Forests
Law on the Evaluation of the Influence on the Environment
Decree on the allocation of incentives in agriculture and rural development
Decree on the Ecological Network
The Law on National Parks is being drafted.
The protection of biodiversity in Serbia is realized through the implementation of measures for the protection and improvement of species, their populations, natural habitats and ecosystems and has been regulated by the Law on Nature Conservation as the framework law (“The Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia”, No. 36/2009, 88/2010 and 91/2010-correction), and relevant by-laws.
The total surface of protected areas is 564.063 hectares, which represents 6,38% of the total territory of the country.
The Decree on Ecological Network (“The Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia”, No. 102/2010) determines the manner of protection, management and financing of ecological network, with a view to conservation of biological and landscape diversity, i.e. the habitat types of special conservation interest, and conservation of certain species. Ecological Network consists of 101 areas of ecological importance (including Emerald and Natura 2000) and ecological corridors of national and international importance.
Currently, 1,760 wild species of plants, animals and fungi are strictly protected and 853 are protected by law and by-law acts.
A National Agri-Environment Programme has been drafted. This programme is intended to encourage the adoption of sustainable farming practices by farmers through, for example, the provision of financial incentives and/or technical advice.
The Nagoya Protocol was signed in 2011.
The Habitats Directive has been almost completely transposed in legislation and accompanying sublegal acts. The total transposition will occur with Serbia’s accession to the EU. The Birds Directive has been completely transposed.
Serbia has initiated regional cooperation related to NBSAP development with Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro through UNDP and UNEP offices. The country is also participating in a broad collaboration framework known as the Dinaric Arc Initiative with 7 other countries. This Initiative aims to improve protected areas and ecological corridors, enhance nature conservation planning, assess the value of natural resources, integrate the goals of nature conservation in plans for the economic development of the fishing, forestry, agriculture, energy, spatial planning sectors, increase intersectoral cooperation, empower local communities through engagement in local community development, promote scientific cooperation among countries in the region, among other objectives. Serbia is also cooperating in activities for the implementation of the Convention on Cooperation in the Protection and Sustainable Utilization of the Danube River, through the work of the International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River.
Mechanisms for monitoring and reviewing implementation
Strategic area 6 of the current NBSAP on the “Knowledge Database” aims to implement actions towards the creation of a national information system for biodiversity (NISB), biodiversity monitoring and biodiversity research. Work in this strategic area has just begun (however a work programme for the Biodiversity Information Centre, located in the Faculty of Biology of the University of Belgrade, has been defined).