Implementation of the NBSAP
Kyrgyzstan’s biodiversity conservation priorities for 2014-2024 have been formulated with the current Strategic Plan for Biodiversity taken into account. These priorities have been translated into four strategic targets focused on: 1) integrating biodiversity conservation issues into the activities of State bodies and public organizations by 2020; 2) reducing the impact on biodiversity and promoting its sustainable use; 3) improving the protection and monitoring of ecosystems and species diversity; and 4) improving the social importance of biodiversity and ecosystem services, increasing the benefits of sustainable ecosystem services and traditional technologies. Under these strategic targets, 13 objectives are distributed, together with associated actions, implementation timeframes, parties responsible for implementation (including local self-governance authorities, local state administrations, and city administrations on agreement), costs, funding sources, implementation arrangements and expected outputs. The total cost of implementation is estimated at 1076687,8 Soms. A short-term evaluation of implementation of the Action Plan will be carried out in 2020 and 2024. A group of independent experts will be convened to determine the effectiveness of implementation.
Although completed in 1998, Kyrgyzstan’s first NBSAP was not adopted. A second NBSAP was adopted in 2002 for the 2002-2006 period whose achievements can be linked to: SPNA expansion; the annual planting of 3000 hectares of forests; the publication of the first national forest inventory for 2008-2010, including the creation of a database; the enhancement of the legal framework for biodiversity protection; and, since 2005, the integration of the principles of sustainable development in the country’s educational system.
Actions taken to achieve the 2020 Aichi Biodiversity Targets
While Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) are conducted in some areas, such as mining, they are not being implemented to the extent necessary. In most cases, fines and penalties are issued for harm done to the environment. Positive incentives have not been developed yet.
There is a positive trend regarding the expansion of the network of specially protected natural areas (SPNA) which today covers 1.2 million hectares or 6% of the national territory (Kyrgyzstan intends to further increase coverage to 10% by 2024). However, deterioration in the conservation status of SPNAs is common due to the location of human settlements within their boundaries, the absence of a mechanism for ecotourism development, among other factors.
The gene bank for the conservation of cultivated plants and their wild ancestors has been created however is in the initial stage of implementation. Strategies for minimizing genetic erosion and conserving the genetic diversity of the most important species are absent.
With support from some projects, State agencies and local communities are planting forests and woody plants which contribute to increasing carbon fixation. However, activities to restore degraded ecosystems have not begun yet.
While a law on the protection of traditional knowledge was adopted in 2007, it is being poorly implemented (local communities do not participate in the implementation process).
Support mechanisms for national implementation (legislation, funding, capacity-building, coordination, mainstreaming, etc.)
While there are many conflicting laws and large gaps in legislation related to biodiversity, gradual improvements are occurring. Recently, on 3 May 2013, a decree was adopted which determines the rate of payment for the illegal destruction of rare and endemic species. In addition, the country is currently working on the creation of legislation on access to genetic resources. Kyrgyzstan is a Party to the Nagoya Protocol on ABS.
Although the rate of mobilization of financial resources is gradually increasing, these resources remain insufficient. Moreover, existing resources are not always used effectively.
The Agenda of the Kyrgyz Republic for the XXI Century was developed by experts from the State Agency on Environment Protection and Forestry (SAEPF), with support provided by UNEP and UNDP. The agenda focuses on transitioning to the concept of sustainable development, a main feature of which is the attainment of environmental sustainability and the rational use of natural resources through the economic use of non-renewable resources and the sustainable use of renewable resources.
Article 13 of the National Poverty Reduction Strategy (2003-2005) addresses environmental management and the sustainable use of natural resources. The Country Development Strategy (2009-2011) aims to improve the quality of life for the population through increased economic growth and improved environmental quality, and underscores the importance of sectoral and cross-sectoral partnerships.
Kyrgyzstan is a signatory to the Central Asian Framework Convention on Environmental Protection for Sustainable Development established in 2006. It is also a participant in the Central Asian Countries Initiative for Land Management (CACILM) which aims to combat land degradation and sustainably manage the natural resources of the country, including conserving biodiversity.
Mechanisms for monitoring and reviewing implementation
A mechanism for monitoring and reviewing implementation of the NBSAP does not exist at the moment. However, this issue is being addressed under the third strategic target of the new NBSAP on improving the protection and monitoring of ecosystems and species diversity.