ID 5306
Submitting Entity UNEP
Submitted for Seventh Meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA 7)
Main Information
Title Wildlife use rights in Zimbabwe: CAMPFIRE
Description CAMPFIRE is a community-based natural resources management programme that gives back 
rights to rural communities to manage and benefit from their biologic al (wildlife) resources. The programme is based on the premise that biodiversity must directly contribute to meeting human needs, the overriding priority in Africa. Resource degradation (land, soil, water, habitats, biodiversity) in communal areas is Zimbabwe’s greatest challenge to conserve the environment and promote sustainable utilisation of natural resources. CAMPFIRE was a vehicle to put into practice a 1982 law authorizing the Minister of the Environment to designate communal-area inhabitants as the “appropriate authority” over their wildlife 
resources. A number of different groups have come together under CAMPFIRE. The programme is considered a success in terms of poverty alleviation and development through income earned, and in terms of species and biodiversity conservation through income invested in conservation practices and helping rural communities by giving them secure tenure or property rights over the natural resources in their locality.

The main instrument used under this programmeis the decentralization of wildlife user rights. In addition, the following measures were taken: (a) auctioning of user rights; (b) net revenue-sharing formula to ensure funds for resource maintenance and to cover administrative and monitoring costs; (c) flexible, locally determined distribution of local revenues; (d) compensation of wildlife damage.

Additional Information
Authors J. W. Arntzen
Source Study is taken from: Rietbergen-McCracken, J; H. Abaza (2000): Economic Instruments for Environmental Management. United Nations Environment Programme, Earthscan Publications, London.
Countries Zimbabwe
Ecosystems Agricultural Biodiversity
Dry and Sub-Humid Lands Biodiversity
Forest Biodiversity
Regions Africa
Incentive Measures Indirect Incentives (property rights, market creation)
Positive Incentives (subsidies, tax breaks, ...)
Keywords Environmental funds
Market creation (organic production, tourism, ...)
Revenue sharing with communities
Strengthening property rights (land tenure, ...)
Use / hunting permits / licensing
Tradable permits/use rights
Wildlife trade
Community participation