Implementation of the NBSAP
The Strategy and National Action Plan for the Sustainable Use of Biological Diversity (SPAN) were defined in 1997. They were strengthened in 2002 through the development and implementation of the National Action Plan for Environment and Sustainable Development (NAPE-SD), which incorporates global and national objectives on the promotion of the conservation of the biological diversity of ecosystems, habitats and biomes. The SPAN favors an approach advocating habitat and ecosystem protection through the multiplication of protected areas.
The Algerian Government recently completed a report on progress achieved towards the Strategic Plan (2002-2010) and, in particular, towards its objective to reduce the rate of biodiversity loss at the national level. This assessment report will be catalytic in pushing forward a proposal for developing a new national biodiversity strategy and action plan to 2020, in accordance with the provisions of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity (2011-2020).
Actions taken to achieve the 2020 Aichi Biodiversity Targets
Algeria largely met the first global target for 2010. A vast network of protected areas is in place, covering 36.5% of the national territory, and representing most of the country’s ecosystems. Moreover, 10% of ecological regions nowadays benefit from actual conservation and protection systems. Management plans for national parks have been developed and implemented. Within the next 20 years, no less than 25 new protected areas are planned for species and ecosystems that are critically endangered, along with 11 marine and coastal parks and 21 marine and coastal reserves.
Protected species in Algeria include 125 bird species, 56 mammal species, 46 reptile species, 144 insect species and 550 plant species. National action plans and programs have been elaborated for certain species, such as the Mediterranean monk seal and the red coral, and national legislation related to CITES is in progress to regulate the trade of vulnerable species. The Ministry of Land Planning, Environment and City (MATEV) developed a national integrated coastal management strategy in 2005 defining management directives for the sustainable use of marine and coastal resources.
Several surveillance programs have been set to monitor, prevent and reduce the impacts of marine water pollution on biodiversity. Specific programs have also been carried out on inland waters, arid and sub-humid areas, forests and mountains. Finally, large reforestation programs have been launched, targeting a 18% reforestation rate over the next 20 years. A national framework for biosecurity has been implemented that aims to protect agricultural systems, human health and traditional knowledge from the potentially harmful effects of GMOs.
Support mechanisms for national implementation (legislation, funding, capacity-building, coordination, mainstreaming, etc.)
A law on protected areas was adopted in 2011, within the context of sustainable development, and aims to protect representative samples of Algerian biodiversity in its entirety (from terrestrial to marine biodiversity, fragile or rare areas, as well as the habitats of threatened or vulnerable species).
In February 2011, Algeria also became a signatory to the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization, adopted by the tenth meeting of the Convention. Algeria has also established a legal framework that sets the conditions for access to, circulation, transfer and valuation of, biological resources. Further to the sovereign rights of the State over the biological resources on its territory, under this legal framework, biological resources and the knowledge associated with them, shall be considered intellectual rights granted to concerned populations, households and individuals.
Various sectoral programs contain specific measures for the conservation of biological diversity. In the agricultural domain, a national plan for integrated agricultural and rural development has been elaborated, as well as the Sustainable Development Strategy in 2004. Further, 5,578 integrated rural development projects have been developed, of which 1,110 have already been implemented. Several among them involve the protection of agricultural plants and local livestock diversity. In urban planning, the National Spatial Planning Scheme (Schéma National d’Aménagement du Territoire - SNAT 2030), approved in June 2010, places special emphasis on the integration of ecological issues in spatial planning. The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MADR) integrates environmental protection and the conservation and valuation of local biodiversity into its discussions with rural localities in the context of integrated development projects. Biodiversity conservation is also one of the main axes of the rural employment program (PER) implemented in seven mountain provinces. Finally, global targets have been incorporated into the Guidelines for Water (Schéma directeur de l’eau), Tourism Organization Plan and the Guidelines for Industrial Zones and Commercial Activity Zones.
Between 2000 and 2002, capacity building was provided for through the creation of several institutions by MATEV and with the objective to strengthen environmental governance and biodiversity conservation. These institutions include the Conservatoire National des Formations à l’Environnement (CNFE), the Observatoire National de l’Environnement et du Développement Durable (ONEDD), the Centre National de Développement des Ressources Biologiques (CNDRB), the Commissariat National du Littoral and the Agence Nationale des Changements Climatiques.
Mechanisms for monitoring and reviewing implementation
An example of a monitoring tool for assessing the evolution of biodiversity conservation is the list of protected species elaborated by MATEV which, to date, includes 125 bird species, 56 mammal species, 46 reptile species, 144 insect species and 550 plant species.