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Syrian Arab Republic - Main Details

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Biodiversity Facts

Status and trends of biodiversity, including benefits from biodiversity and ecosystem services

The content of this biodiversity profile is still draft. The text below has been prepared by SCBD and remains subject to final approval by the Party concerned.

Syria is situated in the southwestern part of Asia, to the east of the Mediterranean, and dominated by a mediterranean climate in its coastal and mountain regions and by dry or sub-humid conditions inland. The national country study on biodiversity (1998) registers the following statistics on species: 641 fungi, 55 bacteria, 754 algae, 10 gymnosperms (8 threatened), 3100 angiosperms (330 endemic species), 1439 insects, 452 fishes, 16 amphibians (3 threatened), 127 reptile (31 threatened), 360 birds (15 threatened), and 124 mammals (most of which are threatened).

Main pressures on and drivers of change to biodiversity (direct and indirect)

The content of this biodiversity profile is still draft. The text below has been prepared by SCBD and remains subject to final approval by the Party concerned.

Threats to biodiversity include agricultural and urban expansion, forest fires, wood cutting and charcoal production, climate change, desertification, forest fragmentation, soil erosion and degradation, depletion of water resources, uncontrolled grazing, illegal fishing and hunting, irregular plant collection, loss of genetic diversity through GMOs, illegal internal and international trade in biospecies and their products, alien species, chemical pollution, and habitat destruction. Factors that contribute to these threats include, among others, poor environmental awareness, lack of adequate laws and the inappropriate application of existing laws, and poorly planned tourism.

Measures to Enhance Implementation of the Convention

Implementation of the NBSAP

The content of this biodiversity profile is still draft. The text below has been prepared by SCBD and remains subject to final approval by the Party concerned.

The National Strategy and Action Plan (2002) includes considerations which aim to decrease all environmental threats in development projects for the conservation and sustainable use of biological resources. A key objective of the NBSAP is to protect all natural sites in forests and other natural ecosystems. In this regard, actions are ongoing to increase the percentage of land under protection from 1.28% to 10% of the total land area by 2015.

The action plan contains short- and mid-term (1-5 years) objectives addressing: scientific studies on the status and trends in biodiversity, especially of rare and endangered species and on increasing their numbers; the establishment of protected areas representing unique local varieties; capacity-building; the establishment of a national gene bank and a herbarium, especially for endemic species; and the identification of causes of biodiversity loss and adequate policy development. Long-term (6-10 years) objectives address: the establishment of a national network of protected areas representing all ecosystems and the establishment of biological agricultural practices for the sustainable use of biodiversity.

Actions taken to achieve the 2020 Aichi Biodiversity Targets

Support mechanisms for national implementation (legislation, funding, capacity-building, coordination, mainstreaming, etc.)

The content of this biodiversity profile is still draft. The text below has been prepared by SCBD and remains subject to final approval by the Party concerned.

Biodiversity considerations have been incorporated in numerous national policies, legislations, national strategies, criteria and standards on environment impact assessment, partially in the Agricultural Development Strategy, and in the new Forestry Law (2007). Although good progress has been made in this regard, additional efforts are required to ensure mainstreaming in all relevant legislations and their appropriate application thereafter.

Mechanisms for monitoring and reviewing implementation

The content of this biodiversity profile is still draft. The text below has been prepared by SCBD and remains subject to final approval by the Party concerned.

A national biodiversity monitoring and evaluation system does not exist however its development has been assigned priority, with the participation of all concerned parties (ministries, research centers, universities, public organizations, syndicates, regional and international organizations, private sector, NGOs) being promoted in this process.

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  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme