Implementation of the NBSAP
Developed in 2003, Togo’s first NBSAP addressed four main areas: strengthening legal and institutional capacity; establishment of a national conservation framework; support for ex situ conservation; support for the sustainable use and equitable sharing of benefits derived from biodiversity. Ten objectives were formulated and, although certain actions have produced positive outcomes (e.g. development of a legal framework for protected areas; finalization and adoption of a Forest Code; awareness-raising and training for various development actors on the application of texts), overall implementation of the NBSAP has not been achieved. The main reasons cited for this are financial, human and technical constraints, weak consideration given to biodiversity in development policy, socioeconomic crises faced by the country, inadequate or incorrect application of legal texts, lack of coordination and synergy among the different sectors, and lack of definition of responsibilities.
In 2012, Togo initiated activities to revise its NBSAP that are ongoing. Twenty national targets have already been developed and are mapped to the achievement of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets.
Actions taken to achieve the 2020 Aichi Biodiversity Targets
An international fair on biodiversity was organized in Lomé in 2013.
Initiatives for creating and managing forest communities have been undertaken by local communities with the support of civil society organizations, which has resulted in the creation of community forests, such as Alibi I, Natchambonga, Ando-Kpomey, Pessaré and Bago.
The National Agricultural Development Policy (PNDAT) (2013-2022) aims to stimulate sustained growth in the agricultural sector and improve the incomes of producers by at least 6% per year, in order to sustain an annual reduction in rural poverty by at least 5%, as well as sustainable improvements in food security.
At the end of 2013, Togo was admitted to the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) to prepare the national REDD + strategy. As part of this programme, a national forest inventory, supported by GIZ, is underway and will contribute to the establishment of a system for monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV).
Support mechanisms for national implementation (legislation, funding, capacity-building, coordination, mainstreaming, etc.)
Togo is increasingly integrating biodiversity conservation and sustainable use into development strategies. This is illustrated in the Strategy for Accelerating Growth and Promoting Employment (SCAPE) (2013-2017), particularly in regard to Strategic Priority 1 which addresses the development of sectors with high growth potential thereby promoting the protection and development of forests and particular ecosystems, among other actions. In addition, Strategic Priority 5 proposes participatory and balanced actions for sustainable development related to, for example, climate change, coastal erosion, pollution and nuisances, and the prevention of natural disasters.
In January 2011, a declaration on Forest Policy was adopted by decree, as was a decree on the organization and functioning of the National Commission on Sustainable Development. In the same year, the modalities for implementing an environmental audit were defined by decree.
Adopted in 2009, one of the challenges of the National Land Use Policy (“Politique nationale d’aménagement du territoire”) is to address land use practice through the establishment of frameworks that are spatially coherent in terms of national and regional actions.
The National Agency for Environmental Management was operationalized by decree in October 2009.
Financed by the EU, a national programme on decentralized environmental management (PNADE) (2009-2014) has reinforced the local governance of natural resources in eight prefectures.
Mechanisms for monitoring and reviewing implementation
A mechanism for overall monitoring and reviewing implementation in the country is lacking.