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Peru - Main Details

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Status and Trends of Biodiversity


Peru is known as one of the world’s 10 “megadiverse” countries, for its rich diversity in ecosystems, species, genetic resources and culture. Peru’s biodiversity is one of the pillars of its national economy, plays a direct role in sustaining a large part of the population, has an important role for culture, science and technology and provides essential environmental services in terms of soil fertility, air quality and water supply. Peru hosts about 25,000 plant species (10% of the world total) with 30% endemism. Of these, 4,400 species have known properties and are used by the population. In terms of fauna, Peru is first in number of fish species (close to 2,000 species, 10% of the world total); second in bird fauna (1,736 species); third in amphibians (332 species); third in mammals (460 species); and fifth in reptiles (365 species). There are about 5,528 plant species and 760 animal species endemic to Peru. There are a total of 222 endangered species of which, 31 are facing extinction, 89 are classified as vulnerable, 22 are rare species and 80 have an indefinite status. Peru is also rich in ecosystem biodiversity with the major biomes being marine, mountain, forest, freshwater and agricultural ecosystems. Peru also has very high cultural diversity with 14 linguistic families, and 44 distinct ethnic groups, of which, 42 are found in the Amazon.

National Biodiversity Strategy Action Plan

Major features of National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan

The vision of the strategy is that by 2021, Peru will be the first country in the world to have the best benefits for its population from its conserved and sustainably used biodiversity, as well as having restored all its biodiversity components in order to meet the basic needs and well-being for present and future generations. The overall objective of the NBSAP is the conservation of biodiversity, sustainable use of its components, fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from their use, adequate access to those resources, appropriate transfer of pertinent technologies, taking into account the rights to those resources and technologies, as well as appropriate financing. There are 8 specific strategy lines, which have specific objectives and actions defined for each one. These are: the conservation of biodiversity in Peru; integrating sustainable use of biodiversity into the management of natural resources; establishing special measures for the conservation and restoration of biodiversity faced with external processes; promoting participation and engagement from the Peruvian society in the conservation of biodiversity; improving knowledge of biodiversity; perfecting the instruments needed for management of biodiversity; enhancing Peru’s image at the international level; and implementing immediate actions.

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  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme