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Advancing More, Better and Faster Financing for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services

Global Monitoring Report

Basis for action:
“The Executive Secretary should prepare periodic global monitoring reports on the implementation of the strategy for resource mobilization, for consideration by the Conference of the Parties, and promote, in collaboration with the Global Environment Facility, exchange of experience and good practice in financing for biological diversity” -- Strategy for resource mobilization, paragraph 15

"Reiterates decision X/3, paragraph 5, which states that the global monitoring reports on the implementation of the strategy for resource mobilization should be prepared in time for consideration by the Conference of the Parties at its ordinary meetings, and requests the Executive Secretary to prepare periodic global monitoring reports on the implementation of the strategy for resource mobilization"... Decision XI/4, paragraph 11

GMR2016 Financial sector
Sectoral characteristics According to the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities, Revision 4 (2008), finance sector includes financial and insurance activities, including insurance, reinsurance and pension funding activities and activities to support financial services, as well as the activities of holding assets, such as activities of holding companies and the activities of trusts, funds and similar financial entities.

When the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity adopted the Strategy for Resource Mobilization in Support of the achievement of the three objectives of the Convention in May 2008, it called for preparing periodic global monitoring reports on the implementation of the strategy for resource mobilization. The Conference of the Parties in October 2010 further decided that global monitoring reports should provide essential information on the status and trends in biodiversity financing as well as help to disseminate funding knowledge and know-how as related to biodiversity.

The Global Monitoring Report series, prepared by the Secretariat staff in collaboration with the staff of partner agencies, focuses on how the world is doing in financing the implementation of biodiversity policies and actions designed to achieve the internationally agreed biodiversity goals, targets and related outcomes. The reports are a framework for accountability in global biodiversity policy.

Global Monitoring Report 2014 on Resource Mobilization
This draft report observed various successes in the implementation of the Strategy for Resource Mobilization, and provided a large number of case studies on mobilizing financial resources.

Global Monitoring Report 2012: State of Financing for Biodiversity
This draft report documents the status of biodiversity finance for information of the eleventh meeting of the Conference of the Parties. For the first time, the monitoring report utilized the resource mobilization indicators to assess the status, trends and options in resource mobilization at the global level.

Global Monitoring Report 2010: Innovative Financing for Biodiversity
This pilot phase report documents the status of biodiversity finance in 2008, the latest year when data were available. It observed that the decade-long increasing trends in bilateral assistance to biodiversity were reversed in the year 2008, while the global target to reverse loss of biodiversity was not met by 2010.

Sectoral characteristics

According to the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities, Revision 4 (2008), finance sector includes financial and insurance activities, including insurance, reinsurance and pension funding activities and activities to support financial services, as well as the activities of holding assets, such as activities of holding companies and the activities of trusts, funds and similar financial entities.

Financial service: activities of obtaining and redistributing funds

Monetary intermediation
The obtaining of funds in the form of transferable deposits, i.e. funds that are fixed in money terms, obtained on a day-to-day basis and, apart from central banking, obtained from non-financial sources.
  • Central banking: issuing and managing the country’s currency, monitoring and control of the money supply, taking deposits that are used for clearance between financial institutions, supervising banking operations, holding the country’s international reserves, acting as banker to the government
  • Monetary institutions: receiving of deposits and/or close substitutes for deposits and extending of credit or lending funds. The granting of credit can take a variety of forms, such as loans, mortgages, credit cards etc. These activities are generally carried out by monetary institutions other than central banks, such as banks, savings banks, credit unions. Also includes: postal giro and postal savings bank activities, credit granting for house purchase by specialized deposit-taking institutions, money order activities.

Holding companies
The activities of holding companies, i.e. units that hold the assets (owning controlling-levels of equity) of a group of subsidiary corporations and whose principal activity is owning the group. The holding companies in this class do not provide any other service to the businesses in which the equity is held, i.e. they do not administer or manage other units.

Trusts, funds and similar financial entities
Legal entities organized to pool securities or other financial assets, without managing, on behalf of shareholders or beneficiaries. The portfolios are customized to achieve specific investment characteristics, such as diversification, risk, rate of return and price volatility. These entities earn interest, dividends and other property income, but have little or no employment and no revenue from the sale of services.
  • open-end investment funds
  • closed-end investment funds
  • trusts, estates or agency accounts, administered on behalf of the beneficiaries under the terms of a trust agreement, will or agency agreement
  • unit investment trust funds

Financial markets
The furnishing of physical or electronic marketplaces for the purpose of facilitating the buying and selling of stocks, stock options, bonds or commodity contracts.
  • Administration of financial markets: operation and supervision of financial markets other than by public authorities, such as: commodity contracts exchanges, futures commodity contracts exchanges, securities exchanges, ™ stock exchanges, stock or commodity options exchanges
  • Security and commodity contracts brokerage: dealing in financial markets on behalf of others (e.g. stock broking) and related activities, securities brokerage, commodity contracts brokerage, activities of bureaux de change etc.
  • Other activities auxiliary to financial service activities, such as: financial transaction processing and settlement activities, including for credit card transactions; investment advisory services; activities of mortgage advisers and brokers; trustee, fiduciary and custody services on a fee or contract basis

Other financial service activities
  • Financial leasing: where the term approximately covers the expected life of the asset and the lessee acquires substantially all the benefits of its use and takes all the risks associated with its ownership. The ownership of the asset may or may not eventually be transferred. Such leases cover all or virtually all costs including interest.
  • Other credit granting: financial service activities primarily concerned with making loans by institutions not involved in monetary intermediation, where the granting of credit can take a variety of forms, such as loans, mortgages, credit cards etc., providing the following types of services: granting of consumer credit; international trade financing; provision of long-term finance to industry by industrial banks; money lending outside the banking system; ™ credit granting for house purchase by specialized non-depository institutions; pawnshops and pawnbrokers
  • Other financial service activities: factoring activities; writing of swaps, options and other hedging arrangements; activities of viatical settlement companies; own-account investment activities, such as by venture capital companies, investment clubs etc.

Insurance, reinsurance and pension funding
The underwriting annuities and insurance policies and investing premiums to build up a portfolio of financial assets to be used against future claims. Provision of direct insurance and reinsurance are included.

Insurance
  • Life insurance: including underwriting —— annuities and life insurance policies, disability income insurance policies, and accidental death and dismemberment insurance policies.
  • Non-life insurance: accident and fire insurance, health insurance, travel insurance, property insurance, motor, marine, aviation and transport insurance, pecuniary loss and liability insurance

Reinsurance
Including activities of assuming all or part of the risk associated with existing insurance policies originally underwritten by other insurance carriers

Pension funding
including legal entities (i.e. funds, plans and/or programmes) organized to provide retirement income benefits exclusively for the sponsor’s employees or members. This includes pension plans with defined benefits, as well as individual plans where benefits are simply defined through the member’s contribution.
  • employee benefit plans
  • pension funds and plans
  • retirement plans

Risk and damage evaluation
The provision of administration services of insurance, such as assessing (claims adjusting, risk assessing, risk and damage evaluation, average and loss adjusting) and settling insurance claims.

Activities of insurance agents and brokers
Activities of insurance agents and brokers (insurance intermediaries) in selling, negotiating or soliciting of annuities and insurance and reinsurance policies

  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme