Programm of Work


Goal 2.1. To enhance the legal, policy, institutional, and economic framework


2.1.1. Identify and address perverse incentives and/or policies that may impede the implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity in mountain ecosystems, taking into account the decisions of the Conference of the Parties on incentive measures.

2.1.2. Develop and introduce appropriate incentives, market and compensation mechanisms, in accordance with national and international law where appropriate, specific for the maintenance of mountain ecosystems and the goods and services delivered by the mountain ecosystems.

2.1.3. Promote the diversification of income-generating activities in support of conservation and sustainable use of mountain biological diversity and poverty reduction, including methods to share economic wealth, i.e., within mountain regions through regional development plans and between regions through "upland-lowland contracts".[62]/

2.1.4. Improve the science/policy linkages by undertaking national and subnational scientific assessments of the causes of biodiversity loss, including making policy recommendations, in order to reduce the rate of loss of mountain biological diversity by 2010.

2.1.5. Develop performance indicators and report on the integration of conservation and sustainable use of mountain biological diversity into institutional programmes, including sectoral policies, legal and economic frameworks. 2.1.6. Strengthen legal and institutional capacity to implement the work programme on mountain biological diversity, especially through national focal points, institutes and other relevant stakeholder groups and mechanisms allowing for the coordination of sectorial authorities in implementing those activities within their areas of responsibility.

2.1.7. Develop and implement legal and policy strategies for land-use planning at the landscape or river basin level, where appropriate, taking into account elements of ecological integrity and connectivity, while emphasizing upstream-downstream relations and the prevention of losses of mountain biological diversity due to fragmentation and land-use conversion.

2.1.8. Support proactive planning and adaptive measures to reduce the vulnerability to both natural and human-induced hazards adversely impacting on mountain biological diversity, cultural landscapes and local communities.

2.1.9. Encourage the implementation of environmental and social impact assessments at sectoral, programme and project levels. Promote sustainable development and the eradication of poverty and prevent the negative impacts of economic development on mountain biological diversity including cumulative impacts. Also take into account specificities of indigenous and local communities depending upon mountain ecosystems, by observing section F of decision VII/16 of the Conference of the Parties on the Akwé: Kon voluntary guidelines for the conduct of cultural, environmental and social impact assessment regarding developments proposed to take place on, or which are likely to impact on, sacred sites and on lands and waters traditionally occupied or used by indigenous and local communities.

2.1.10. Integrate aspects of mountain biological diversity into plans, policies and programmes related to mountain areas.

Supporting activities of the Executive Secretary

2.1.11. Collate and disseminate, e.g., through the clearing-house mechanism and other appropriate means, case-studies of best practice of international and national efforts to enhance the legal, policy, institutional and economic frameworks to conserve and sustainably use mountain biodiversity.

2.1.12. Promote synergy in the implementation of international and regional conventions including, where relevant, the Ramsar Convention, UNFCCC, CBD, WHC, CITES and the United Nations Convention to Combat desertification.

Goal 2.2. To respect, preserve, and maintain knowledge, practices and innovations of indigenous and local communities in mountain regions


2.2.1 Promote the implementation of activities aimed at maintaining existing levels of agrobiodiversity paying particular attention to centres of origin and the goods and services they provide both for meeting local demands and to ensure sources of food security.

2.2.2. Respect, understand and support the traditions and sustainable practices of the indigenous and local communities in mountain regions in ways which accommodate their needs, participation, knowledge and practices for conservation and sustainable use of mountain biodiversity (taking into account Article 8(j) of the Convention and related decisions from the Conference of the Parties and programmes of work).

2.2.3. Promote networking, collaborative action and participation of indigenous and local communities in decision-making processes, paying particular attention to the empowerment of women, in order to maintain mountain biodiversity and its sustainable use.

2.2.4. Encourage decentralization and enhance access to information for the full participation and involvement of indigenous and local communities in decisions that affect them in relation to mountain ecosystems.

2.2.5. Promote the implementation of activities aimed at the improvement of mountain livelihoods, poverty reduction and the maintenance of cultural identity, in order to achieve sustainable use of mountain biological diversity.

2.2.6. Develop capacity-building measures and information-sharing to facilitate the involvement of indigenous and local communities, with their prior informed consent, in the management, conservation, and sustainable use of mountain biological diversity.

Goal 2.3. To establish regional and transboundary collaboration and the establishment of cooperative agreements


2.3.1. Promote integrated transboundary cooperation, strategies for sustainable activities on mountain ranges through mutually agreed-upon arrangements by countries concerned. Cooperative arrangements should cover specific thematic issues such as landscape, soil, wetland, watershed, rangeland, mining, protected areas and wildlife management, agriculture, pastoralism, forestry, transportation, energy and tourism.

2.3.2. Promote and strengthen regional and transboundary cooperation for research, adaptive management, fair and appropriate allocation of water to ecosystems, and exchange of expertise to improve the conservation and management of mountain biodiversity (e.g., Global Mountain Biodiversity Assessment (GMBA) and International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD)).

2.3.3. Promote the appreciation and conservation of mountain biological diversity as a means of reducing human conflict, i.e., through peace parks.

2.3.4. Strengthen collaboration and synergies between the work programmes of the Convention on Biological Diversity and other global conventions and agreements on climate change, desertification, transboundary pollution, invasive alien species, wetlands and endangered species, with a special focus on mountain systems and their biological diversity, including through joint programmes of work. Also strengthen collaboration with the International Partnership for Sustainable Development in Mountain Regions and regional conventions on mountains.

2.3.5. Encourage the development of new methodologies and new mechanisms, such as the upland-lowland contract that sustain mountain biological diversity and the provision of goods and services.

  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme