Programme of Work

Programme Element 1: Direct actions for planning, selecting, establishing, strengthening, and managing, protected area systems and sites

Goal 1.1: To establish and strengthen national and regional systems of protected areas integrated into a global network as a contribution to globally agreed goals

Target: By 2010, terrestrially [68]/ and 2012 in the marine area, a global network of comprehensive, representative and effectively managed national and regional protected area system is established as a contribution to (i) the goal of the Strategic Plan of the Convention and the World Summit on Sustainable Development of achieving a significant reduction in the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010; (ii) the Millennium Development Goals - particularly goal 7 on ensuring environmental sustainability; and (iii) the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation.

Suggested activities of the Parties

1.1.1 By 2006, establish suitable time-bound and measurable national and regional level protected area targets and indicators.

1.1.2 As a matter of urgency, by 2006, take action to establish or expand protected areas in any large, intact or relatively unfragmented or highly irreplaceable natural areas, or areas under high threat, as well as areas securing the most threatened species in the context of national priorities [69], and taking into consideration the conservation needs of migratory species.

1.1.3 As a matter of urgency, by 2006 terrestrially and by 2008 in the marine environment, take action to address the under-representation of marine and inland water ecosystems in existing national and regional systems of protected areas, taking into account marine ecosystems beyond areas of national jurisdiction in accordance with applicable international law, and transboundary inland water ecosystems.

1.1.4 By 2006, conduct, with the full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities and relevant stakeholders, national-level reviews of existing and potential forms of conservation, and their suitability for achieving biodiversity conservation goals, including innovative types of governance for protected areas that need to be recognized and promoted through legal, policy, financial institutional and community mechanisms, such as protected areas run by Government agencies at various levels, co-managed protected areas, private protected areas, indigenous and local community conserved areas.

1.1.5 By 2006 complete protected area system gap analyses at national and regional levels based on the requirements for representative systems of protected areas that adequately conserve terrestrial, marine and inland water biodiversity and ecosystems. National plans should also be developed to provide interim measures to protect highly threatened or highly valued areas wherever this is necessary. Gap analyses should take into account Annex I of the Convention on Biological Diversity and other relevant criteria such as irreplaceability of target biodiversity components, minimum effective size and viability requirements, species migration requirements, integrity, ecological processes and ecosystem services.

1.1.6 By 2009, designate the protected areas as identified through the national or regional gap analysis (including precise maps) and complete by 2010 terrestrially and 2012 in the marine environments the establishment of comprehensive and ecologically representative national and regional systems of protected areas.

1.1.7 Encourage the establishment of protected areas that benefit indigenous and local communities, including by respecting, preserving, and maintaining their traditional knowledge in accordance with article 8(j) and related provisions.

Suggested supporting activities of the Executive Secretary

1.1.8 Identify options for quantitative and qualitative protected areas targets and indicators that should be used at the global level that could contribute to the 2010 target and the Millennium Development Goals.

1.1.9 Invite relevant international and regional organizations to offer their assistance to the Parties in conducting national-level gap analyses.

1.1.10. Compile and disseminate through the clearing-house mechanism and other relevant media relevant approaches, frameworks and tools for system planning and promote and facilitate the exchange of experiences and lessons learned in applying and adapting them to different ecological and social settings.

Goal 1.2: To integrate protected areas into broader land- and seascapes and sectors so as to maintain ecological structure and function

Target: By 2015, all protected areas and protected area systems are integrated into the wider land- and seascape, and relevant sectors, by applying the ecosystem approach and taking into account ecological connectivity [70]/ and the concept, where appropriate, of ecological networks.

Suggested activities of the Parties

1.2.1. Evaluate by 2006 national and sub-national experiences and lessons learned on specific efforts to integrate protected areas into broader land- and seascapes and sectoral plans and strategies such as poverty reduction strategies. 1.2.2. Identify and implement, by 2008, practical steps for improving the integration of protected areas into broader land- and seascapes, including policy, legal, planning and other measures.

1.2.3. Integrate regional, national and sub-national systems of protected areas into broader land- and seascape, inter alia by establishing and managing ecological networks, ecological corridors [71] and/or buffer zones, where appropriate, to maintain ecological processes and also taking into account the needs of migratory species.

1.2.4. Develop tools of ecological connectivity, such as ecological corridors, linking together protected areas where necessary or beneficial as determined by national priorities for the conservation of biodiversity.

1.2.5.Rehabilitate and restore habitats and degraded ecosystems, as appropriate, as a contribution to building ecological networks, ecological corridors and/or buffer zones.

Suggested supporting activities of the Executive Secretary

1.2.6. Encourage the organization of regional and sub-regional workshops for the exchange of experiences on integration of biodiversity and protected areas into relevant sectoral and spatial plans.

1.2.7. Compile and disseminate, using the CHM and other media, case-studies of best practices and other reports regarding the application of the ecosystem approach in relation to protected areas at the international, regional, national and sub-national levels.

Goal 1.3: To establish and strengthen regional networks, transboundary protected areas (TBPAs) and collaboration between neighbouring protected areas across national boundaries

Target: Establish and strengthen by 2010/2012 [72]/ transboundary protected areas, other forms of collaboration between neighbouring protected areas across national boundaries and regional networks, to enhance the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, implementing the ecosystem approach, and improving international cooperation.

Suggested activities of the Parties

1.3.1 Collaborate with other parties and relevant partners to establish effective regional networks of protected areas, particularly in areas identified as common conservation priorities (e.g. barrier reef systems, large scale river basins, mountain systems, large remaining forest areas and critical habitat for endangered species), and establish multi-country coordination mechanisms as appropriate to support the establishment and effective long term management of such networks.

1.3.2 Collaborate with other Parties and relevant partners through the United Nations Informal Consultative Process on the Law of the Sea (UNICPOLOS) to establish and manage protected areas in marine areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, in accordance with international law, including the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, and based on scientific information.

.3.3 Establish, where appropriate, new TBPAs with adjacent Parties and countries and strengthen effective collaborative management of existing TBPAs.

1.3.4 Promote collaboration between protected areas across national boundaries.

Suggested supporting activities of the Executive Secretary

1.3.5 Collaborate and consult with relevant organizations and bodies for developing guidelines for establishing transboundary protected areas and collaborative management approaches, as appropriate, for dissemination to Parties.

1.3.6 Compile and disseminate information on regional networks of protected areas and transboundary protected areas, including, as far as possible, their geographical distribution, their historical background, their role and the partners involved.

1.3.7 Review the potential for regional cooperation under the Convention on Migratory Species with a view to linking of protected area networks across international boundaries and potentially beyond national jurisdiction through the establishment of migratory corridors for key species.

Goal 1.4: To substantially improve site-based protected area planning and management

Target: All protected areas to have effective management in existence by 2012, using participatory and science-based site planning processes that incorporate clear biodiversity objectives, targets, management strategies and monitoring programmes, drawing upon existing methodologies and a long-term management plan with active stakeholder involvement.

Suggested activities of the Parties

1.4.1 Create a highly participatory process, involving indigenous and local communities and relevant stakeholders, as part of site-based planning in accordance with the ecosystem approach, and use relevant ecological and socio-economic data required to develop effective planning processes.

1.4.2 Identify appropriate measurable biodiversity conservation targets for sites, drawing on criteria laid out in Annex I to the Convention on Biological Diversity and other relevant criteria.

1.4.3 Include in the site-planning process an analysis of opportunities for the protected area to contribute to conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity at local and regional scales as well as an analysis of threats and means of addressing them.

As appropriate, but no later than 2010, develop or update management plans for protected areas, built on the above process, to better achieve the three objectives of the Convention.

1.4.5 Integrate climate change adaptation measures in protected area planning, management strategies, and in the design of protected area systems.

1.4.6 Ensure that protected areas are effectively managed or supervised through staff that are well-trained and skilled, properly and appropriately equipped, and supported, to carry out their fundamental role in the management and conservation of protected areas.

Suggested supporting activities of the Executive Secretary

1.4.7 Compile and disseminate through the clearing-house mechanism current relevant approaches, frameworks and tools for site planning and promote and facilitate the exchange of experiences and lessons learned in applying and adapting them in different ecological and social settings.

1.4.8 Disseminate information on successful management models of protected areas which serve to further the three objective of the Convention and may also contribute to poverty reduction and the pursuit of sustainable development.

Goal 1.5: To prevent and mitigate the negative impacts of key threats to protected areas

Target: By 2008, effective mechanisms for identifying and preventing, and/or mitigating the negative impacts of key threats to protected areas are in place.

Suggested activities of the Parties

1.5.1 Apply, as appropriate, timely environmental impact assessments to any plan or project with the potential to have effects on protected areas, and ensure timely information flow among all concerned parties to that end, taking into account decision VI/7 A of the Conference of the Parties on guidelines for incorporating biodiversity related issues into environmental impact assessment legislation and/or processes and in strategic environmental assessments.

1.5.2 Develop by 2010 national approaches to liability and redress measures, incorporating the polluter pays principle or other appropriate mechanisms in relation to damages to protected areas.

1.5.3 Establish and implement measures for the rehabilitation and restoration of the ecological integrity of protected areas.

1.5.4 Take measures to control risks associated with invasive alien species in protected areas.

1.5.5 Assess key threats to protected areas and develop and implement strategies to prevent and/or mitigate such threats.

1.5.6 Develop policies, improve governance, and ensure enforcement of urgent measures that can halt the illegal exploitation of resources from protected areas, and strengthen international and regional cooperation to eliminate illegal trade in such resources taking into account sustainable customary resource use of indigenous and local communities in accordance with article 10(c) of the Convention.

Suggested supporting activities of the Executive Secretary

1.5.7 Address issues specific to protected areas, in the guidelines for incorporating biodiversity considerations in environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment, procedures and regulations.

1.5.8 Collaborate with the International Association for Impact Assessment and other relevant organizations on further development and refinement of the impact assessment guidelines particularly to incorporate all stages of environmental impact assessment processes in protected areas taking into account the ecosystem approach.

1.5.9 Compile and disseminate through the clearing-house mechanism and other means case studies, best practices and lessons learned in mitigating the negative impacts of key threats and facilitate the exchange of experiences.


Notes:

[68]/ Terrestrial includes inland water ecosystems

[69]/ Parties may wish to use IUCN Red List of Threatened Species criteria, version 3.1

[70]/ The concept of connectivity may not be applicable to all Parties

[71]/ Ecological corridors may not be applicable to all Parties

[72]/ References to marine protected area networks to be consistent with the target in the WSSD plan of implementation.

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