The Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity
1. Adopts the programme of work on island biodiversity annexed to the present decision, as a set of actions addressing characteristics and problems that are specific to islands;
2. Recognizes that Parties should implement the programme of work on island biological diversity in the context of nationally determined priorities, capacities and needs. Activities implemented domestically by Parties will be prioritized based on country and regionally specific needs, national determination, legislation, circumstances and priorities, and their biodiversity strategies. Inclusion of an activity does not mean relevance of that activity to all Parties;
3. Urges Parties, other Governments, international organizations and other relevant organizations to implement the programme of work primarily through its incorporation into National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans, and to mainstream it into national sustainable development strategies;
4. Requests the Global Environment Facility and its implementing agencies to recognize the programme of work on island biodiversity and its relevance to developing countries, and in particular least developed countries and small island developing States, and to provide support for its implementation;
5. Requests the Global Environment Facility to further simplify their procedures so as to take into account the special circumstances of small island developing States in implementing the programme of work on island biodiversity;
6. Invites the international community to actively address, during the fourth replenishment of the Global Environment Facility, the financial requirements for the implementation of the programme of work on island biodiversity;
7. Invites donor country Parties, regional development banks and other financial institutions to assist developing countries, and in particular least developed countries and small island developing States for the implementation of the programme of work according to their needs and priorities;
8. Requests Parties to apply the targets and timeframes in the programme of work on island biodiversity as a flexible framework within which national and/or regional targets may be developed, according to national priorities and capacities, and taking into account differences in diversity between countries; to use existing national indicators or to establish national indicators, where possible, in accordance with the list of global indicators for assessing progress towards the 2010 target; and report in the context of the national reports of the Convention on Biological Diversity. To achieve these targets, the international community is invited to assist small island developing States by implementing the recommendations contained in the Mauritius Strategy for the Further Implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States, the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation and the Millennium Development Goals;
9. Requests the Executive Secretary to assist Parties, and collaborate with other Governments, international organizations and other relevant bodies, to implement the programme of work on island biodiversity, as detailed in section C of the annex to this decision.
10. Further requests the Executive Secretary to identify linkages between the priority actions of the programme of work on island biodiversity and all other thematic work programmes and cross-cutting issues under the Convention on Biological Diversity and to make this available prior to twelfth meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice;
11. Requests the Ad Hoc Open-Ended Inter-Sessional Working Group on Article 8(j) and Related Provisions to provide guidance on the implementation of the programme of work in the context of their work;
12. Agrees, recognizing the critical values of islands for the conservation of biodiversity and the current alarming rate of loss of island biodiversity, to give priority in the programme of work to activities that could significantly contribute to the conservation of island biodiversity;
13. Invites Parties, where applicable, to address the programme of work on island biodiversity into the current work on national capacity self-assessment;
14. Encourages the development of community-based approaches in the implementation of the programme of work;
15. Invites Parties to implement relevant activities under this programme of work in conjunction with corresponding activities under the Mauritius Strategy;
16. Encourages Parties to establish national, subregional, regional and international island partnerships that bring Governments and civil society organizations together to increase political, financial and technical support to accelerate the implementation of the programme of work on island biodiversity;
17. Urges Parties, subject to their national legislation, to implement the programme of work consistent with Article 8(j) and Related Provisions;
18. Invites the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and the Earth System Science Partnership to collaborate in activities relevant to island biodiversity and climate change;
19. Invites the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification to enhance collaboration in activities relevant to land degradation that could negatively impact island biological diversity;
20. Encourages the World Conservation Union (IUCN) to expand its guidelines on the use of IUCN Red List categories and criteria to provide further guidance on addressing specific issues that arise in the listing of island species;
21. Welcomes the offer of Conservation International to provide information on islands classified as biodiversity hotspots, and invites the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre, UNESCO, Conservation International, Birdlife International, WWF and other relevant organizations and initiatives to work in partnership with Parties to implement this programme of work;
22. Requests Parties to regularly monitor progress in implementing this programme of work and in meeting the global targets and report to the Conference of the Parties, taking into account the special capacity constraints of small island developing States.
A. Introduction 1 /
1. The Earth is home to over 100,000 islands, which host more than 500 million inhabitants. Their combined land and exclusive economic zones (EEZs) cover more than one sixth of the Earth’s total area. Islands and their surrounding near-shore marine biodiversity constitute self-contained, bounded ecosystems, each with their own unique, often very limited, assemblage of biodiversity. In terms of island biodiversity inheritances, these range from some of the richest on Earth, with extremely high levels of endemism, to some of the poorest, with little or no endemism. Both are seriously under threat and constitute global conservation priorities
2. In terms of those islands with rich biotas, the isolation of island environments has resulted in the evolution of often endemic and characteristic flora and fauna. A total of 104 of the 218 Endemic Bird Areas are confined entirely to islands, 2 / while 36 of the 143 terrestrial Global 200 Ecoregions 3 / are comprised of islands. Ten of the 34 biodiversity hotspots 4 / wholly comprise islands, and many of the rest also include islands. No less than 218 of the 595 individual sites holding the entire global population of one or more critically threatened species are found on islands. 5 / A recent global gap analysis of the coverage of terrestrial vertebrate species within protected areas 6 / found that of the gaps, most “are montane or insular regions in the tropics.”
3. At the other extreme, some of the smaller low-lying islands and atolls are among the Earth’s biodiversity “cool spots” in that they have the lowest biodiversity on Earth and few, if any, endemic species. However, despite a disproportionate dependence on biodiversity for almost all forms of economic livelihood on these small islands, a very high percentage of their terrestrial biodiversity is threatened and in need of some form of protection. 7 /
4. The significance of marine biodiversity within islands has been well recognized 8 / with over half of the tropical marine biodiversity found in islands and 12 of the 18 centres of endemism, and seven of the ten coral-reef hotspots surround islands. In terms of cultural diversity, a number of islands, including arctic islands, are also the home to unique cultures that have developed traditional resource-management methods that have, in many cases, enabled people to develop and live in harmony with biodiversity.
5. The programme of work offers a particularly unique opportunity for building bridges among all islands and all island nations in efforts to conserve, sustainably use and equitably share island biological diversity.
6. From small islands through to large, from countries that have islands through to countries that entirely comprise islands, and from large continental remnants through to remote atolls, there are opportunities and challenges for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. Islands are self-contained ecosystems with well defined geographical limits that encapsulate fundamental ecological processes and interactions. Islands incorporate all the existing thematic areas considered under the Convention, i.e., forests, inland waters, agricultural land, dry and sub-humid lands, marine and coastal ecosystems, and mountain ecosystems. The connectivity of ecosystems and the interface between marine and terrestrial realmswill create specific issues and opportunities for the implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity.
7. The close connectivity and vulnerability of island ecosystems offers the opportunity and challenge to design and implement biodiversity conservation programmes that look beyond the protection of specific species to the integrated management, sustainable use and conservation of marine, terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. The design of integrated programmes for the conservation of island biodiversity take into account the spatial and temporal interconnectedness of island ecosystems and human activities from island ridges down to coral reefs. A holistic approach to the conservation of island biodiversity considers and addresses the impacts of upstream activities on downstream ecosystems, such as the siltation of coral reefs due to unsustainable agricultural and forestry practices in island watersheds. Further, the conservation and sustainable management of water resources, including hydrologic cycles for the benefit of human and ecological communities is an essential element of successful integrated island biodiversity conservation.
8. Because of their scale, and the scope for integrated management of biodiversity, small islands are microcosms of their continental counterparts, where strategies, policies and management regimes for sustainable development can be applied, tested and refined; where the components of cause and effect are more readily assessed, outcomes more rapidly seen and results more specifically tangible. Focusing efforts and resources on the conservation and sustainable use of island biodiversity and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of island genetic resources can provide rapid progress towards the reduction in the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010 and the achievement of representative systems of protected areas by 2010 in terrestrial and 2012 in marine realms.
9. However, biodiversity can be particularly vulnerable on small and fragile islands. The vulnerabilities of small islands require not only special but urgent attention from their inhabitants and the world community. Species that have evolved on islands have done so free from competition with large numbers of other species and are, therefore, susceptible to invasions by alien species. Populations of island fauna and flora tend to be naturally small, and species often become concentrated in special small areas, where they are subject to various natural and anthropogenic pressures that endanger their survival. They have the highest proportion of recorded species extinctions and continue to be significantly threatened by invasive alien species, climate change and variability, natural and environmental disasters, land degradation and land based sources of marine pollution.
10. Islands, in particular small island developing States, constitute a special case for both the environment and development. As articulated in chapter 17 of Agenda 21 and emphasized in the Barbados Programme of Action, as well as in the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, small island developing States rely significantly on the conservation and sustainable use of island biodiversity for their sustainable development and experience even more specific challenges and vulnerabilities. These arise from the interplay of such socio-economic and environmental factors as small populations and economies, weak institutional capacity in both the public and the private sector, remoteness from international markets, susceptibility to natural disasters and climate change (including, in particular, sea-level rise), fragility of land and marine ecosystems (particularly affected by tourism development and unsustainable agriculture and forestry), high cost of transportation, limited diversification in production and exports, dependence on international markets, export concentration, and income volatility and vulnerability to exogenous economic shocks. Traditional resource management and practices relevant to the sustainable use of island ecosystems are at risk of breaking down as a result of modern economic and social pressures, and require actions for revitalization and protection. The Secretary-General of the United Nations has stated that, among developing countries, small island developing States, as a group, are amongst the most vulnerable. The expression of their vulnerabilities often has cumulative effects, further exacerbating the risks to their biodiversity.
11. Although islands are unique environments in their own right, and are deserving of a special programme of work under the Convention they also incorporate the existing programme areas and cross-cutting issues considered under the Convention and implementation of these programmes should continue as appropriate.
12. Information and input from international forums has also been taken into account, including particular: (i) decision VII/30 of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (ii) chapter 17 of Agenda 21; (iii) the Barbados Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States; (iv) the Mauritius Strategy for the Further Implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action; (v) the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development; and (vi) the Millennium Development Goals, in particular goal 7.
13. Although it was considered that potential threats from genetically modified organisms to island biodiversity were extremely important for islands and island States, no reference has been made to these within the programme of work, as these issues would be most appropriately addressed under the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety.
B. Overall purpose and scope of the programme of work
14. The overall purpose of the programme of work on island biodiversity is the significant reduction of island biodiversity loss by 2010 and beyond at global, regional and national levels, through the implementation of the three main objectives of the Convention, for the benefit of all forms of life on islands and, in particular, as a contribution to poverty alleviation and the sustainable development of small island developing States. The implementation of the programme of work thereby contributes to the objectives of the Strategic Plan of the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Barbados Programme of Action, the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development and the Millennium Development Goals.
15. The programme of work recognizes the uniqueness of island ecosystems and focuses on addressing characteristics and problems specific to island biological diversity that make island ecosystems particularly vulnerable to almost all types of natural, technological and human-related threats. It also recognizes that island biodiversity is of global significance and, as such, merits increased attention at the global scale, as its conservation and sustainable use will produce global benefits. Furthermore, it acknowledges that islands are microcosms that offer great scope for the application, testing and refinement of a wide range of conservation tools and approaches, including the ecosystem approach.
16. The programme of work seeks to complement existing thematic work programmes and other existing initiatives of the Convention on Biological Diversity. It acknowledges and identifies issues contained in other programmes of work and cross-cutting issues and notes the rationale for specific activities that are important for the understanding, conservation and sustainable use of island biological diversity. Parties are encouraged to apply, where appropriate, the objectives and activities from these work programmes to the conservation of island biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of island genetic resources.
17. The programme of work shall be consistent with any rights or obligations under existing international agreements.
18. By identifying synergies between this programme of work and other thematic programmes, conventions and agreements, Parties can strengthen cooperation and partnerships at the national, regional and international levels. Such partnerships should be broad-based and ensure the sharing and exchange of information and relevant trained personnel bearing in mind the necessity for cross-cultural exchange at the regional level and the involvement and participation of all stakeholders, including indigenous and local communities, civil society and the private sector.
19. In addition, this programme of work responds, inter alia, to the call made by small island developing States, during their regional and interregional preparatory meetings for the International Meeting to Review the Implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States, that island biodiversity should be addressed under the Convention on Biological Diversity in a manner that responds to the unique characteristics of small island developing States, in particular their vulnerabilities, and to the threats related to climate change and land degradation. Consequently, the programme of work is also a contribution to the implementation of the Mauritius Strategy for the Further Implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States.
20. In addition to the achievement of Millennium Development Goal 7, on environmental sustainability, this programme of work will contribute to the achievement of other Millennium Development Goals relating to poverty eradication and health. While the reference to poverty reduction and health is not explicitly stated throughout the programme of work, it is understood that the conservation and sustainable use of island biodiversity will contribute significantly to food security, sustainable livelihoods, health improvements and human well-being.
21. It is important to note that cultural diversity, the traditional knowledge and practices of indigenous and local communities of many small islands, including arctic islands, are unique and have special significance for these communities and need special consideration and integration in this programme of work. All aspects of the programme of work should be read and implemented through integrated national programmes with respect for the rights of indigenous and local communities, subject to national legislation and relevant international obligations, and with their full and effective participation.
22. The programme of work is intended to assist Parties in establishing national programmes of work with targeted goals, objectives, and actions, with specific actors, timeframes, inputs, and expected measurable outputs. Parties may select from, adapt, and/or add to, the goals, objectives and actions suggested in the current programme of work according to particular national and local conditions, and their level of development. Implementation of this programme of work through National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans should take into account the ecosystem approach of the Convention on Biological Diversity as the logical planning and management tool for integral island policies. In determining national programmes of work, Parties are encouraged to pay due regard to the socio-economic, cultural and environmental costs and benefits of various options. In addition, Parties are encouraged to consider the use of appropriate and adaptive technologies, sources of finance, and technical cooperation, and to ensure, through appropriate actions, the means to meet the particular challenges and demands of their island ecosystems.
23. As outlined in the introduction to the programme of work, the scale of islands provides significant opportunities for the integrated management of biodiversity. The goals and targets within the programme of work are therefore closely inter-related. Countries are encouraged to consider implementation of this programme in an integrated manner and in light of existing plans and within existing planning and programming cycles.
C. Supporting activities of the Secretariat
24. This programme of work will also require supporting actions from the Secretariat which will include provision of assistance to the Parties, and collaboration with other Governments, international organizations and other relevant bodies, which are specific to the implementation of the programme of work on islands biodiversity. This will comprise work, inter alia, to:
(a) Develop a list of, and encourage, potential partners for each of the goals of the island biodiversity programme of work;
(b) Disseminate information on sources of expertise on islands biodiversity conservation, sustainable use and benefit sharing relevant to the islands biodiversity programme of work;
(c) Facilitate links between Parties, partners, experts and other stakeholders and encourage capacity-building;
(d) Liaise with the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Ramsar Convention, the Convention on Migratory Species, the World Heritage Convention, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species and other multilateral environment agreements with a view to identifying and realizing synergies relevant to the island biodiversity programme of work; and
(e) Ensure the development and maintenance of a web portal on island biodiversity in support, inter alia, of the above activities.
D. Working definitions
25. The following terms have been clarified in order to facilitate the understanding and the implementation of this programme of work:
- Global target = desired outcome/results to be achieved within a specific timeframe. These should be measurable and achievable;
- Priority action = major action that must be implemented and will contribute significantly to achieving the target. It answers the question, “What must we do to achieve this target?”.
E. Goals, targets and timeframes, and island-specific priority actions for the Parties
TIMEFRAME & GLOBAL TARGETS
ISLAND-SPECIFIC PRIORITY ACTIONS FOR THE PARTIES
|FOCAL AREA 1: PROTECT THE COMPONENTS OF BIODIVERSITY|
GOAL 1: Promote the conservation of the biological diversity of island ecosystems, habitats and biomes
At least 10% of each of the island ecological regions effectively conserved
1.1.1. Develop and implement integrated policies and measures to conserve key terrestrial and marine ecosystems, habitats important for island biodiversity, societies and economies, taking into account the close ecological links within and between island marine and terrestrial ecosystems.
Rationale: Islands have many endemic species whose habitats are restricted to small areas. Island societies depend very largely on local biodiversity – whether terrestrial, fresh-water or marine.
1.1.2. Re-establish components that have been lost from or whose populations have been reduced within natural ecosystems
1.1.3. Undertake measures to restore at least 15% of degraded island ecosystems
Areas of particular importance to island biodiversity are protected through comprehensive, effectively managed and ecologically representative national and regional protected area networks
1.2.1. Identify and establish, as appropriate, comprehensive, representative and effectively managed national and regional systems of protected areas taking into account issues of resilience, ecological and physical connectivity to conserve viable populations of threatened, endemic, and ecologically or culturally important island species. This should be done with the full respect for the rights of indigenous and local communities and relevant stakeholders and their full and effective participation, consistent with national law and applicable international obligations.
Rationale: Many species on islands are often either locally endemic, restricted in range, threatened, or all three, and are not likely to survive without legal protection.
|GOAL 2 : Promote the conservation of island species diversity|
Populations of island species of selected taxonomic groups restored, maintained, or their decline substantially reduced
Target 2.2: Status of threatened island species significantly improved
2.1.1. Develop and implement conservation measures and policies, including protection, and where needed, recovery of populations of threatened, endemic, or ecologically or culturally important species and recovery plans.
Rationale: Key issue for island biodiversity. Continued loss of island biodiversity is of global importance. Many species have critical ecosystem roles, or are or social or cultural significance to islanders.
2.2.1. Compile detailed inventories of island species, assess their conservation status, including the main threat criteria, and develop the taxonomic expertise necessary to facilitate this.
Rationale: Many island species occur in very small populations. The transition from satisfactory conservation status to threatened status can occur with great rapidity.
|GOAL 3 : Promote the conservation of island genetic diversity|
Target 3.1: Genetic diversity of crops, livestock, and other valuable island species conserved, and associated indigenous and local knowledge maintained
3.1.1. Develop and implement measures to strengthen in situ or on-farm conservation of wild plants and animals and traditional crops and associated knowledge of indigenous and local communities, recognizing the widespread use of land-races of crops and stock strains on islands
Rationale: Island communities often have unique human cultures that have considerable knowledge of local biodiversity and have developed a wide range of local crop and domestic stock varieties.
3.1.2. Develop national and regional gene-pools and gene-banks for the conservation of genetic material of significance to the islands for food sources and health care enhancement and food security and/or that address threats to the high levels of island endemism
Rationale: Endemism and local land races of island species provide a unique and irreplaceable source of genetic resources.
FOCAL AREA 2: PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE USE
|GOAL 4 : Promote sustainable use and consumption|
Target 4.1: Island biodiversity-based products are derived from sources that are sustainably managed, and production areas managed, consistent with the conservation of biological diversity
|4.1.1. Remove subsidies that encourage unsustainable use of island biodiversity and where livelihoods are resource-based, support the development of sustainable economic activities.|
Rationale: Subsidies and other economic incentives may have very wide-reaching and rapid detrimental effects on biodiversity in islands. Island species are often restricted to very small populations that are quickly impacted by unsustainable practices.
Target 4.2: Unsustainable consumption of island biological resources and its impact upon biodiversity is reduced
4.2.1. Adopt measures to ensure sustainable management of coastal and marine biodiversity, with due regard to the conservation of threatened, endemic, ecologically and/or culturally important island species, to prevent, inter alia, over-exploitation and destructive practices
Rationale: Island species are often restricted to very small populations that are quickly impacted by unsustainable practices.
4.2.2. Adopt measures to promote the sustainable use of terrestrial and freshwater resources in islands
Rationale: Island communities are very largely dependent on local biodiversity.
4.2.3. Adopt and apply strategies to sustainably use agroecosystems on islands with biodiversity of importance to the ecological integrity of island societies and economies through efficient and sustainable agricultural production, and ensure food security through diversification of agriculture, alternative use of crops, improved husbandry, integrated crop-pest management, irrigation and water management, and the use of appropriate technologies.
Rationale: Island agroecosystems include many unique varieties and land races. Island communities are very largely dependent on local biodiversity.
4.2.4. Develop, adopt and apply strategies appropriate to islands to sustainably use managed forest ecosystems with biodiversity of importance to the ecological integrity of island societies and economies through improved production and harvesting methods, integrated pest management, water management, fire control, non-timber resources and the use of appropriate technologies.
Rationale: Island forests typically contain species and assemblages that are unique, and many of them provide island peoples with food, medicine and fertilizer.
4.2.5. Promote implementation of sustainable tourism best practices appropriate to islands.
Rationale: Many island economies are based on tourism.
Target 4.3: No species of wild flora and fauna on islands is endangered by international trade
4.3.1. States not yet parties to accede to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) and all States implement that Convention.
Rationale: A number of island States are not yet Party to CITES. The economic circumstances of islands, combined with their unique biodiversity, tend to encourage the trade in rare organisms.
4.3.2. Develop and enforce measures to stop illegal, unreported and unregulated harvesting and trading of endangered species of wild flora and fauna.
Rationale: The high levels of endemism on islands make species more vulnerable to global extinction through illegal activities. .
4.3.3. Manage trade in those species not covered by CITES to ensure that their wild populations are sustained
Rationale: Island species are often not listed in CITES.
|FOCAL AREA 3: ADDRESS THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY|
|GOAL 5 : Pressures from habitat loss, land-use change and degradation, and sustainable water use, reduced on islands|
Target 5.1: Rate of loss and degradation of natural habitats in islands significantly decreased (target 5.1 of the 2010 framework)
5.1.1. Develop and implement integrated land and water use plans that take into account ecological and physical connectivity and important biodiversity areas.
Rationale: Island ecosystems frequently cover small areas and may be highly fragmented, and connectivity of habitats has become increasingly limited under anthropogenic pressure. Distances from the centre of the island to the ocean are often short, and impacts on biodiversity in one area are often rapidly reflected in nearby ecosystems.
5.1.2. Develop and apply environmental and socio-economic impact assessment methods prior to land-use conversion such as for agriculture, human settlements, mining, logging, infrastructure development, and tourism and military activities.
Rationale: Impact assessment is particularly important when large fractions of remaining ecosystems can be affected by infrastructure development or other human activities.
GOAL 6: Control threats to island biological diversity from invasive alien species
Target 6.1: Pathways for major potential alien invasive species are identified and controlled on islands
6.1.1. Establish effective control systems at national island borders and between and within islands to prevent the movement of invasive alien species
6.1.2. Collaborate to identify and address pathways for movement of invasive alien species at the island, national, regional and global levels
6.1.3. Develop and implement measures for the early detection and rapid response to the introduction or establishment of invasive alien species in both terrestrial and marine ecosystems
Rationale: This is one of the most important issues for island biodiversity, which needs urgent, concerted and sustained action.
Target 6.2: Management plans in place and implemented for major alien species that threaten ecosystems, habitats or species
|6.2.1. Develop and implement prevention, eradication and management plans for long-term management of priority invasive alien species. These plans should include, provisions for the, elimination or control of pathways that lead to the introduction and spread and re-invasion of these species|
6.2.2. Enlist the support and cooperation of all sectors of society for appropriate prevention, eradication and management of alien invasive species
Rationale: This is one of the most important issues for island biodiversity, which needs urgent, concerted and sustained action.
|GOAL 7: Address challenges to island biodiversity from climate change , and pollution|
Target 7.1: Resilience of the components of biodiversity to adapt to climate changein islands maintained and enhanced
7.1.1. Research and implement adaptation and mitigation measures in land-use and coastal zone planning and strategies to strengthen local-level biodiversity resilience to climate change
Rationale: Island biodiversity is particularly threatened by climate change, which could have a major impact on island ecosystems.
7.1.2. Create where feasible viable national systems of protected areas that are resilient to climate change
Target 7.2: Pollution and its impacts on island biological diversity significantly reduced
7.2.1. Develop and implement measures to prevent and reduce the impact of pollution and waste, also by developing and implementing pollution and waste management plans, including contingency plans, with special attention to solid and hazardous waste
Rationale: Islands are largely coastal communities, where it is particularly difficult to dispose of wastes without impacting biodiversity. The siting of landfills, the disposal of liquid wastes and the uptake of solid wastes and plastics by marine organisms are all of considerable significance to islands.
7.2.2. Develop and implement watershed integrated management to prevent siltation and run-off impacts on island coastal ecosystems
7.2.3. Implement measures to prevent eutrophication of island coastal ecosystems caused by, inter alia, wastewater and agricultural run-off and infiltration
|FOCAL AREA 4: MAINTAIN GOODS AND SERVICES FROM BIODIVERSITY TO SUPPORT HUMAN WELL - BEING|
|GOAL 8 : Maintain capacity of island ecosystems to deliver goods and services and support livelihoods|
Target 8.1: Capacity of island ecosystems to deliver goods and services maintained or improved
8.1.1. Develop policies, programmes and actions to ensure the capacity of island ecosystems to deliver goods and services are maintained
8.1.2. Understand and promote the role of island ecosystems and habitats in providing ecosystem services that prevent or mitigate the impacts of natural or anthropogenic disasters and extreme events, and protect islands, island biodiversity and island communities
Rationale: Disasters tend to affect significant fractions of the area of islands, and integrated management can provide mitigation .
|Target 8.2: Biological resources that support sustainable livelihoods, local food security and health care, especially of poor people living on islands, maintained|
8.2.1. Develop policies, programmes and actions to ensure the capacity of island ecosystems to deliver goods and services and biological resources that support sustainable livelihoods, local food security and health care, especially of poor peopleRationale: Island communities are largely depedent on local biodiversity for food and livelihoods
|FOCAL AREA 5: PROTECT TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICES|
|GOAL 9: Maintain socio-cultural diversity of indigenous and local communities on islands|
Target 9.1: Measures to protect traditional knowledge, innovations and practices associated with island biological diversity implemented, and the participation of indigenous and local communities in activities aimed at this promoted and facilitated
9.1.1. Recognize and protect island traditional knowledge, innovations and practices which improve the understanding, conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity
9.1.2. Develop and implement measures and legislation, where appropriate and in keeping with national laws and relevant international obligations, for the respect and protection of indigenous and local communities rights over their traditional knowledge innovations and practices
|Target 9.2: Traditional knowledge, innovations and practices regarding island biodiversity respected, preserved and maintained, the wider application of such knowledge, innovations and practices promoted with the prior informed consent and involvement of the indigenous and local communities providing such traditional knowledge, innovations and practices, and the benefits arising from such knowledge, innovations and practices equitably shared|
9.2.1. Develop and implement ways and means to share in a fair and equitable way with indigenous and local communities the benefits arising from use of their traditional knowledge, innovations and practices
Rationale: Island communities have extensive knowledge of local biodiversity and traditional practices related to its conservation and use, but both knowledge and practices are vulnerable to social change misuse and misappropriation.
FOCAL AREA 6: ENSURE THE FAIR AND EQUITABLE SHARING OF BENEFITS ARISING OUT OF THE USE OF GENETIC RESOURCES
|GOAL 10 : Ensure the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of island genetic resources|
Target 10.1: All access to genetic resources from islands is in line with the Convention on Biological Diversity and its relevant provisions and, as appropriate and wherever possible, with the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and other applicable agreements
10.1.1. Improve the knowledge base of genetic resourcesRationale: Island biodiversity is unique – and the same remark holds for the genetic resources, but
Target 10.2: Benefits arising from the commercial and other utilization of island biodiversity genetic resources shared in a fair and equitable way with the island countries providing such resources in line with the CBD and its relevant provisions
10.2.1. Establish administrative, legislative and/or regulatory measures and systems in line with the Convention to ensure access to genetic resources, in particular those endemic to islands, and ensure that benefits arising from their utilization are fairly and equitably shared
Rationale: Island biodiversity is unique – and the same remark holds for the genetic resources, but in general, very little is known of the genetic diversity of island organisms.
|FOCAL AREA 7: ENSURE PROVISION OF ADEQUATE RESOURCES|
|GOAL 11: Parties have improved financial, human, scientific, technical and technological capacity to implement the Convention|
Target 11.1: New and additional financial resources are allocated to all islands, in particular small islands developing States and for developing country Parties, to facilitate the effective implementation of this programme of work and, in general, their commitments under the Convention in accordance with Article 20
11.1. Develop and strengthen partnership at all levels and across sectors to finance the implementation of national biodiversity strategies and action plans and the programme of work
11.1.2. Provision of additional financial resources from the financial mechanism of the Convention for developing country Parties in accordance with Article 20
11.1.3. Assess, develop and implement a range of conservation finance mechanisms at the local, national and international levels
Target 11.2:Technologies are transferred to developing country Parties, in particular small island developing States, to allow for the effective implementation of this programme of work and, in general, their commitments under the Convention, in accordance with Article 20, paragraph 4
11.2.1. Identify and develop or transfer knowledge, science and technology appropriate to islands for the conservation and sustainable use of island biodiversity
1 1.2.2. Develop island-based technology to support conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity
|Target 11.3: Capacity of islands to implement this programme of work on island biological diversity and all its priority activities is significantly strengthened|
11.3.1. Where appropriate, strengthen the capacity to develop and implement legal and other mechanisms that support this programme of work
11.3.2. Promote the sharing of best practices within and among islands, and enhance learning opportunities for all relevant groups, including governments, non-governmental organizations and indigenous and local communities, to accelerate effective implementation of this programme of work
11.3.3. Develop and implement effective communication and public awareness and education programmes at all levels, to promote the programme of work on island biodiversity, taking into account local capacity, language and culture
11.3.4. Adopt an integrated, inter-disciplinary and participatory approach at all levels of planning, management, inventory, monitoring, and governance involving all stakeholders related to the understanding, conservation and sustainable use of island biodiversity
11.3.5. Develop the capacity for a national and regional biodiversity monitoring programme11.3.6. Strengthen regional cooperation particularly between small island developing States and developed countries in the same region
* Noting that not all Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity are also Parties to the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources.
LIST OF SUGGESTED SUPPORTING ACTIONS FOR PARTIES
This appendix provides a list of suggested supporting actions for the Parties, and is intended to be a menu of actions from which Parties may choose when implementing this programme of work.
GOAL 1 10 /
Priority action 1.1.1
126.96.36.199. Identify, classify, map, and prioritize island ecosystems and sensitive areas important for biodiversity and/or for the maintenance of ecosystem goods and services, with the full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities, taking into account practical issues of connectivity and implementation of conservation activities.
188.8.131.52. Develop, implement and enforce through a participatory process, legislation and management plans for the conservation of important ecosystems and habitats, engaging all relevant stakeholders.
184.108.40.206. Establish efficient local, national, and regional ecosystem monitoring programmes.
220.127.116.11. Facilitate participatory workshops on conservation legislation for all relevant stakeholders to develop long term local support and commitment to compliance.
18.104.22.168. Improve understanding of ecological processes on and around islands, including isolation and fragmentation of habitats such as, seamounts, cold water coral reefs, hydrothermal vents, and cold seeps in conserving biodiversity.
Priority action 1.1.2
22.214.171.124. Develop and implement appropriate techniques and guidelines through reviewing and monitoring restoration projects globally.
126.96.36.199. Identify and undertake rehabilitation of natural terrestrial ecosystems from which key components have been lost or significantly reduced, in cooperation with local, traditional, and indigenous experts to identify key vegetation components that have been lost or significantly reduced.
188.8.131.52. Re-establish animal species in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems from which they have been lost or significantly reduced.
184.108.40.206. Re-establish depleted species into marine ecosystems (e.g. artificial reefs, coral transplanting and species restocking).
220.127.116.11. Develop and implement methods to protect endangered species in their island environments and to enhance or re-establish populations that have sustained extensive declines.
18.104.22.168. Use restoration techniques in order to foster and reinforce natural processes, as appropriate.
22.214.171.124. Recognize, encourage and facilitate restoration initiatives by indigenous and local communities, including through policies, legislation, technical assistance and financial support for community based initiatives.
126.96.36.199 Explore the possibility of documenting traditional knowledge, innovations and practices relevant to local species, taking on board the work of the Ad Hoc Open-Ended Inter-Sessional Working Group on Article 8(j) and related provisions while developing technical guidelines for such activities, with the full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities, consistent with Article 8(j).
Priority action 1.1.3
188.8.131.52 Develop practical criteria for classifying degraded island ecosystems and selecting priority ecosystems for restoration, based on their conservation and ecosystem service value and impact on other ecosystems or habitats.
184.108.40.206 Systematically compile existing and new data on the status and trend of degraded island ecosystems. Establish a baseline measure of the extent of degraded island ecosystems as a means of determining progress towards restoration targets.
220.127.116.11 Restore selected island ecosystems through control and management or, where feasible, the eradication of invasive alien species.
18.104.22.168 Restore degraded mangrove, seagrass and coral reef ecosystems.
22.214.171.124 Recognize, encourage and facilitate ecosystem restoration initiatives by indigenous and local communities, through effective measures that could include policies, legislation, technical assistance and financial support for community-based initiatives.
Priority action 1.2.1
126.96.36.199. Where national biodiversity strategies and action plans (NBSAPs) do not exist or are not inclusive of protected areas, prepare and implement management and conservation plans for protected areas and micro-reserves, including community-based management plans.
188.8.131.52. Develop and apply active conservation methods that integrate ex situ, if appropriate, and in situ conservation.
184.108.40.206. Recognize, promote and establish marine, coastal and terrestrial protected areas using a broad set of governance types, including innovative types such as co-managed protected areas and community-based conserved areas and by:
(a) Working with traditional, indigenous and local experts to identify and promote effective protected area governance options;
(b) Using international legal designations (such as Ramsar and World Heritage) to leverage support for island protected areas;
(c) Developing and conducting outreach activities to inform indigenous and local communities and other stakeholders on the benefits and importance of protected areas;
(d) Empowering stakeholders in resource management and promoting community-based management;
(e) Establishing partnerships with other governments, NGOs, and/or indigenous and local communities to assist governments to build representative and resilient protected area networks.
220.127.116.11. Support integrated management of coastal and marine protected areas, and the enhancement of ecosystem resilience and recovery.
18.104.22.168. Integrate climate change adaptation measures when establishing networks of island protected areas.
22.214.171.124. Identify and protect areas of significance to migratory species
126.96.36.199 Consider ratification or accession to the Convention on Migratory Species and/or its subsidiary agreements.
188.8.131.52. Encourage the establishment of transboundary marine protected areas where appropriate, consistent with the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.
Priority action 2.1.1
184.108.40.206 Identify, map, and prioritize areas containing native threatened, 11 endemic, and/or culturally important species working closely with traditional, indigenous and local experts and communities.
220.127.116.11 Develop and implement habitat protection, management, and if necessary, species reintroduction strategies giving priority to in situ activities.
18.104.22.168 Adopt measures to prevent unsustainable harvesting.
22.214.171.124 Collaborate with local and indigenous and local communities to develop and apply active conservation methods that integrate both ex situ and in situ conservation.
126.96.36.199 Implement inter-island translocation of threatened species, especially within archipelagos, in cases where this will improve chances for survival, and conduct risk assessment about hybridization and out-breeding processes before implementation.
188.8.131.52 Consider, where appropriate, economic and other forms of incentives that encourage the conservation of threatened endemic, or ecologically or culturally important species by private sector, NGOs, and indigenous and local communities, giving priority to in situ activities.
184.108.40.206 Maintain as appropriate/necessary threatened island species under ex situ conditions, preferably in the country and/or region of origin.
220.127.116.11 Improve scientific capacity in conservation biology tools for recovery of endangered species, including population genetic studies as part of recovery efforts.
18.104.22.168 Promote the gathering of the maximum genetic diversity in the samples to be stored in ex-situ collections at population and species levels. 12 /
22.214.171.124 Understand delayed response processes of species responding to degradation, loss and fragmentation of insular habitats.
126.96.36.199 Develop and implement recovery plans for selected single, multiple or region-wide island endangered species in collaboration with indigenous and local communities, giving particular priority to species most at risk of extinction, those that are endemic, and species that will provide the broadest range of benefits.
188.8.131.52 Develop protocols for translocation of island endemics threatened by invasive alien species to different islands or new locations within the same island
Priority action 2.2.1
184.108.40.206 Compile and/or update maps and undertake censuses of all native threatened endemic, and/or culturally important species.
220.127.116.11 Undertake studies and provide baseline data and information on marine species, spawning and breeding sites.
18.104.22.168 Survey and assess known and potential biodiversity hot spots, with rapid assessments of components of island biodiversity.
22.214.171.124 Undertake taxonomic studies or revisions of important island taxa, including marine, freshwater and terrestrial species.
126.96.36.199 List all endangered island species that are stored in ex situ collections.
188.8.131.52 Document traditional use with the full and effective participation and prior informed consent of indigenous and local communities, consistent with Article 8(j).
184.108.40.206 Promote studies on key species life histories with special emphasis on conservation biology tools and approaches to assist active recovery efforts.
220.127.116.11 Understand the dynamics of key island populations and ecological communities, and what constitutes an adequate area of key habitat to ensure viable populations.
18.104.22.168 Assess genetic diversity and differentiation within and among island populations of wild flora and fauna.
22.214.171.124. Improve the infrastructure and resources for data and information collection, management and exchange including:
- Informatics tools to provide easy access to data, repository collections and identification reference materials;
- Regional, national and local capacity, where appropriate, to house and maintain repository collections of voucher specimens and other reference specimens with the participation of indigenous and local communities.
126.96.36.199. Provide taxonomic training and prepare guides to enable researchers to identify poorly known biological groups, coral species and other associated island species.
188.8.131.52. Undertake monitoring of those species at risk, especially, at a minimum, all critically endangered and endangered species.
Priority action 3.1.1
184.108.40.206 Support regional, subregional, national and local efforts to conserve the genetic diversity of crops and livestock on farms and of useful wild species in their natural habitats.
220.127.116.11 Integrate in situ and ex situ strategies for conservation of genetic diversity.
18.104.22.168 Identify and support mechanisms for the restoration of lost germplasm and associated information to communities and countries.
22.214.171.124 Support projects of indigenous and local communities to perpetuate and revitalize customary use of wild species and traditional crops and livestock in accordance with traditional cultural practices that are compatible with in situ conservation and/or sustainable use requirements.
126.96.36.199 Develop, with the full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities, processes and mechanisms to facilitate the return of genetic resources held in ex situ collections to their ecosystems of origin, with the view to assisting in situ conservation initiatives of indigenous and local communities.
Priority action 3.1.2
188.8.131.52 Develop capacity to establish and maintain gene banks/genetic resources centres, including for aquatic/marine species, crops, and livestock, subject to Article 8(j).
184.108.40.206 Develop a mechanism that enables and facilitates the development of regional gene banks/genetic resources centres to serve those islands that lack the resources and infrastructure to establish and maintain gene banks.
220.127.116.11 Ensure the placement of gene banks/genetic resources centres in least vulnerable areas and where possible, maintain stocks in duplicate sites.
Priority action 4.1.1 (comes from 6.1)
18.104.22.168 Develop and implement policies and a legal framework to facilitate the removal of subsidies that encourage unsustainable exploitation of island biodiversity, including, inter alia, the following actions:
(a) Increase awareness of policy makers, legislators and the private sector on the impacts of subsidies on island biodiversity.
(b) adopt/encourage measures to help eradicate over-exploitation of threatened species and other species with an unfavourable conservation status (e.g., seabirds, marine turtles and dugong).
(c) Assess the effectiveness of policies designed to make economic activities sustainable on islands, and use socio-economic and scientific knowledge to develop them further.
(d) Understand how island-specific economic policies can be incorporated in over-arching trade, tourism and environmental governance.
22.214.171.124 Adopt, promote and enforce the use of environmentally friendly technologies in all production processes.
126.96.36.199 Support indigenous and local communities in developing sustainable resource-based livelihoods and economic activities, including appropriate research and capacity-building.
188.8.131.52 Understand how biodiversity is affected by pressures resulting from economic activities including tourism, agriculture, forestry and fisheries, which are intensified in small island environments.
184.108.40.206 Assess the current and potential contribution of biodiversity to island peoples in terms of sustaining livelihoods, economic activity and cultural value.
Priority action 4.2.1
220.127.116.11. Develop and implement participatory standards and protocols in establishing measures for the sustainable utilization of marine-based resources.
18.104.22.168 Establish and ensure compliance with frameworks on unsustainable fishing gears and practices that severely impact vulnerable marine and coastal ecosystems, taking into account sustainable customary resource use of indigenous and local communities.
22.214.171.124 Develop an updated assessment of fishing gears and practices.
126.96.36.199 Assess and promote new techniques to help alleviate fishing pressures on coastal ecosystems.
188.8.131.52 Promote the use of gears and techniques that minimize by-catch of non-target species.
184.108.40.206 Develop and implement fishery management plans to control pressure on resources and habitats, ensure stock replenishment and prevent loss of biodiversity/habitats, taking into account user’s rights, zoning (including setting of no take zones), drawing on traditional and science-based knowledge.
220.127.116.11 Encourage the development and implementation of environmentally friendly and socially fair and equitable certification of marine biodiversity-based products.
18.104.22.168 Promote the establishment of marine no-take zones to enhance replenishment of fishery resources.
22.214.171.124 Address the impacts of unsustainable aquaculture and promote sustainable aquaculture practices ensuring opportunities for the participation of indigenous and local communities.
126.96.36.199 Establish effective participatory monitoring, control and surveillance systems to ensure compliance with regulations by users of coastal and marine resources, at the local, national and regional levels.
188.8.131.52 Remove harmful subsidies that encourage unsustainable exploitation of marine and coastal biodiversity, or irreversible loss of critical habitats.
184.108.40.206 Support integrated and participatory policy development, planning and management (for example IMCAM) of coastal and marine resources with adjacent watersheds, including farming systems.
220.127.116.11 Support and strengthen the capacity of governments, indigenous and local communities and other stakeholders to sustainably manage coastal and marine resources and to document sustainable practices.
Priority action 4.2.2
18.104.22.168 Work with civil society, the private sector, and local leaders to enable indigenous and local communities to develop and/or implement adaptive community-management systems, through participatory processes, to conserve and sustainably use terrestrial and freshwater biological diversity, where appropriate.
22.214.171.124 Support and strengthen the capacity of indigenous and local communities to sustainably manage terrestrial and freshwater resources and to document sustainable practices.
126.96.36.199 Establish effective monitoring, control and surveillance systems to ensure compliance with regulations by users of terrestrial and freshwater resources, at the local, national and regional levels.
188.8.131.52 Provide incentives 13 / to encourage sustainable use of terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity in islands and remove subsidies that encourage unsustainable exploitation or habitat destruction.
184.108.40.206. Develop effective and generally accessible information systems and management strategies for terrestrial and freshwater resources.
220.127.116.11. Promote implementation and monitoring of integrated and sustainable land use and water resources management strategies and practices.
Priority action 4.2.3.
18.104.22.168 Develop and implement, through a participatory process, a sustainable and integrated agriculture development plan, including:
- The use of knowledge, practices and innovations of indigenous and local communities;
- Production and use of traditional crops and livestock, and associated traditional knowledge;
- Sustainable use of medicinal plants and maintenance of home gardens;
- Revitalization of sustainable farming systems aiming to prevent land degradation and increase productivity through agroforestry techniques and other soil conservation practices;
- Application of integrated pest management methodologies and techniques in agricultural production;
- Protection and enrichment of trees and arboreal biodiversity within agroforestry and cropping systems;
- Efficient and sustainable agricultural production to ensure food security.
22.214.171.124 Establish strong collaborative partnerships and networks at the local, national, regional and international levels in order to undertake studies and projects advancing sustainable agriculture in islands.
126.96.36.199 Address land tenure issues where relevant to the development of sustainable farming systems.
188.8.131.52 Identify market opportunities at the local, national, and international level to support the revitalization of sustainable agricultural production systems and consistent with international instruments, promote fair and equitable access to these markets for indigenous and local communities.
184.108.40.206 Identify key components of biological diversity in agricultural production systems responsible for maintaining natural processes and cycles; monitor and evaluate the effects of different agricultural practices and technologies on these components and encourage restoration and other practices to attain appropriate levels of biological diversity.
220.127.116.11 Compile, in collaboration with FAO and other relevant bodies and organizations, and disseminate through the clearing-house mechanism and other means:
(a) Guidelines/tool kits geared towards the development of sustainable agriculture systems.
(b) Case-studies, lessons learned and best-practice guidance on sustainable agriculture systems.
Priority action 4.2.4.
18.104.22.168 Develop and implement, through a participatory process, a sustainable forestry plan, integrating, where appropriate, the traditional knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities, subject to Article 8(j):
- Sustainable forestry systems aiming to prevent land degradation and increase productivity through appropriate techniques and soil conservation practices.
- Sustainable use of medicinal plants and other non-timber forest resources.
- Application of integrated pest management methodologies and techniques.
- Use of fire management and prevention tools and techniques for maintaining and enhancing biological diversity within managed forests.
22.214.171.124 Develop plans for sustainable management of mangrove ecosystems and ensure sustainability of fuelwood harvests.
126.96.36.199 Address land tenure issues relevant to the development of sustainable forestry systems.
188.8.131.52 Establish strong collaborative partnerships and networks at the local, national, regional and international levels in order to undertake studies and projects advancing sustainable forestry in islands.
184.108.40.206 Conduct research and extension activities on the propagation, production and use of native and endemic forest species, and associated traditional knowledge, where applicable, to maintain the diversity of native species.
220.127.116.11 Support community-based reforestation projects using native species that enhance island biodiversity.
Priority action 4.2.5.
18.104.22.168 Mainstream biodiversity into the integrated planning, strategies, policies and implementation for all tourism and tourism-related projects. Include community-based initiatives, wherever appropriate.
22.214.171.124 Develop and promote specific guidelines and responsible codes for all tourism activities, including socio-cultural and environmental impact assessments, sustainable water use, energy management, waste generation and disposal, and construction in order to have a real benefit for biodiversity conservation, taking into account: the CBD Guidelines on Biodiversity and Tourism Development, the Akwé: Kon Voluntary Guidelines on Cultural, Environmental and Social Impact Assessment, and guidelines for integrating biodiversity considerations in environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment.
126.96.36.199 Promote networks of island destinations respectful of biological diversity and develop an island forum on innovation supporting biodiversity and responsible tourism.
188.8.131.52 Promote and facilitate partnerships between tourism stakeholders, operators, and indigenous and local communities to promote sustainable tourism.
184.108.40.206 Support pilot tourism projects in island tourist destinations that favour conservation of local biodiversity.
220.127.116.11 Disseminate information on specific island biological and cultural diversity issues and value to improve knowledge and increase awareness of responsibilities among all relevant tourism actors (including tour operators, tourists, indigenous and local communities, authorities, etc.).
18.104.22.168 Enhance local benefits from tourism on islands (e.g., keeping tourism receipts within local economies) and strengthen local capacity for sustainable tourism management.
22.214.171.124 Develop regional partnership to help enforcement of regulations against illegal practices connected to biodiversity and tourism.
Priority action 4.3.1.
126.96.36.199 Adopt regulatory programmes to ensure that harvest for trade in species i s sustainable, in accordance with CITES and relevant national regulations.
Priority action 4.3.2.
188.8.131.52 Strengthen legislation and enforcement to manage international trade in threatened species, inter alia, by applying appropriate penalties and strengthening the weakest parts of the enforcement system.
184.108.40.206 Empower communities to support enforcement of regulations concerning collection for trade and in monitoring the populations of the species concerned.
220.127.116.11 Consider incentives 14 / to re-invest revenue from trade in conservation and sustainable management of the species concerned.
Priority action 4.3.3.
18.104.22.168 Develop and adopt management plans for key species to ensure that harvest for international trade in them is sustainable
Priority action 5.1.1.
22.214.171.124 Establish and promote participatory tools and mechanisms to develop and implement integrated land and water use plans, including community-based resource mapping
126.96.36.199 Develop and implement enabling-policy and legal frameworks for integrated land and water use planning and management, including integrated watershed, marine and coastal area management and prevention of cumulative impacts from incremental development
188.8.131.52 Create mechanisms to ensure coordination of all agencies and sectors responsible for land and water use planning or management
184.108.40.206 Assess and address underlying causes of habitat loss in small islands, in particular in small island developing States
220.127.116.11 Develop alternatives to prevent loss of habitats and overexploitation of existing natural resources (e.g., forests, mangroves, marine resources) driven by mariculture, agriculture or tourism.
18.104.22.168 Reduce the negative impacts on ecosystems and resources of mining and quarrying (including sand exploitation, coral mining and dredging) by developing and implementing:
- Policy and legal frameworks, including in particular for conservation of important ecosystems and habitats, e.g. mangroves;
- Technologies that minimize adverse impacts;
- Environmentally friendly and socially responsible approaches;
- Methods for minimizing impacts of extraction of mineral resources, such as sand, aggregates, gravel, coral, limestone and mud.
22.214.171.124 Prevent and reduce coastal erosion, siltation and land/soil degradation.
126.96.36.199 Promote and implement “whole island” or “ridge-to-reef” planning and legislation/regulations to anticipate and prevent cumulative impacts from incremental development.
Priority action 5.1.2.
188.8.131.52 Take measures to avoid/prevent or reduce soil erosion caused by, inter alia, deforestation, overgrazing, and fires.
184.108.40.206 Implement strategic environmental assessment, and environmental and socio-economic impact assessment procedures or regulations integrating biodiversity considerations prior to land-use conversion.
Priority action 6.1.1.
220.127.116.11. Establish an effective quarantine control system at national borders to protect against the introduction of invasive alien species taking into account existing control systems, such as those under the International Plant Protection Convention.
18.104.22.168. Establish and, where appropriate, improve quarantine measures to protect against movement of invasive alien species between islands within nation states (i.e., intra-island in the case of islands that are part of an archipelago or a larger state).
22.214.171.124. Collect baseline data on invasive alien species introductions, and support regional and global databases providing comprehensive information on invasive species.
126.96.36.199. Support efforts to develop scientific, effective and safe biological control of invasive alien species that negatively affect islands.
188.8.131.52. Develop, strengthen and enforce legislative and policy frameworks as a basis for effective prevention measures.
184.108.40.206. Integrate, where appropriate, WTO/SPS measures developed or implemented under the WTO work programme on small economies into broader control measures for invasive alien species.
220.127.116.11. Establish linkages to other international instruments and the work of organizations with an interest in invasive alien species (e.g., the IPPC, EPPO, WTO/SPS, OIE, APEC, SPREP and other regional bodies relevant to the Mediterranean, Indian Ocean, and Caribbean).
Priority action 6.1.2.
18.104.22.168. Collaborate to identify and address pathways for movement of invasive alien species at the regional and global level, so that clusters of island States can work together to protect their biodiversity from them.
22.214.171.124. Share national invasive alien species lists and data on invasive alien species intercepted and their pathways at the international level.
126.96.36.199. Solicit assistance from the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in the assessment and compilation of best practices, and in the development and implementation of regulatory measures for the management of ballast water and bio-fouling to prevent the spread of invasive alien species both internationally and intra-nationally.
188.8.131.52. Encourage island governments that have not done so to accede to the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments (2004), and related agreements relevant to invasive alien species.
Priority action 6.1.3 .
184.108.40.206. Develop contingency plans for the early detection and rapid response to the introduction of invasive alien species that may affect the ecological, social, economic and cultural balance in both terrestrial and marine ecosystems.
220.127.116.11. Implement participatory surveillance programmes (integrating as far as possible, local communities) to detect new introductions and to assess the probability that species already present will become invasive.
18.104.22.168. Share national invasive alien species lists and data on invasive alien species intercepted and their pathways at the national level.
22.214.171.124. Develop or strengthen policy frameworks and develop, strengthen and enforce legislation for effective response systems.
126.96.36.199. Collect baseline data for existing native and endemic species in order to better understand what alien and invasive alien species populations have become established, so as to better assess their impacts.
188.8.131.52. Make available information on population dynamics, habitat (natural and semi-natural), reproductive biology and propagation features of potentially invasive species.
184.108.40.206. Identify and address likely invasion processes in the design of biodiversity conservation strategies.
220.127.116.11. Perform science-based risk assessment for: (a) proposed deliberate introductions of alien species; and (b) importation of goods that may accidentally include invasive alien species (e.g. insects on food shipments).
18.104.22.168. Develop science-based risk assessment methodologies applicable at the local, national and regional levels, including the risk of hybridization with endemic species.
22.214.171.124. Encourage assistance by regional international entities in development of regional science-based risk assessment policies and tools and capacity-building to assist countries in addressing the requirements of IPPC and WTO/SPS for raising quarantine measures to keep invasive alien species out.
Priority action 6.2.1
126.96.36.199. Identify priorities and opportunities for the practical control and eradication of key invasive alien species from islands, working closely with, civil society, business and local stakeholders.
188.8.131.52. Encourage, develop and support implementation of economically and environmentally sustainable management programmes for control and eradication of priority invasive alien species on islands.
184.108.40.206. Develop an inventory of invasive alien species on islands based on surveys. Link this with inventory of species and ecosystems to identify the pressures, risks and most cost-effective opportunities for preventing the introduction and spread of invasive alien species, thereby supporting the restoration of affected habitats.
220.127.116.11. Develop or strengthen policy frameworks and develop, strengthen and enforce legislation for effective management systems
18.104.22.168. Promote regional mechanisms for supporting communication, rapid response, risk assessment procedures and coordination of regulatory measures to counter the spread of invasive alien species across island chains or groups and among insular regions with similar ecosystems.
22.214.171.124. Facilitate and support the work of cooperative initiatives to eradicate or manage priority invasive alien species on islands (e.g. Cooperative Initiative on Invasive Alien Species).
126.96.36.199. Review and, as necessary, facilitate the revision or development of national and/or local legal instruments, adapted to the situation of each island state or island region, to prevent undesired introductions and to manage or eradicate established invasive alien species.
188.8.131.52. Provide the systemic institutional and individual technical capacities at the national and regional levels to conduct research, public education, and awareness and institute enforcement mechanisms for ongoing prevention and control of invasive species.
Priority action 6.2.2.
184.108.40.206. Develop and conduct public awareness and social marketing activities and programmes for key audiences and key species to increase public will to address invasives and strategic action by target groups, working closely with local governments, civil society, business and local stakeholders.
220.127.116.11 Develop and implement participatory processes for integrated planning for prevention and management of invasive alien species, working with all relevant stakeholders.
18.104.22.168 Create or maintain active multi-sector invasive alien species committees (or equivalent) at the island or national level to:
(a) Ensure ongoing coordination by all public and private sector agencies with a role in invasive alien species planning and action;
(b) Assist national and local governments, non-governmental organizations, local communities, and the private sector to clearly identify their own responsibilities for the prevention, detection, rapid response, eradication, and long-term management of invasive alien species, including, inter alia, procedures for the regulation of domesticated or captive species that may become invasive;
(c) Establish and/or strengthen collaborative working relationships among conservation, agriculture and border control (customs and quarantine) authorities.
22.214.171.124. Develop and implement codes of conduct to regulate intentional introductions and prevent unintentional introductions by the general public and by enterprises that import, export or transport goods.
Priority action 7.1.1.
126.96.36.199. Develop monitoring techniques to identify and monitor the impacts of climate change on key species.
188.8.131.52. Consider afforestation and reforestation projects that enhance island biodiversity, noting that it may be possible for these projects to be eligible to generate certified emission reduction units under the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism.
184.108.40.206. Develop models to understand the vulnerability of island biodiversity to climate change, including:
(a) Understand how sea level rise and other aspects of climate change threaten island biodiversity;
(b) Develop general circulation models and other scientific tools to help understand and adapt to the impacts of climate change on island biodiversity.
220.127.116.11. Monitor and exchange information on the impacts of global climate change on island biodiversity.
18.104.22.168. Strengthen national capacity to address climate change issues for island biodiversity.
22.214.171.124. Identify species (e.g., corals) that are resilient to climate change in order to use those species for restoration.
126.96.36.199. Reduce chemical and physical degradation of coral reefs to facilitate recovery from climate-induced bleaching.
Priority action 7.1.2.
188.8.131.52. Identify and protect sites whose environmental conditions favour the maintenance and recovery of species and ecosystems under changed climate and sea level.
Priority action 7.2.1. (from 9.1)
184.108.40.206. Enforce the environmental, social and cultural impact assessment process for island industries, infrastructure, and urban plans.
220.127.116.11. Integrate pollution and waste management into regional, national and sub-national regulations and plans to prevent ecosystem pollution and degradation.
18.104.22.168. Develop and implement wastewater treatment plants and other appropriate systems for management of human waste.
22.214.171.124. Enhance and promote public awareness projects and actions to minimize, manage and recycle waste, including appropriate facilities.
126.96.36.199. Develop mechanisms to assist islands in the safe disposal of their hazardous wastes.
188.8.131.52. Develop and enforce instruments to control ship-source pollution, and prepare contingency plans for oil spills.
184.108.40.206. Give incentives to industries and local communities to adopt clean energy sources as their main power supply.
Priority action 7.2.2 (from 9.2)
220.127.116.11. Maintain and, where necessary, restore mangrove and other vegetated ecosystems to help prevent run-off and siltation, working closely with civil society and local stakeholders.
18.104.22.168. Ensure that infrastructure developments include measures to mitigate run-off and siltation.
22.214.171.124. Minimize clearing of native vegetation in coastal areas.
Priority action 7.2.3. (from 9.3)
126.96.36.199. Promote appropriate agricultural techniques, including organic and sustainable agriculture, to prevent unnatural run-off and eutrophication impacts.
Priority action 8.1.1.
188.8.131.52. Empower or maintain the capacity of indigenous and local communities to address, respond and adapt effectively to natural hazards and their impacts on island biodiversity, taking into account traditional practices.
184.108.40.206. Strengthen efforts to conserve and restore ecosystems that provide protection against tidal and storm surges and damage (e.g. mangroves, coral reefs, and sand dunes).
Priority action 8.1.2.
220.127.116.11. Identify and implement effective early-warning systems (forecasting) and strategies that address natural hazards and their impacts on island biodiversity and its recovery capacity, such as tsunamis, hurricanes, storm surges, floods, and tropical storms and longer-term trends such as climate change, sea level rise, El Niňo and La Niňa phenomena.
18.104.22.168 Establish and strengthen formal national and local organizations responsible for disaster preparedness, response and mitigation on islands.
Priority action 8.1.3.
22.214.171.124. Integrate education and awareness related to biodiversity’s role in natural hazard reduction into ongoing natural disaster programmes on islands.
126.96.36.199. Develop specific participatory plans, including community response and mitigation plans, to address specific disasters such as flooding, storm surges, drought, bush fires and mainstream these into national planning processes, including appropriate traditional practices.
Priority action 8.2.1.
188.8.131.52. Identify settled areas at risk from mudslides, landslides and storm surge, and implement vegetation stabilization and other mitigation measures.
Priority action 9.1.1 (comes from 15. 1, 2 and 3)
184.108.40.206 .Initiate programmes, where appropriate, to record and study traditional knowledge and practices, in particular those that support the sustainable use of island biodiversity with the full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities and their prior informed consent, in accordance with national legislation and international obligations.
220.127.116.11. Respect, preserve and maintain indigenous and local communities’ linguistic diversity that maintains biodiversity-related knowledge.
18.104.22.168. Establish and implement mechanisms to respect traditional knowledge, innovations and practices on lands and waters traditionally occupied and/or used by indigenous and local communities.
22.214.171.124. Compile information on the methods of protection and maintenance of traditional knowledge and practices on islands.
Priority action 9.1.2.
126.96.36.199. Enhance access to appropriate information to ensure the full participation and involvement of indigenous and local communities in decisions that affect them in relation to island biodiversity.
188.8.131.52. Develop local capacities for protecting and facilitating the use of island traditional knowledge and practices, including, where appropriate, processes to ensure prior informed consent.
184.108.40.206. Facilitate opportunities for involvement and the participation of indigenous and local communities in implementation of the present programme of work.
220.127.116.11. Acknowledging that linguistic diversity can be important for island biodiversity conservation and use, support measures for its maintenance where appropriate and practical.
18.104.22.168. Develop and implement effective systems to respect, preserve and maintain traditional knowledge, innovations and practices, where appropriate, for sustainable use of island resources.
22.214.171.124. Document traditional knowledge, innovations and practices relevant to local species or the sustainable use of island biodiversity, with the full and effective participation and prior informed consent of indigenous and local communities consistent with Article 8(j).
Priority action 9.2.1.
126.96.36.199. Encourage, support and develop, in cooperation with the Working Group on Article 8(j) and related provisions, mechanisms and methods to ensure the preservation of the traditional knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities associated with island genetic resources.
188.8.131.52. Establish, with full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities, a process and set of requirements, consistent with Article 8(j), to ensure the equitable sharing of benefits arising from use of their traditional knowledge, innovations and practices associated with island genetic resources subject to national legislation and international obligations.
Priority action 10.1.1.
10.1.1.1. Investigate and document, subject to Article 8(j), island genetic resources and associated knowledge, and their existing and potential uses, including status, trends, and threats.
10.1.1.2. Identify and assess systems of information delivery, and update them to improve the recording and cataloguing of island genetic resources and, where appropriate, to implement alternative systems.
Priority action 10.2.1.
10.2.1.1 Investigate and document the potential for research, including bioprospecting, into island genetic resources.
10.2.1.2. Develop national guidelines on bio-prospecting, taking into account the Bonn Guidelines.
10.2.1.3. Establish and harmonize access and benefit-sharing processes, mechanisms and measures to protect island genetic resources and for bio-prospecting.
10.2.1.4. Develop and implement a national access and benefit-sharing strategy, and national access and benefit-sharing measures, including legislative, administrative and policy measures with particular reference to endemic island species, taking into account the Bonn Guidelines.
10.2.1.5.Establish mechanisms that respect the use of endemic species and locally generated races and cultivars.
Priority action 11.1.1.
184.108.40.206. Identify constraints and difficulties at the national level for the establishment of partnerships, including use conflicts and management responsibilities.
220.127.116.11. Develop active partnerships focused on specific island biodiversity issues across the full range of stakeholders at the local, national, regional and/or international levels.
18.104.22.168. Establish partnerships in different sectors, such as tourism, fisheries and natural disaster management.
22.214.171.124. Encourage and support partnerships with non-governmental organizations, as well as local partnerships.
126.96.36.199. Secure the engagement of the private sector, including financial, technical and political support, at the local, national, regional and international levels.
Priority action 11.1.2.
188.8.131.52. Develop collaborative projects and enabling activities for the implementation of the programme of work.
Priority action 11.1.3.
184.108.40.206. Assess and establish conservation trust funds (including national biodiversity trust funds), debt-for-nature swaps, user fees, payments for ecosystem services, and other instruments, including national funding of biodiversity conservation and sustainable use.
220.127.116.11. Secure increased bilateral and multilateral grants and loans to support to support activities related to this programme of work in the context of implementation of National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans.
18.104.22.168. Assist countries and communities to identify practical mechanisms to increase local financial support of conservation action.
Priority action 11.2.1.
22.214.171.124. Assess and identify suitable technology for conserving island biodiversity, at all scales.
126.96.36.199. Determine the most effective means to facilitate effective transfer of knowledge and technology to maximize their use at the local level.
188.8.131.52. Share information on appropriate technologies on a regional and subregional basis.
184.108.40.206. Establish protocols for access to and transfer of technology of benefit to island biodiversity.
220.127.116.11. Respect and facilitate the exchange of knowledge on indigenous island technologies among indigenous and local communities, consistent with article 8(j).
18.104.22.168. Increase national and regional information networking capacity to facilitate broader access to and transfer of technology of benefit to island biodiversity, including through national CHMs, by, as appropriate:
- Establishing or strengthening national centres on island biodiversity that centralize or coordinate knowledge and capacities for inventorying, evaluating and assisting other agencies on biodiversity issues. Such centres should have legal capacity for identifying biodiversity elements (species, genes) and their particular condition (endemism, etc) and should include the complementary elements of modern and traditional knowledge;
- Establishing national information system and clearing-house mechanisms for island biodiversity in small island developing States;
- Developing a regional and/or subregional umbrella structure/mechanism to coordinate national centres;
- Developing a roster of regional experts on island biodiversity.
Priority action 11.2.2.
22.214.171.124. Identify existing island-based technology that supports the implementation of the programme of work on island biodiversity.
126.96.36.199. Facilitate the development of new island-based technology, where needed, including through the provision of funding.
188.8.131.52. Provide protection to the technologies developed, including through intellectual property rights according to existing national laws.
Priority action 11.3.1.
184.108.40.206. Strengthen national capacity to develop island-appropriate policies, and to enact and fully enforce legislation and regulations. This would include technical assistance, training and/or other support to legislatures, regulatory and enforcement agencies, and the courts.
220.127.116.11. Promote collaboration among agencies involved in environmental protection enforcement, including land use planning authorities, to prevent adverse impacts on island biodiversity.
18.104.22.168. Strengthen legislation and enforcement to address domestic trade and commercial use of threatened species.
22.214.171.124. Promote compliance with legislation and regulations related to island biological diversity through awareness raising and training.
126.96.36.199. Increase, if needed, the ability of indigenous and local communities to apply existing customary laws consistent with national legislation.
188.8.131.52. Take measures that will enable mitigation of detrimental actions and facilitate participatory approaches in the conservation, management and sustainable use of biodiversity.
184.108.40.206. Ratify relevant multilateral environmental agreements and integrate them into national law, through enabling legislation, as appropriate.
Priority action 11.3.2.
220.127.116.11. Promote cooperation between small island developing States on the conservation of biodiversity resources, shared ecosystem management and exchange of experiences.
18.104.22.168. Implement peer learning opportunities and networks to ensure rapid dissemination of best practices and lessons learned, to accelerate successful implementation of national biodiversity strategies and action plans and the programme of work on island biodiversity.
22.214.171.124. Explore ways and means on how the clearing-house mechanism can be more effectively and efficiently utilized for the sharing of information on best practices and technologies that promote sustainable use, particularly on islands with limited information technological capacity.
126.96.36.199. Develop and implement training programmes to enhance science and technology capabilities relevant to the programme of work.
188.8.131.52. Provide training on the understanding of multilateral environmental agreements to enhance capacity to implement the programme of work on island biodiversity.
Priority action 11.3.3.
184.108.40.206. In collaboration with relevant national and local leaders and organizations, as appropriate, develop and implement effective communication, public awareness and education programmes at all levels to promote and advance the programme of work on island biodiversity, taking into account local capacity, language and culture. .
220.127.116.11. Develop and conduct public awareness and social marketing activities and programmes for key audiences and key species to increase public support and strategic action on critical issues within this programme of work.
18.104.22.168. Investigate perceptions of biodiversity by island inhabitants, tourists, developers and other stakeholders to improve the legitimacy and effectiveness of island-specific, science-based policy making.
22.214.171.124. Increase public awareness of the value of island biodiversity and of preventing species from becoming threatened.
126.96.36.199. Introduce island biodiversity issues into the curricula of schools and universities, and in the framework of education for sustainable development, to build the understanding of island biodiversity.
188.8.131.52. Integrate island environmental issues into non-formal education.
184.108.40.206. Undertake education, capacity-building and training activities at all levels, including indigenous and local communities, to contribute to sustainable management practices on islands.
220.127.116.11. Involve United Nations agencies and intergovernmental organizations in the promotion of the programme of work on island biodiversity.
18.104.22.168. Enhance and promote public awareness and action to minimize, manage and recycle waste.
Priority action 11.3.4.
22.214.171.124. Use, whenever possible, the island as the unit for spatial planning, with due consideration to biodiversity requirements.
126.96.36.199. Develop participatory decision-making mechanisms involving civil society, scientists, indigenous peoples, local communities and key economic sectors.
188.8.131.52. Mainstream biodiversity into integrated planning, including strategies, policies and implementation plans for all development projects.
184.108.40.206. Integrate national biodiversity strategies and action plans into national sustainable development plans and national and island planning processes.
220.127.116.11. Develop mechanisms to allow for the integration of appropriate traditional conservation management systems and practices into national policies and management and development plans, with full involvement of relevant stakeholders.
18.104.22.168. Develop the capacity and enhance opportunities for community-based research and monitoring to conserve island biodiversity and provide greater benefits to island communities.
22.214.171.124. Integrate consideration of the programme of work on island biodiversity in the national capacity self-assessment and in the development of ongoing action plans.
126.96.36.199. Establish, as appropriate, a coordination process/mechanism for the implementation of all relevant multilateral environmental agreements at the national level.
188.8.131.52. Coordinate and harmonize the implementation of different ongoing programmes under the Convention on Biological Diversity with cross-cutting activities and other biodiversity-related conventions.
Priority action 11.3.5.
184.108.40.206. Establish monitoring systems to assess the implementation and long-term impact of national biodiversity strategies and action plans and the programme of work.
220.127.116.11. Develop and adopt methods, standards, criteria and indicators addressing ecological, social, cultural and economic aspects for evaluating progress in implementing the programme of work.
18.104.22.168. Build on existing indicators to develop biodiversity monitoring indicators adapted to small islands.
22.214.171.124. Continue work on a vulnerability index and other indicators that reflect the status of small islands, and integrate ecological fragility, socio-economic and cultural vulnerabilities.
126.96.36.199. Develop appropriate techniques for monitoring island biodiversity in order to assess and report on long-term regional and global trends and on the drivers of biodiversity loss, including global change, and their impacts on biodiversity.
188.8.131.52. Establish baseline knowledge and information systems for the conservation of island biodiversity, including.
- Inventories of components of island biodiversity;
- Data sharing protocols for all stakeholders;
- Improved infrastructure and capacity for data collection, management and exchange.
184.108.40.206. Develop appropriate arrangements and explore innovative means to report on the Convention while minimizing the reporting burden for island nations with limited capacity.
Priority action 11.3.6.
220.127.116.11. Establish national, regional and international island partnerships that bring Governments, communities and civil-society organizations together to increase political, financial and technical support for this programme of work
18.104.22.168. Promote regional cooperation on the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity resources, shared ecosystem management and exchange of experiences
22.214.171.124. Promote island networks and exchanges that will accelerate implementation of this programme of work at the national, regional and international levels.
1 / This section draws on: C. Marin, P. Deda and J.K. Mulongoy , “Island biodiversity – Sustaining life in vulnerable ecosystems”, special issue of INSULA, the International Journal on Island Affairs, February/September 2004 the special volume of INSULA, the International Journal of Island Affairs, published in February 2004.
2 / Stattersfield, A.J., Crosby, M.J., Long, A.J. & Wege, D.C. (1998) Endemic Bird Areas of the World: Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK.
3 / Olson, D.M. & Dinerstein, E. (1998) The Global 200: a representation approach to conserving the earth’s most biologically valuable ecoregions. Conservation Biology 12: 502–515.
4 / Mittermeier, R.A., Robles Gil, P., Hoffmann, M., Pilgrim, J., Brooks, T., Mittermeier, C.G., Lamoreux, J. & Fonseca, G.A.B. da (2004) Hotspots: Revisited. CEMEX, Mexico.
5 / www.zeroextinction.org
6 / Rodrigues, A.S.L., Andelman, S.J., Bakarr, M.I., Boitani, L., Brooks, T.M., Cowling, R.M., Fishpool, L.D.C., Fonseca, G.A.B. da, Gaston, K.J., Hoffmann, M., Long, J.S., Marquet, P.A., Pilgrim, J.D., Pressey, R.L., Schipper, J., Sechrest, W., Stuart, S.N., Underhill, L.G., Waller, R.W., Watts, M.E.J. & Yan, X. (2004) Effectiveness of the global protected area network in representing species diversity. Nature 428: 640–643.
7 / Thaman, R.R. 2005. Sinking island arks. Island biodiversity and island living under threat; the uniqueness, threatened status and priority need to conserve island and associated marine biodiversity as the foundation for sustainable island life. Keynote presentation at the tenth meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA) of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Bangkok, 7-11 February 2005.
8 / Roberts, C.M., McClean, C.J., Veron, J.E.N., Hawkins, J.P., Allen, G.R., McAllister, D.E., Mittermeier, C.G., Schueler, F.W., Spalding, M., Wells, F., Vynne, C. & Werner, T.B. (2002) Marine biodiversity hotspots and conservation priorities for tropical reefs. Science 295: 1280–1284.
9 / Decision VII/30, annex II
10 / Goals and priority actions are described in section E of the annex above.
11 / In the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, a species is listed as threatened if it falls in the Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable categories (http://www.iucn.org/themes/ssc/redlists/rlindex.htm).
12 / For example, Center for Plant Conservation (1991). Genetic sampling guidelines for conservation collections of endangered plants. In Falk, D.A. and Holsinger, K.E. (eds): Genetics and Conservation of Rare Plants. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 225-238.
13 / Any economic incentive should be WTO consistent.
14 / Any economic incentive should be WTO consistent