Biodiversity for Sustainable Development


Contributions of Biodiversity to SDG 2: Zero Hunger

Biodiversity is a key factor for the achievement of food security and improved nutrition. All food systems depend on biodiversity and a broad range of ecosystem services that support agricultural productivity, soil fertility, and water quality and supply. Furthermore, at least one-third of the world’s agricultural crops depend upon pollinators. Low-input and ecosystem based approaches to agriculture are particularly adapted to supporting the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. Genetic diversity in agriculture is one key element of food security. It helps to ensure the evolution of species that can adapt to changing environmental conditions, as well as resistance to particular diseases, pests and parasites. This diversity has been managed or influenced by farmers, livestock keepers and pastoralists, forest dwellers and fisherfolk for hundreds of generations and reflects the diversity of both human activities and natural processes. It can also reduce farmers’ vulnerability to climate change. Further, it can provide a diversity of foods with a variety of nutritional benefits.

In addition, many people depend on food gathered from natural ecosystems, such as forests, grasslands, oceans and rivers. Products supplied from nature are an important source of nutrition and thus contribute to household food security. For indigenous communities, wildlife hunting can represent the primary source of animal protein. The use of sustainable approaches for agriculture offers opportunities to meet growing food demands while reducing adverse impacts on the natural resources that underpin its long-term viability.

Traditional knowledge and practices inherited over generations by indigenous and local communities can often provide invaluable and proven measures of conservation and sustainable use of plant species and animal breeds.

Related SDG 2 Targets

  • SDG Target 2.1: By 2030, end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations, including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round (related to Aichi Targets: 6, 7, 13)
  • SDG Target 2.2: By 2030, end all forms of malnutrition, including achieving, by 2025, the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in children under 5 years of age, and address the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women and older persons (related to Aichi Targets: 6, 7, 13)
  • SDG Target 2.3: By 2030, double the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, in particular women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets and opportunities for value addition and non-farm employment (related to Aichi Targets: 7)
  • SDG Target 2.4: By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality (related to Aichi Targets: 4, 7)
  • SDG Target 2.5: By 2020, maintain the genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and their related wild species, including through soundly managed and diversified seed and plant banks at the national, regional and international levels, and promote access to and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge, as internationally agreed (related to Aichi Targets: 13, 18)

Relevant Aichi Biodiversity Targets
Biodiversity values integrated
Sustainable management of aquatic living sources
Sustainable agriculture aquaculture and forestry
Safeguarding genetic diversity
Traditional knowledge

Related Resources