The Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice
1. Welcomes the report of the Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group on Island Biological Diversity (UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA/10/INF/1);
2. Also welcomes the report of the liaison group on island biodiversity (UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA/10/INF/26);
3. Expresses its appreciation to:
(a) The Government of Spain for its financial support to the work of the Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group on Island Biological Diversity;
(b) Other Governments and organizations for the participation of their representatives;
(c) The Chair and participants in the Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group;
(d) The Chair and participants in the liaison group;
4. Welcomes the outcome of the Mauritius International Meeting for the Review of the Implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action for Small Island Developing States;
5. Recommends that the Conference of the Parties:
(a) Adopts the goals, global targets and timeframes and island-specific priority actions of the programme of work on island biodiversity, as annexed to the present recommendation, and develops and adopts specific activities, taking as basis the activities contained in the report of the Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group, the recommendations of the liaison group and the submissions made at the tenth meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice;
(b) Urges Parties, other Governments, international organizations and other relevant organizations to implement the programme of work, and further urges Parties to incorporate the programme of work into their national biodiversity strategies and action plans and to mainstream them into national sustainable development strategies;
[(c) Requests the Global Environment Facility and its implementing agencies to make island biodiversity a priority, particularly in small island developing States;
(d) Requests the Global Environment Facility to apply their rules of access and simplify their disbursement procedures so as to take into account the special circumstances of small island developing States in implementing the programme of work on island biodiversity;
(e) Requests the Global Environment Facility to provide fast-disbursing resources as needed to support country-driven early action, in particular in small island developing States, to implement the programme of work of the Convention on Biological Diversity on protected areas for meeting the 2010 target;
(f) Requests the international community to actively address, during the fourth replenishment of the Global Environment Facility, the financial requirements for the implementation of a programme of work on island biodiversity;
(g) Requests regional development banks and other financial institutions to provide/increase their assistance in particular to small island developing States for the implementation of the programme of work;]
(h) Requests Parties to achieve in island ecosystems targets and sub-targets developed in all programmes of work of the Convention, to use the agreed indicators to assess progress and report in the context of the national reports of the Convention on Biological Diversity. To achieve these targets, the international community is invited to assist small island developing States by implementing the recommendations contained in the Mauritius Strategy for the Further Implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States;
[(i) Urges Parties to increase their official development assistance in support of the implementation of the programme of work on island biodiversity, in particular in small island developing States;]
[(j) Requests the Executive Secretary to develop guidelines for the implementation of the programme of work on island biodiversity, [including legislative aspects, regulatory matters and incentives] [including legislative and regulatory frameworks, and incentive measures];]
(k) Agrees, recognizing the critical values of islands for the conservation of biodiversity and the current alarming rate of loss of island biodiversity, to give priority in the programme of work to activities that could significantly contribute to the conservation of island biodiversity;
(l) Invites Parties to incorporate the programme of work on island biodiversity into the current work on national capacity self-assessment;
(m) Encourages the development of community-based approaches in the implementation of the programme of work;
(n) Invites Parties to implement relevant activities under this programme of work in conjunction with corresponding activities under the Mauritius Strategy;
(o) Encourages Parties to establish national and international island partnerships that bring governments and civil society organizations together to increase political, financial and technical support to accelerate the implementation of the programme of work on island biodiversity;
(p) Invites the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and the Earth System Science Partnership to collaborate in activities relevant to island biodiversity and climate change;
(q) Invites the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification to enhance collaboration in activities relevant to land degradation that could negatively impact island biological diversity;
(r) Encourages IUCN to expand its guidelines on the use of IUCN categories and criteria to provide further guidance on addressing specific issues that arise in the listing of island species;
(s) Requests Conservation International to provide information on islands classified as biodiversity hotspots;
(t) Requests Parties to regularly monitor progress in implementing this programme of work and in meeting the global targets and report to the Conference of the Parties, taking into account the special capacity constraints of small island developing States;
(u) Reviews the targets in decision VII/30 and, if necessary, refine them, with a view to achieve consistency among the targets integrated into the programmes of work and the general framework;
6. Requests the Executive Secretary to compile those supporting actions for the programme of work on island biodiversity included in the drafts considered by the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice at its tenth meeting and the suggestions received during that meeting and forward them to the Conference of the Parties at its eighth meeting for its consideration.
ISLAND BIODIVERSITY: PROPOSED ELEMENTS FOR A PROGRAMME OF WORK
A. Introduction /
1. The Earth is home to over 100,000 islands, which host more than 500 million inhabitants. Their combined land and exclusive economic zones (EEZs) cover more than one sixth of the Earth's total area. Islands and their surrounding near-shore marine biodiversity constitute self-contained, bounded ecosystems, each with their own unique, often very limited, assemblage of biodiversity. In terms of island biodiversity inheritances, these range from some of the richest on Earth, with extremely high levels of endemism, to some of the poorest, with little or no endemism. Both are seriously under threat and constitute global conservation priorities
2. In terms of those islands with rich biotas, the isolation of island environments has resulted in the evolution of often endemic and characteristic flora and fauna. A total of 104 of the 218 Endemic Bird Areas are confined entirely to islands, / while 36 of the 143 terrestrial Global 200 Ecoregions / are comprised of islands. Ten of the 34 biodiversity hotspots / wholly comprise islands, and many of the rest also include islands. No less than 218 of the 595 individual sites holding the entire global population of one or more critically threatened species are found on islands. / A recent global gap analysis of the coverage of terrestrial vertebrate species within protected areas / found that of the gaps, most "are montane or insular regions in the tropics."
3. At the other extreme, some of the smaller low-lying islands and atolls are among the Earth's biodiversity "cool spots" in that they have the lowest biodiversity on Earth and few, if any, endemic species. However, despite a disproportionate dependence on biodiversity for almost all forms of economic livelihood on these small islands, a very high percentage of their terrestrial biodiversity is threatened and in need of some form of protection. /
4. The significance of marine biodiversity within islands has been well recognized / with over half of the tropical marine biodiversity found in islands and 12 of the 18 centres of endemism, and seven of the ten coral-reef hotspots surround islands. In terms of cultural diversity, a number of islands are also the home to unique cultures that have developed traditional resource-management methods that have, in many cases, enabled people to develop and live in harmony with biodiversity.
5. The programme of work offers a particularly unique opportunity for building bridges among all islands and all island nations in efforts to conserve, sustainably use and equitably share island biological diversity.
6. From small islands through to large, from countries that have islands through to countries that entirely comprise islands, and from large continental remnants through to remote atolls, there are opportunities and challenges for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. Islands are self-contained ecosystems with well defined geographical limits that encapsulate fundamental ecological processes and interactions. Islands incorporate all the existing thematic areas considered under the Convention, i.e., forests, inland waters, agricultural land, dry and sub-humid lands, marine and coastal ecosystems, and mountain ecosystems. The connectivity of ecosystems and the interface between marine and terrestrial realms
will create specific issues and opportunities for the implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity.
7. Because of their scale, and the scope for integrated management of biodiversity, small islands are microcosms of their continental counterparts, where strategies, policies and management regimes for sustainable development can be applied, tested and refined; where the components of cause and effect are more readily assessed, outcomes more rapidly seen and results more specifically tangible. Focusing efforts and resources on the conservation and sustainable use of island biodiversity and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of island genetic resources can provide rapid progress towards the reduction in the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010 and the achievement of representative systems of protected areas by 2010 in terrestrial and 2012 in marine realms.
8. However, in no other place is biodiversity per se so fragile. The vulnerabilities of small islands require not only special but urgent attention from their inhabitants and the world community. Species that have evolved on islands have done so free from competition with large numbers of other species and are, therefore, susceptible to invasions by alien species. Populations of island fauna and flora tend to be naturally small, and species often become concentrated in special small areas, where they are subject to various natural and anthropogenic pressures that endanger their survival. They have the highest proportion of recorded species extinctions and continue to be significantly threatened by invasive alien species, climate change and variability, natural and environmental disasters, land degradation and land based sources of marine pollution.
9. Islands, in particular small island developing States, constitute a special case for both the environment and development. As articulated in chapter 17 of Agenda 21 and emphasized in the Barbados Programme of Action, as well as in the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, small island developing States rely significantly on the conservation and sustainable use of island biodiversity for their sustainable development and experience even more specific challenges and vulnerabilities. These arise from the interplay of such socio-economic and environmental factors as small populations and economies, weak institutional capacity in both the public and the private sector, remoteness from international markets, susceptibility to natural disasters and climate change (including, in particular, sea-level rise), fragility of land and marine ecosystems (particularly affected by tourism development and unsustainable agriculture and forestry), high cost of transportation, limited diversification in production and exports, dependence on international markets, export concentration, and income volatility and vulnerability to exogenous economic shocks. Traditional resource management and practices relevant to the sustainable use of island ecosystems are at risk of breaking down as a result of modern economic and social pressures, and require actions for revitalization and protection. The Secretary-General of the United Nations has stated that, among developing countries, small island developing States, as a group, are amongst the most vulnerable. The expression of their vulnerabilities often has cumulative effects, further exacerbating the risks to their biodiversity.
10. Although islands are unique environments in their own right, and are deserving of a special programme of work under the Convention they also incorporate the existing programme areas and cross-cutting issues considered under the Convention and implementation of these programmes should continue as appropriate.
11. Information and input from international forums has also been taken into account, including particular: (i) decision VII/30 of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (ii) chapter 17 of Agenda 21; (iii) the Barbados Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States; (iv) the Mauritius Strategy for the Further Implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action; (v) the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development; and (vi) the Millennium Development Goals, in particular goal 7.
12. Although it was considered that potential threats from genetically modified organisms to island biodiversity were extremely important for islands and island States, no reference has been made to these within the programme of work, as these issues would be most appropriately addressed under the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety.
B. Overall purpose and scope of the programme of work
13. The overall purpose of the programme of work on island biodiversity is the significant reduction of island biodiversity loss by 2010 and beyond at global, regional and national levels, through the implementation of the three main objectives of the Convention, for the benefit of all forms of life on islands and, in particular, as a contribution to poverty alleviation and the sustainable development of small island developing States. The implementation of the programme of work thereby contributes to the objectives of the Strategic Plan of the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Barbados Programme of Action, the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development and the Millennium Development Goals.
14. The programme of work recognizes the uniqueness of island ecosystems and focuses on addressing characteristics and problems specific to island biological diversity that make island ecosystems particularly vulnerable to almost all types of natural, technological and human-related threats. It also recognizes that island biodiversity is of global significance and, as such, merits increased attention at the global scale, as its conservation and sustainable use will produce global benefits. Furthermore, it acknowledges that islands are microcosms that offer great scope for the application, testing and refinement of a wide range of conservation tools and approaches, including the ecosystem approach.
15. The programme of work seeks to complement existing thematic work programmes and other existing initiatives of the Convention on Biological Diversity. It acknowledges and identifies issues contained in other programmes of work and cross-cutting issues and notes the rationale for specific activities that are important for the understanding, conservation and sustainable use of island biological diversity. Parties are encouraged to apply, where appropriate, the objectives and activities from these work programmes to the conservation of island biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of island genetic resources.
16. By identifying synergies between this programme of work and other thematic programmes, conventions and agreements, Parties can strengthen cooperation and partnerships at the national, regional and international levels. Such partnerships should be broad-based and ensure the sharing and exchange of information and relevant trained personnel bearing in mind the necessity for cross-cultural exchange at the regional level and the involvement and participation of all stakeholders, including indigenous and local communities, civil society and the private sector.
17. In addition, this programme of work responds, inter alia, to the call made by small island developing States, during their regional and interregional preparatory meetings for the
International Meeting to Review the Implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States, that island biodiversity should be addressed under the Convention on Biological Diversity in a manner that responds to the unique characteristics of small island developing States, in particular their vulnerabilities, and to the threats related to climate change and land degradation. Consequently, the programme of work is also a contribution to the implementation of the Mauritius Strategy for the Further Implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States.
18. In addition to the achievement of Millennium Development Goal 7, on environmental sustainability, this programme of work will contribute to the achievement of other Millennium Development Goals relating to poverty eradication and health. While the reference to poverty reduction and health is not explicitly stated throughout the programme of work, it is understood that the conservation and sustainable use of island biodiversity will contribute significantly to food security, sustainable livelihoods, health improvements and human well-being.
19. It is important to note that cultural diversity, the traditional knowledge and practices of indigenous and local communities of many small islands are unique and have special significance for these communities and need special consideration and integration in this programme of work. All aspects of the programme of work should be read and implemented with the full recognition of, and respect for, the rights of indigenous and local communities and their full and effective participation, in accordance with national law and relevant international obligations.
20. The programme of work is intended to assist Parties in establishing national programmes of work with targeted goals, objectives, and actions, with specific actors, timeframes, inputs, and expected measurable outputs. Parties may select from, adapt, and/or add to, the goals, objectives and actions suggested in the current programme of work according to particular national and local conditions, and their level of development. Implementation of this programme of work should take into account the ecosystem approach of the Convention on Biological Diversity as the logical planning and management tool for integral island policies. In determining national programmes of work, Parties are encouraged to pay due regard to the socio-economic, cultural and environmental costs and benefits of various options. In addition, Parties are encouraged to consider the use of appropriate and adaptive technologies, sources of finance, and technical cooperation, and to ensure, through appropriate actions, the means to meet the particular challenges and demands of their island ecosystems.
21. As outlined in the introduction to the programme of work, the scale of islands provides significant opportunities for the integrated management of biodiversity. The goals and targets within the programme of work are therefore closely inter-related. Countries are encouraged to consider implementation of this programme in an integrated manner and in light of existing plans and within existing planning and programming cycles.
C. Working definitions
22. The following terms have been clarified in order to facilitate the understanding and the implementation of this programme of work:
- Global target = desired outcome/results to be achieved within a specific timeframe. These should be measurable and achievable;
- Priority action = major action that must be implemented and will contribute significantly to achieving the target. It answers the question, "What must we do to achieve this target?" .
D. Goals, targets and timeframes, and island specific priority actions for the Parties
TIMEFRAME & GLOBAL TARGETS
ISLAND-SPECIFIC PRIORITY ACTIONS FOR THE PARTIES
GOAL 1: CONSERVATION OF ISLAND BIODIVERSITY
1. By 2010 at least 10% of each of the island ecological regions effectively conserved.
1.1. Develop and implement integrated policies and measures to conserve key terrestrial and marine ecosystems, habitats important for island biodiversity, societies and economies, taking into account the close ecological links within and between island marine and terrestrial ecosystems.
Rationale: Islands have many endemic species whose habitats are restricted to small areas. Island societies depend very largely on local biodiversity - whether terrestrial, fresh-water or marine.
1.2. Re-establish components that have been lost from or whose populations have been reduced within natural ecosystems
1.3. Undertake measures to restore at least 15% of degraded island ecosystems
2. By 2010 areas of particular importance to biodiversity are protected
2.1. Identify and establish, as appropriate, comprehensive, representative and effectively managed national and regional systems of protected areas taking into account issues of resilience, ecological and physical connectivity to conserve viable populations of threatened, endemic, and ecologically or culturally important island species. This should be done with the full respect for the rights of indigenous and local communities and relevant stakeholders and their full and effective participation, consistent with national law and applicable international obligations.
Rationale: Many species on islands are often either locally endemic, restricted in range, threatened, or all three, and are not likely to survive without legal protection.
3. By 2010 reduce the decline of, maintain and restore populations of species of selected taxonomic groups and improve status of threatened species
3.1. Develop and implement conservation measures and policies, including protection, and where needed, recovery of populations of threatened, endemic, or ecologically or culturally important species and recovery plans.
Rationale: Key issue for island biodiversity. Continued loss of island biodiversity is of global importance. Many species have critical ecosystem roles, or are or social or cultural significance to islanders.
Compile detailed inventories of island species, assess their conservation status, including the main threat criteria, and develop the taxonomic expertise necessary to facilitate this.
Rationale: Many island species occur in very small populations. The transition from satisfactory conservation status to threatened status can occur with great rapidity.
4. By 2010 genetic diversity of crops, livestock, and other valuable island species conserved, and associated indigenous and local knowledge maintained.
4.1. Develop and implement measures to strengthen in situ or on-farm conservation of wild plants and animals and traditional crops and associated knowledge of indigenous and local communities, recognizing the widespread use of land-races of crops and stock strains on islands
Rationale: Island communities often have unique human cultures that have considerable knowledge of local biodiversity and have developed a wide range of local crop and domestic stock varieties.
4.2. Develop national and regional gene-pools and gene-banks for the conservation of genetic material of significance to the islands for food sources and health care enhancement and food security and/or that address threats to the high levels of island endemism
Rationale: Endemism and local land races of island species provide a unique and irreplaceable source of genetic resources.
GOAL 2: SUSTAINABLE USE OF ISLAND BIODIVERSITY
5. By 2010, unsustainable consumption of biological resources and its impact upon biodiversity is reduced
5. 1. Adopt measures to ensure sustainable management of coastal and marine biodiversity, with due regard to the conservation of threatened, endemic, ecologically and/or culturally important island species, to prevent, inter alia, over-exploitation and destructive practices
Rationale: Island species are often restricted to very small populations that are quickly impacted by unsustainable practices.
5.2. Adopt measures to promote the sustainable use of terrestrial and freshwater resources in islands
Rationale: Island communities are very largely dependent on local biodiversity.
5.3. Adopt and apply strategies to sustainably use agroecosystems on islands with biodiversity of importance to the ecological integrity of island societies and economies through efficient and sustainable agricultural production, and ensure food security through diversification of agriculture, alternative use of crops, improved husbandry, integrated crop-pest management, irrigation and water management, and the use of appropriate technologies.
Rationale: Island agroecosystems include many unique varieties and land races. Island communities are very largely dependent on local biodiversity.
5.4. Develop, adopt and apply strategies appropriate to islands to sustainably use managed forest ecosystems with biodiversity of importance to the ecological integrity of island societies and economies through improved production and harvesting methods, integrated pest management, water management, fire control, non-timber resources and the use of appropriate technologies.
Rationale: Island forests typically contain species and assemblages that are unique, and many of them provide island peoples with food, medicine and fertilizer.
5.5. Promote implementation of sustainable tourism best practices appropriate to islands.
Rationale: Many island economies are based on tourism.
6. By 2010, island biodiversity-based products are derived from sources that are sustainably managed, and production areas managed, consistent with the conservation of biodiversity
6. 1. Remove subsidies that encourage unsustainable use of island biodiversity and where livelihoods are resource-based, support the development of sustainable economic activities.
Rationale: Subsidies and other economic incentives may have very wide-reaching and rapid detrimental effects on biodiversity in islands. Island species are often restricted to very small populations that are quickly impacted by unsustainable practices.
7. By 2010, no species of wild flora and fauna are endangered by international trade
7.1. States not yet parties to accede to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) and all States implement that Convention as a vital tool for the conservation and sustainable use of wild flora and fauna found on islands
Rationale: A number of island States are not yet Party to CITES. The economic circumstances of islands, combined with their unique biodiversity, tend to encourage the trade in rare organisms.
7.2. Develop and enforce measures to stop illegal, unreported and unregulated harvesting and trading of endangered species of wild flora and fauna.
Rationale: The high levels of endemism on islands make species more vulnerable to global extinction through illegal activities. .
7.3. Manage trade in those species not covered by CITES to ensure that their wild populations are sustained
Rationale: Island species are often not listed in CITES.
8. By 2010,
rate of loss and degradation of natural habitats decreased
8.1. Develop and implement integrated land and water use plans that take into account ecological and physical connectivity and important biodiversity areas.
Rationale: Island ecosystems frequently cover small areas and may be highly fragmented, and connectivity of habitats has become increasingly limited under anthropogenic pressure. Distances from the centre of the island to the ocean are often short, and impacts on biodiversity in one area are often rapidly reflected in nearby ecosystems.
8.2. Develop and apply environmental and socio-economic impact assessment methods prior to land-use conversion such as for agriculture, human settlements, mining, logging, infrastructure development, and tourism and military activities.
Rationale: Impact assessment is particularly important when large fractions of remaining ecosystems can be affected by infrastructure development or other human activities.
9. By 2010, reduce pollution and its impacts on island biological diversity
9.1. Develop and implement measures to prevent and reduce the impact of pollution and waste, also by developing and implementing pollution and waste management plans, including contingency plans, with special attention to solid and hazardous waste
Rationale: Islands are largely coastal communities, where it is particularly difficult to dispose of wastes without impacting biodiversity. The siting of landfills, the disposal of liquid wastes and the uptake of solid wastes and plastics by marine organisms are all of considerable significance to islands.
9.2. Develop and implement watershed integrated management to prevent siltation and run-off on island coastal ecosystems
9.3. Implement measures to prevent eutrophication of island coastal ecosystems caused by, inter alia, wastewater and agricultural run-off and infiltration
10. By 2010, pathways for major potential alien invasive species controlled
10.1. Establish effective control systems at national island borders and between and within islands to prevent the movement of invasive alien species
10.2. Collaborate to identify and address pathways for movement of invasive alien species at the island, national, regional and global levels
10.3. Develop and implement measures for the early detection and rapid response to the introduction or establishment of invasive alien species in both terrestrial and marine ecosystems
Rationale: This is one of the most important issues for island biodiversity, which needs urgent, concerted and sustained action.
11. Management plans in place for major alien species that threaten ecosystems, habitats or species
11.1. Develop and implement management plans for long-term management of
priority invasive alien species. These plans should include, provisions for the, elimination or control of pathways that lead to the introduction and spread and re-invasion of these species
11.2. Enlist the support and cooperation of all sectors of society for appropriate prevention and management of alien invasive species
Rationale: This is one of the most important issues for island biodiversity, which needs urgent, concerted and sustained action.
12. By 2010, maintain and enhance resilience of the components of biodiversity to adapt to climate change
12.1. Research and implement adaptation and mitigation measures in land-use and coastal zone planning and strategies to strengthen local-level biodiversity resilience to climate change
Rationale: Island biodiversity is particularly threatened by climate change, which could have a major impact on island ecosystems.
12.2. Create where feasible viable national systems of protected areas that are resilient to climate change
13. Maintain capacity of island ecosystems to deliver goods and services and biological resources that support sustainable livelihoods, local food security and health care, especially of poor people.
13.1. Develop policies, programmes and actions to ensure the capacity of island ecosystems to deliver goods and services and biological resources that support sustainable livelihoods, local food security and health care, especially of poor people
Rationale: Island communities are largely dependent on local biodiversity for food and livelihoods
13.2. Mainstream the management of the risks of natural disasters and extreme events to island biodiversity and communities into the national planning process
13.3. Understand and promote the role of island ecosystems and habitats in providing ecosystem services that prevent or mitigate the impacts of natural or anthropogenic disasters and extreme events, and protect islands, island biodiversity and island communities
Rationale: Disasters tend to affect significant fractions of the area of islands, and integrated management can provide mitigation.
GOAL 4: ACCESS AND BENEFIT-SHARING OF ISLAND GENETIC RESOURCES
14. By 2010, all transfers of genetic resources are in line with the Convention on Biological Diversity, the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and other applicable agreements.
14.1. Improve the knowledge base of genetic resources
Rationale: Island biodiversity is unique - and the same remark holds for the genetic resources, but in general, very little is known of the genetic diversity of island organisms.
14.2. Establish administrative, legislative and/or regulatory measures and systems in line with the Convention to ensure access to genetic resources, in particular those endemic to islands, and ensure that benefits arising from their utilization are fairly and equitably shared
Rationale: Island biodiversity is unique - and the same remark holds for the genetic resources, but in general, very little is known of the genetic diversity of island organisms.
15. By 2010 protect traditional knowledge, innovations and practices and the rights of indigenous and local communities over their traditional knowledge, innovations and practices, including their rights to benefit-sharing
15.1. Recognize and protect island traditional knowledge, innovations and practices which improve the understanding, conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity
15.2. Develop and implement measures and legislation, where appropriate and in keeping with national laws and relevant international obligations, for the respect and protection of indigenous and local communities rights over their traditional knowledge innovations and practices
15.3. Develop and implement ways and means to share in a fair and equitable way with indigenous and local communities the benefits arising from use of their traditional knowledge, innovations and practices
Rationale: Island communities have extensive knowledge of local biodiversity and traditional practices related to its conservation and use, but both knowledge and practices are vulnerable to social change misuse and misappropriation.
GOAL 5: INCREASING CAPACITIES AND FINANCING FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAMME OF WORK ON ISLAND BIODIVERSITY
16. By 2010 new and additional financial resources are allocated to all islands, in particular small islands developing States and for developing country Parties, to facilitate the effective implementation of this programme of work and, in general, their commitments under the Convention
16.1. Develop and strengthen partnership at all levels and across sectors to finance the implementation of national biodiversity strategies and action plans and the programme of work
16.2. Provision of additional financial resources from the financial mechanism of the Convention for developing country Parties in accordance with Article 20
16.3. Assess, develop and implement a range of conservation finance mechanisms at the local, national and international levels
17. By 2010 technologies are transferred to developing country Parties, to allow for the effective implementation of this programme of work and, in general, their commitments under the Convention, in accordance with Article 20, paragraph 4
17.1. Identify and develop or transfer knowledge, science and technology appropriate to islands for the conservation and sustainable use of island biodiversity
17.2. Develop island-based technology to support conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity
18. By 2010, capacity of islands to implement this programme of work and all its priority activities is significantly strengthened
18.1. Where appropriate, strengthen the capacity to develop and implement legal and other mechanisms that support this programme of work
18.2. Promote the sharing of best practices within and among islands, and enhance learning opportunities for all relevant groups, including governments, non-governmental organizations and indigenous and local communities, to accelerate effective implementation of this programme of work
18.3. Develop and implement effective communication and public awareness and education programmes at all levels, to promote the programme of work on island biodiversity, taking into account local capacity, language and culture
18.4. Adopt an integrated, inter-disciplinary and participatory approach at all levels of planning, management, inventory, monitoring, and governance involving all stakeholders related to the understanding, conservation and sustainable use of island biodiversity
18.5. Develop the capacity for a national and regional biodiversity monitoring programme
18.6. Strengthen regional cooperation particularly between Small island developing States and developed countries in the same region
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