1.Increase capacity to fully evaluate the bushmeat issue for policy and planning.
National Governments should evaluate the role of bushmeat and other wild animal products in national and local economies as well as the ecological services provided by wildlife and biodiversity as an essential step towards conserving and sustainably using this resource. This can be done by:
(a)Increasing the visibility of the existing bushmeat market as a precursor to putting its management on a sounder footing;
(b)Increasing capacity to monitor levels of bushmeat harvest and consumption in national statistics to inform improved policy and planning;
(c)Incorporating a realistic and open assessment of wildlife consumption and its role in livelihoods into major policy and planning documents.
2.Engaging the private sector and extractive industries. Wildlife management, including bushmeat species management, should be an essential part of management or business plans for the extractive industries (oil, gas, minerals, timber, etc.) operating in tropical, sub-tropical forest, wetland and savannah ecosystems.
3.Rights and tenure, and traditional knowledge. Access, rights and associated accountability, as well as the responsibility to sustainably manage wildlife resources should be transferred whenever possible to local stakeholders who have a vested interest in maintaining the resources and who can deliver sustainable, desirable solutions. Capacity of these empowered local communities should be built and strengthened to ensure that they have the capacity to exercise these rights. Conservation and sustainable use of wildlife resources would be enhanced through the incorporation of traditional knowledge into management and monitoring systems, as well as by favouring the use of the most ecologically friendly (e.g. species-specific), cost-efficient, and humane hunting methods.
4.Review of national policies and legal frameworks.
States within the range of bushmeat species are strongly encouraged to review existing policies and legal frameworks related to the conservation and sustainable use of wildlife. Whenever possible, outside strictly protected areas and species, it is recommended to establish policies, capacity, and management systems that support the legal and sustainable hunting of targeted species (i.e. common and fecund). The review should ensure:
The coherence of policy and legal frameworks through mainstreaming conservation and sustainable use of wildlife in the various sectoral and national planning exercises; 5
(b)That management schemes are practical and feasible for harvestable species as well as those in need of strict protection (e.g., endangered species);
(c)Realistic approaches to enforcement in which control measures are consistent with capacity;
(d)Rationalizing legal and regulatory texts to reflect actual practices without surrendering key conservation objectives;
(e)Favouring the harvest of low-risk species (e.g. highly productive species) while promoting trade-offs to enhance protection of high-risk species.
5.Landscape-level management. An effective and coherent network of protected areas is essential to ensure the effective conservation of wildlife, including threatened species. Wildlife populations outside protected areas are also essential and management should be instigated at the highest possible landscape scale.
6.Science. Management decisions should be made based on the best available and applicable science and the precautionary approach. Further research is crucial and better information management is needed. Appropriate monitoring systems of bushmeat harvest and trade should be developed and implemented at national level, and allow for comparability of bushmeat harvest and trade at the regional level. Standard and comparable population status assessment methods should be developed and implemented. New and additional reliable knowledge on used species' populations and on levels of use and trade should be made available for consideration within the IUCN Red listing process.
7.Substitution and other palliative measures. The development of alternative food and income sources is essential as wildlife alone cannot be sustainably used to support current or future livelihood needs, but these palliative measures (farming, ranching, captive breeding, etc.) are unlikely to be effective alone in conserving wildlife resources. In the long term, there is no substitute for proper management of the resource for protection and production, as appropriate.
8.Capacity-building and awareness-raising. To achieve conservation and sustainable use of wildlife resources, capacity-building and public awareness need to be raised at national and local levels across a range of themes, including: governance and law enforcement, wildlife monitoring and management, livelihood alternatives, and collaboration across government, private and public sectors.
9.Health Where wildlife hunting and bushmeat trade occur, appropriate public-health information and capacity building should emphasize disease prevention to mitigate risk and protect both human and animal health. In regions with bushmeat trade, sanitary control and biosecurity measures are necessary to prevent the sale of infectious meat or animal products that can contribute to the spread of pathogens (including emerging infectious diseases and parasites) between wildlife, domestic stock and people. Furthermore, wildlife, domestic livestock and human health need to be monitored and legislation, regulations, and enforcement need to be developed and implemented to reduce the threat of epizootics from newly emerging infections.
10.Climate change. Mechanisms such as REDD-plus should take into account the importance of wildlife for maintaining healthy ecosystems and ecological services, and for the permanence of forest carbon stocks and forest adaptation capacity.
11.Special management areas: Specific areas for wildlife management should be designated at national and local levels, similar to permanent forest estates designated to manage timber resources. These may span existing protected area systems and multi-use landscapes (e.g., game-management areas or districts).
1.National and international strategies to address bushmeat. Such strategies could include:
(a)Supporting and strengthening national political will to take action on key bushmeat and existing conservation commitments;
(b)Supporting and strengthening existing international commitments and agreements and encourage new ones concerning the conservation and sustainable use of transboundary and shared wildlife resources.
2.Participatory processes. International community invites national Governments to develop or strengthen participatory and cross-sectoral processes in formulating and implementing the sustainable management and harvesting of bushmeat species.
3.Policy processes. International partners should seek to effectively integrate wildlife conservation strategies for long-term sustainability into relevant internationally supported development policy processes, such as poverty reduction strategies.
4.Impacts of international trade on natural resources. International policy processes and institutions concerning trade and development should take steps to better assess and mitigate impacts of extraction and trade of natural resources such as timber, fish, minerals and oil etc. on wildlife and resulting bushmeat demands.
5.International trade in wild bushmeat. The international community is concerned with the potential threat that a growing international trade in bushmeat may have on wild populations and discourages an international trade in illegally harvested bushmeat.
6.International policy environment.
In order to optimize the sustainability of hunting, the international community should support integrated national, transboundary, and local action to build partnerships among organizations and institutions to:
(a)Build enforcement capacity;
(b)Develop and implement protein and income alternatives;
(c)Increase awareness and education regarding bushmeat hunting and trade.
These actions taken together have the potential to encourage communities to sustainably manage their wildlife resource and reduce the demand for bushmeat.
7.International science. The international community should encourage ecosystem research to inform future policy, with a focus on natural forest regeneration, including the role of seed-dispersers such as primates and game-birds, DNA bar-coding, keystone species, disease transmission and impacts on climate change.
8.Incentives. Financial mechanisms and payments for ecosystem services such as REDD should take into account the importance of ecosystem functioning and the role of forest fauna in forest health and resilience.
9.Forest certification. Forest certification schemes should take into account the conservation and sustainable use of wildlife to maintain healthy forest ecosystems.