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SBSTTA 8 Recommendation VIII/2
Retired sections:

Inland water ecosystems: review, further elaboration and refinement of the programme of work

The Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice

Review of the implementation of the programme of work

1. Recommends that the Conference of the Parties:

(a) Notes the progress made in the implementation of the programme of work;

(b) Recognizes that a major shortcoming in the current review has been the limited availability of recent information on each of the activities of the programme of work, and further recognizing the usefulness of the national reports submitted to the Ramsar Convention for a global status of the implementation of the programme of work on biodiversity of inland water ecosystems, and, accordingly, request the Executive Secretary to submit, for consideration at its eighth meeting, a proposal on ways and means for making the review more comprehensive;

(c) Further requests the Executive Secretary to develop with the Ramsar Bureau a proposal, for consideration by the Conference of the Parties at its eighth meeting, on streamlining and improving the effectiveness of national reporting on inland water ecosystems, taking into account the work of the Task Force on Streamlining Forest-related Reporting established in the framework of United Nations Forum on Forests and other initiatives for harmonizing biodiversity-related national reports;

(d) Welcomes and encourages, in particular, the synergy being developed between the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands in implementing the programme of work, and notes the progress made in the implementation of joint work plans between the two conventions and encourage further activities aiming at avoiding overlaps in the work of both conventions;

(e) Requests the Executive Secretary to continue developing and strengthening collaboration with other organizations, institutions and conventions as a way to streamline many of the activities contained in the programme of work, promote synergies and avoid unnecessary duplications;

(f) Notes the need to adapt elements in the programme of work, as appropriate, in response to new developments or emergency matters and decides to carry out the next in-depth review of the programme of work no later than ten years from now, taking into account the multi-year programme of work of the Conference of the Parties and the 2010 target in the Strategic Plan;

Revised programme of work

2. Recommends that the Conference of the Parties:

(a) Recognizes that the review of the implementation of the programme of work identified gaps and constraints that need to be addressed to meet the objectives of the Convention and, accordingly, adopt the revised programme of work proposed in the annex to the present recommendation, which addresses the identified gaps and constraints with its three programme elements on:

          (i) Conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, including application of the ecosystem approach;
          (ii) Enabling activities addressing many of the socio-economic gaps identified in the review of the programme of work; and
          (iii) Monitoring and assessment;

(b) Recommends that the Strategic Plan of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, and their target of 2010 to reduce significantly the rate of biodiversity loss, should guide the implementation of the revised programme of work on inland water biological diversity;

(c) Recognizes the need for resources, human, technological and financial, to implement effectively the activities under the revised programme of work;

(d) Urges Parties, other Governments and organizations to incorporate the objectives and relevant activities of the programme of work in their biodiversity strategies and action plans, wetland policies and strategies and to implement them and further promote coordination and cooperation between national actors responsible for inland water ecosystems and biological diversity;

(e) Recognizes the presence of inland waters in agricultural lands, forests, dry and sub-humid lands, and mountains, and the ecological connectedness between inland waters, estuaries and inshore coastal areas and, accordingly, encourages Parties, other Governments and organizations to ensure cross-referencing to, and coherence with, the other thematic programmes of work while implementing this programme of work;

(f) Urges Parties to share information and lessons learned from the application of national and regional water frameworks;

(g) Invites Parties to formulate and adopt outcome oriented targets and identified priorities for each activity, including timescales, taking into account the Strategic Plan of the Convention as well as the Strategic Plan of the Ramsar Convention 2003-2008, the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation and the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development;

3. Recommends that the Conference of the Parties requests the Executive Secretary to:

(a) Compile, for the eighth meeting of the Conference of the Parties, information on mountain water supply and examples of transferable technologies relevant to the implementation of the proposed revised programme of work on inland water biodiversity also relevant to mountain ecosystems, and ensure that this information is considered in developing the programme of work on mountain biological diversity, and taking into account, inter alia, the work of the Committee on Forestry of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations;

(b) Ensure that inland water ecosystem issues are fully incorporated, as appropriate, into all other thematic work programmes;

(c) Urge Parties and other countries to provide information on specific examples of successful policy interventions to conserve and sustainably use inland waters,

(d) Summarize this and related available information for the eighth meeting of the Conference of the Parties;

(e) In collaboration with relevant organizations and conventions, develop cost-effective means to report on implementation of the programme of work as measured against the global targets defined in the Strategic Plan, in the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation, and in the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, essentially using indicators and assessments at the global level by international organizations, or existing data, and propose these to the Subsidiary Body prior to the eighth meeting of the Conference of the Parties;

4. Requests the Executive Secretary:

(a) To continue the close cooperation with the Commission on Sustainable Development in its development of the World Water Development Report and for the celebration of 2003 as the International Year of Freshwater to ensure that biological diversity issues are considered in the process;

(b) To prepare, for consideration by the national focal points and then the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice prior to the seventh meeting of the Conference of the Parties, a schedule of short, medium and long-term outcome oriented targets and deadlines for implementation of the programme of work;

Assessment of status and trends, and rapid assessment

5. Recommends that the Conference of the Parties:

(a) Takes note of the status and trends of, and threats to, inland water biodiversity described in the note by the Executive Secretary (UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA/8/8/Add.1) and related information documents and give particular consideration to the listing of major threats to inland water biodiversity, and their underlying causes, as a basis for the identification of priorities for early action, recognizing that the relative importance of threats, and their underlying causes, will vary by region and country;

(b) Recognizes the need for reliable baseline data and subsequent regular national assessments of the status and trends of, and threats to, inland water biodiversity as a basis for decision-making on the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity of inland water ecosystems and, accordingly, request the Executive Secretary, in collaboration with Parties and relevant organizations, in particular the Ramsar Convention, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and the Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA) among others, and making use of all available information, to prepare, for consideration by the Conference of the Parties at its eighth meeting:

          (i) A work plan with defined timeframe, ways, means, and capacity needs for assessing the extent, distribution and characteristics, including, inter alia, physical, chemical and biological characteristics, of all types of inland water ecosystems at the global and regional scales;
          (ii) A report on information, and sources of information, on the trends of inland water biodiversity, definition of agreed baselines, relevant indicators and frequency of the assessments; and
          (iii) A work plan with ways and means for assessing processes and categories of activities which have or are likely to have significant adverse impacts on the conservation and sustainable use of inland water biological diversity;

(c) Encourages Parties, other Governments and relevant organizations to improve national, regional and global data on inland water ecosystem goods and services, their uses and related socio-economic variables; on species and all taxonomic levels; on basic hydrological aspects and water supply; and on the threats to which inland water ecosystems are subjected;

(d) Welcomes the report of the Expert Meeting on Guidelines on Rapid Assessment of Biological Diversity of Inland Water Ecosystems (UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA/8/INF/5) and the guidelines annexed thereto;

(e) Invites Parties, other Governments and relevant organizations to use and promote the application of the guidelines, in particular in the circumstances of small island developing States and in the territories of States in which inland water ecosystems suffer from ecological disaster;

(f) Recognizes that the guidelines are focused on biological factors and, more specifically, on species-level assessments, and that they only touch on ecosystem-level and socio-economic and cultural aspects relating to the conservation and use of biological diversity, and requests the Executive Secretary, in collaboration with the Ramsar Bureau and other relevant organizations, to develop a complementary set of tools to assess the function and health of inland water ecosystems and the socio-economic and cultural values of biological diversity of inland waters to be presented as information paper to the eighth meeting of the Conference of the Parties;

(g) Requests the Executive Secretary, in collaboration with relevant organizations, to strengthen capacities, including through practical training, for the application and, as needed, adaptation to local conditions of the guidelines, particularly in small island developing States and in the territories of certain States in which inland water ecosystems suffer from ecological disaster;

(h) Request the Executive Secretary to develop a monitoring and reporting system to assess the experiences gathered with respect to the usefulness and applicability of the guidelines, including through the national reports under the Convention on Biological Diversity;

(i) Encourage Parties, other Governments and relevant organizations to support the active participation of indigenous and local communities in all stages of rapid assessments of biological diversity of inland waters traditionally occupied or used by these communities, consistent with the recommendations approved in annex II of decision VI/10;

(j) Emphasize the importance of inland water biodiversity for sustainable livelihoods and, accordingly, request the Executive Secretary, in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and other relevant organizations, to prepare a study on the linkages between conservation and sustainable use of inland water biodiversity and poverty alleviation/sustainable livelihoods, including human health considerations, for consideration by the Conference of the Parties at its eighth meeting. The study should contain proposals on ways and means to ensure that implementation of the programme of work contributes appropriately to poverty alleviation and sustainable livelihoods;

6. Recommends that the Conference of the Parties request the Executive Secretary to compile, in collaboration with relevant organizations and experts, existing information and disseminate it in a format that is useful to policy makers, recognizing that comprehensive information about the function of inland water ecosystems is invaluable to land and resource managers for planning, evaluating and executing plans and programmes. Emphasis should be put on assessment of, and research on, factors that affect ecosystem functions, the valuation of ecosystem functions, and remedial actions to restore ecosystem functions;

Classification systems and criteria for the identification of important inland water biodiversity

7. Recommends that the Conference of the Parties:

(a) Request those Parties to which this is appropriate, to adopt the Ramsar classification of wetlands as an interim classification system and use it as a framework for the initial inventorying of inland water ecosystems for the purpose of preparing indicative lists of inland water ecosystems important in the framework of the Convention, as requested in paragraph 12 of the programme of work on inland water biodiversity annexed to decision IV/4;

(b) Request the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice, to review the interim classification system prior to its tenth meeting, taking into account the multi-year programme of work, on the basis of experiences accumulated by Parties, other Governments and relevant organizations, taking into account the options described in the note by the Executive Secretary (UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA/8/8/Add.4);

(c) Invite the Ramsar Bureau and the Scientific and Technical Review Panel of the Ramsar Convention, in collaboration with the Executive Secretary and the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice, respectively, and in line with paragraph 30 of resolution VIII.10 of the Conference of the Parties to the Ramsar Convention, and with a view to achieving a more comprehensive coverage of components of biological diversity through the designation of Ramsar sites:

          (i) To further elaborate the guidelines on existing criteria for the following features:

            a. Wetlands supporting wild relatives of domesticated or cultivated species;
            b. Wetlands that support species or communities and genomes or genes of economic, social, scientific or cultural importance;
            c. Wetlands supporting species or communities that are important for research into the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity including indicators of ecosystem health and integrity; and
            d. Wetlands that support important populations of taxonomic groups with wetland-dependent species, including, inter alia, amphibians;

          (ii) To consider the development of additional criteria, including, as appropriate, quantitative criteria;
          (iii) To develop guidelines on the geographical scale at which criteria should be applied;

(d) Further invite the Ramsar Bureau, in collaboration with the Executive Secretary, to provide guidance, based on experiences, for the interpretation and application of the Ramsar criteria at the national and regional levels.

Annex

PROPOSED REVISED PROGRAMME OF WORK ON INLAND WATER BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY

CONTENTS

Page

INTRODUCTION (intro)

PROGRAMME ELEMENT 1: CONSERVATION, SUSTAINABLE USE AND BENEFIT-SHARING (pg1)

Goal 1.1. To integrate the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity into all relevant sectors of water-resource and river-basin management, taking into account the ecosystem approach (g1.1)

Goal 1.2: To establish and maintain comprehensive, adequate and representative systems of protected inland water ecosystems within the framework of integrated catchment/watershed/river basin management (g1.2)

Goal 1.3: To enhance the conservation status of inland water biological diversity through rehabilitation and restoration of degraded ecosystems and the recovery of threatened species (g1.3)

Goal 1.4: To prevent the introduction of invasive alien species which potentially threaten the biological diversity of inland water ecosystems, and to control, and where possible, eradicate established invasive species in these ecosystems. (g1.4)

PROGRAMME ELEMENT 2: INSTITUTIONAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC ENABLING ENVIRONMENT (pg2)

Goal 2.1: To promote the integration of conservation and sustainable use of the biological diversity of inland water ecosystems into relevant sectoral and cross-sectoral plans, programmes, policies and legislation. (g2.1)

Goal 2.2: To encourage the development, application and transfer of low-cost appropriate technology, non-structural and innovative approaches to water resource management and the conservation and sustainable use of the biological diversity of inland water ecosystems, taking into account any decision taken by the Conference of the Parties at its seventh meeting on technology transfer and cooperation (g2.2)

Goal 2.3: To provide the appropriate incentives and valuation measures to support the conservation and sustainable use of inland water biological diversity, and to remove, or reform appropriately, all perverse incentives opposing such conservation and sustainable use of ecosystems[, and which include those subsidies to local production and/or consumption that distort international trade][consistent with decision VI/15] . (g2.3)

Goal 2.4: To implement the programme of work for the Global Initiative on Communication, Education and Public Awareness (as adopted by the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity in its decision VI/19), giving particular attention to matters relating to the conservation and sustainable use of the biological diversity of inland water ecosystems (g2.4)

Goal 2.5: Promote the involvement of local and indigenous communities and other relevant stakeholders in the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity of inland water ecosystems (g2.5)

PROGRAMME ELEMENT 3: KNOWLEDGE, ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING (pg3)

Goal 3.1: To develop an improved understanding of the biodiversity found in inland water ecosystems, how these systems function, their ecosystem goods and services and the values they can provide. (g3.1)

Goal 3.2: To develop, based on inventories, rapid and other assessments applied at the regional, national and local levels, an improved understanding of threats to inland water ecosystems and responses of different types of inland water ecosystems to these threats (g3.2)

Goal 3.3. To ensure projects and actions with the potential to impact negatively on the biological diversity of inland water ecosystems are subjected, in accordance with national legislation and where appropriate, to suitably rigorous impact assessments, including consideration of their potential impact on sacred sites and on lands and waters traditionally occupied or used by indigenous and local communities (g3.3)

Goal 3.4. To introduce and maintain appropriate monitoring arrangements to detect changes in the status and trends of inland water biodiversityError! Bookmark not defined. (g3.4)

INTRODUCTION

1. The revised and further elaborated programme of work for the conservation and sustainable use of the biological diversity of inland water ecosystems builds upon ongoing activities, uses existing knowledge, and also focuses attention on gaps in the institutional frameworks and the knowledge base upon which management decisions are made. It seeks to respond to the constraints identified by Parties through their national reports and to provide an integrated package of activities to address these obstacles and impediments. The activities within the programme of work are intended to be targeted towards, and address first and foremost, national priorities as prescribed through the national biodiversity strategy and action plan of each Party.

2. In furthering work under this programme duplication of effort should be avoided, and harmonization of respective programmes of work is to be pursued through strong coordination between the Convention on Biological Diversity and other relevant conventions and international bodies, with a particular view to the list of lead actors and collaborators. The programme and activities of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands and its Scientific and Technical Review Panel (STRP) have been studied very carefully and actions were identified to optimize harmonization of activities of the Convention on Biological Diversity and its lead partner in the implementation of the programme of work on biological diversity of inland water ecosystems. This has been done in accordance with the third joint work plan between the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Ramsar Convention, as endorsed by the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity in its decision VI/20 .

3. The Executive Secretary is expected to continue and further develop collaboration with programmes, organizations, institutions, and conventions working with research, management and conservation of inland water biological diversity. These include (but are not limited to) the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS), the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar Convention), BirdLife International, Conservation International, DIVERSITAS, the Global International Water Assessment, the Global Water Partnership, the WorldFish Center (formerly the International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management, ICLARM), IUCN-the World Conservation Union, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, the World Water Council, Wetlands International, the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and the World Bank.

4. The clearing-house mechanism should continue to be used as a primary vehicle to promote and facilitate the exchange of information and transfer of technology relevant to the conservation and use of inland water biological diversity.

5. The aim of the revised programme of work on biological diversity of inland water ecosystems is to further enhance the implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity in this area at the catchment/watershed/river basin levels, and to fulfil its leadership role in international biodiversity issues relating to inland water ecosystems. [In accordance with Article 22 of the Convention, nothing in this programme of work shall lead to the creation or perpetuation of barriers to international trade or of trade-distorting domestic support measures in violation of international law, including trade-related agreements.]

6. The revised programme of work identifies goals, objectives and activities within the three programme elements: conservation, sustainable use and benefit-sharing; institutional and socio-economic enabling environment; and knowledge, assessment and monitoring. The programme of work is not intended to be prescriptive for Parties, given that that national circumstances, capacities and priorities can and do vary greatly. As such, it should be viewed as providing a comprehensive and integrated framework of activities from which Parties can formulate their own nationally appropriate responses within the context of the national biodiversity and sustainable development strategies and action plans.

7. Throughout the programme of work it should be assumed that references to biological diversity, unless otherwise specified, refers to genomes and genes, species and communities, ecosystems and habitats. It should also be understood that the order of presentation within this programme of work does not convey any indication of relative priority.

8. Within the programme of work goals and objectives are listed under each programme element. Overarching these, and operating as fundamental guiding principles, are the following:

      (a) To promote the conservation and sustainable use of inland water biological diversity including by appropriate transfer and development of technologies and by appropriate funding;

      (b) To apply the ecosystem approach to the management of inland water ecosystems;

      (c) To support indigenous and local communities to re-establish, develop and implement traditional approaches and/or adaptive management approaches to conserve and use sustainably the biological diversity of inland water ecosystems;

      (d) To promote the fair and equitable sharing of benefits gained from the use of inland water genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge based on prior informed consent in accordance with national laws.

      (e) To use and draw upon scientific, technical and technological knowledge of indigenous and local communities, with their participation and prior informed consent in accordance with national laws, in the implementation of all programme elements.

      PROGRAMME ELEMENT 1: CONSERVATION, SUSTAINABLE USE AND BENEFIT-SHARING

Goal 1.1. To integrate the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity into all relevant sectors of water-resource and river-basin management, taking into account the ecosystem approach

Context and linkages

      Article(s) of the Convention on Biological Diversity: 6 (a) and (b)

      Strategic Plan objective(s): 1.2, 1.5, 2.1, 3.1, 3.3 and 3.4

      Related element(s) of first programme of work: paragraphs 8 (c), 9 (a) (i) and (ii), (b) (i), (g) (i) and (ii), (k), (m) (v)

      Intra and inter-programmatic linkages:

      Goal 1.2 (In situ conservation through protected areas)

      Goal 2.1 (Integration with other sectors etc)

      Goal 3.2- relating to identification of stressed inland water ecosystems.

      Plan of Implementation of the World Summit: paragraphs 24, 32 (c), 40 (b) and 66 (b)

Objectives

      (a) Adopt integrated land and catchment/watershed/river basin management approaches that incorporate the ecosystem approach, and the conservation and sustainable use of inland water ecosystems, including transboundary catchments, watersheds and river basins;

      (b) Encourage the adoption of such integrated watershed, catchment and river basin management strategies to maintain, restore or improve the quality and supply of inland water resources and the economic, social, cultural, spiritual, hydrological, biological diversity and other functions and values of inland water ecosystems;

      (c) Integrate into land-and water-use management approaches appropriate adaptive management and mitigation responses to combat, and prevent where possible, the negative impacts of climate change, El Niño, unsustainable land use and desertification on the biodiversity of inland water ecosystems.

Activities of the Parties

        1.1.1. Assess current management approaches and strategies with regard to their integration of the ecosystem approach and sustainable use principles and adjust them as needed.

        1.1.2. Apply the appropriate environmental water allocations (in terms of both quantity and quality of water) to maintain or improve the ecological functioning and productivity of priority inland water ecosystems, including those identified as most stressed (see activities 1.1.6 and 3.2.2 below). In so doing consideration should also be given to the likely impacts of climate change and desertification, and factor in suitable mitigation and adaptive management approaches.

        1.1.3. Identify and remove the sources, or reduce the impacts, of water pollution (chemical, thermal, microbiological or physical) on the biological diversity of inland waters.

        1.1.4. Promote effec

Inland water ecosystems: review, further elaboration and refinement of the programme of work

The Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice

Review of the implementation of the programme of work

1. Recommends that the Conference of the Parties:

(a) Notes the progress made in the implementation of the programme of work;

(b) Recognizes that a major shortcoming in the current review has been the limited availability of recent information on each of the activities of the programme of work, and further recognizing the usefulness of the national reports submitted to the Ramsar Convention for a global status of the implementation of the programme of work on biodiversity of inland water ecosystems, and, accordingly, request the Executive Secretary to submit, for consideration at its eighth meeting, a proposal on ways and means for making the review more comprehensive;

(c) Further requests the Executive Secretary to develop with the Ramsar Bureau a proposal, for consideration by the Conference of the Parties at its eighth meeting, on streamlining and improving the effectiveness of national reporting on inland water ecosystems, taking into account the work of the Task Force on Streamlining Forest-related Reporting established in the framework of United Nations Forum on Forests and other initiatives for harmonizing biodiversity-related national reports;

(d) Welcomes and encourages, in particular, the synergy being developed between the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands in implementing the programme of work, and notes the progress made in the implementation of joint work plans between the two conventions and encourage further activities aiming at avoiding overlaps in the work of both conventions;

(e) Requests the Executive Secretary to continue developing and strengthening collaboration with other organizations, institutions and conventions as a way to streamline many of the activities contained in the programme of work, promote synergies and avoid unnecessary duplications;

(f) Notes the need to adapt elements in the programme of work, as appropriate, in response to new developments or emergency matters and decides to carry out the next in-depth review of the programme of work no later than ten years from now, taking into account the multi-year programme of work of the Conference of the Parties and the 2010 target in the Strategic Plan;

Revised programme of work

2. Recommends that the Conference of the Parties:

(a) Recognizes that the review of the implementation of the programme of work identified gaps and constraints that need to be addressed to meet the objectives of the Convention and, accordingly, adopt the revised programme of work proposed in the annex to the present recommendation, which addresses the identified gaps and constraints with its three programme elements on:

          (i) Conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, including application of the ecosystem approach;
          (ii) Enabling activities addressing many of the socio-economic gaps identified in the review of the programme of work; and
          (iii) Monitoring and assessment;

(b) Recommends that the Strategic Plan of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, and their target of 2010 to reduce significantly the rate of biodiversity loss, should guide the implementation of the revised programme of work on inland water biological diversity;

(c) Recognizes the need for resources, human, technological and financial, to implement effectively the activities under the revised programme of work;

(d) Urges Parties, other Governments and organizations to incorporate the objectives and relevant activities of the programme of work in their biodiversity strategies and action plans, wetland policies and strategies and to implement them and further promote coordination and cooperation between national actors responsible for inland water ecosystems and biological diversity;

(e) Recognizes the presence of inland waters in agricultural lands, forests, dry and sub-humid lands, and mountains, and the ecological connectedness between inland waters, estuaries and inshore coastal areas and, accordingly, encourages Parties, other Governments and organizations to ensure cross-referencing to, and coherence with, the other thematic programmes of work while implementing this programme of work;

(f) Urges Parties to share information and lessons learned from the application of national and regional water frameworks;

(g) Invites Parties to formulate and adopt outcome oriented targets and identified priorities for each activity, including timescales, taking into account the Strategic Plan of the Convention as well as the Strategic Plan of the Ramsar Convention 2003-2008, the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation and the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development;

3. Recommends that the Conference of the Parties requests the Executive Secretary to:

(a) Compile, for the eighth meeting of the Conference of the Parties, information on mountain water supply and examples of transferable technologies relevant to the implementation of the proposed revised programme of work on inland water biodiversity also relevant to mountain ecosystems, and ensure that this information is considered in developing the programme of work on mountain biological diversity, and taking into account, inter alia, the work of the Committee on Forestry of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations;

(b) Ensure that inland water ecosystem issues are fully incorporated, as appropriate, into all other thematic work programmes;

(c) Urge Parties and other countries to provide information on specific examples of successful policy interventions to conserve and sustainably use inland waters,

(d) Summarize this and related available information for the eighth meeting of the Conference of the Parties;

(e) In collaboration with relevant organizations and conventions, develop cost-effective means to report on implementation of the programme of work as measured against the global targets defined in the Strategic Plan, in the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation, and in the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, essentially using indicators and assessments at the global level by international organizations, or existing data, and propose these to the Subsidiary Body prior to the eighth meeting of the Conference of the Parties;

4. Requests the Executive Secretary:

(a) To continue the close cooperation with the Commission on Sustainable Development in its development of the World Water Development Report and for the celebration of 2003 as the International Year of Freshwater to ensure that biological diversity issues are considered in the process;

(b) To prepare, for consideration by the national focal points and then the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice prior to the seventh meeting of the Conference of the Parties, a schedule of short, medium and long-term outcome oriented targets and deadlines for implementation of the programme of work;

Assessment of status and trends, and rapid assessment

5. Recommends that the Conference of the Parties:

(a) Takes note of the status and trends of, and threats to, inland water biodiversity described in the note by the Executive Secretary (UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA/8/8/Add.1) and related information documents and give particular consideration to the listing of major threats to inland water biodiversity, and their underlying causes, as a basis for the identification of priorities for early action, recognizing that the relative importance of threats, and their underlying causes, will vary by region and country;

(b) Recognizes the need for reliable baseline data and subsequent regular national assessments of the status and trends of, and threats to, inland water biodiversity as a basis for decision-making on the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity of inland water ecosystems and, accordingly, request the Executive Secretary, in collaboration with Parties and relevant organizations, in particular the Ramsar Convention, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and the Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA) among others, and making use of all available information, to prepare, for consideration by the Conference of the Parties at its eighth meeting:

          (i) A work plan with defined timeframe, ways, means, and capacity needs for assessing the extent, distribution and characteristics, including, inter alia, physical, chemical and biological characteristics, of all types of inland water ecosystems at the global and regional scales;
          (ii) A report on information, and sources of information, on the trends of inland water biodiversity, definition of agreed baselines, relevant indicators and frequency of the assessments; and
          (iii) A work plan with ways and means for assessing processes and categories of activities which have or are likely to have significant adverse impacts on the conservation and sustainable use of inland water biological diversity;

(c) Encourages Parties, other Governments and relevant organizations to improve national, regional and global data on inland water ecosystem goods and services, their uses and related socio-economic variables; on species and all taxonomic levels; on basic hydrological aspects and water supply; and on the threats to which inland water ecosystems are subjected;

(d) Welcomes the report of the Expert Meeting on Guidelines on Rapid Assessment of Biological Diversity of Inland Water Ecosystems (UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA/8/INF/5) and the guidelines annexed thereto;

(e) Invites Parties, other Governments and relevant organizations to use and promote the application of the guidelines, in particular in the circumstances of small island developing States and in the territories of States in which inland water ecosystems suffer from ecological disaster;

(f) Recognizes that the guidelines are focused on biological factors and, more specifically, on species-level assessments, and that they only touch on ecosystem-level and socio-economic and cultural aspects relating to the conservation and use of biological diversity, and requests the Executive Secretary, in collaboration with the Ramsar Bureau and other relevant organizations, to develop a complementary set of tools to assess the function and health of inland water ecosystems and the socio-economic and cultural values of biological diversity of inland waters to be presented as information paper to the eighth meeting of the Conference of the Parties;

(g) Requests the Executive Secretary, in collaboration with relevant organizations, to strengthen capacities, including through practical training, for the application and, as needed, adaptation to local conditions of the guidelines, particularly in small island developing States and in the territories of certain States in which inland water ecosystems suffer from ecological disaster;

(h) Request the Executive Secretary to develop a monitoring and reporting system to assess the experiences gathered with respect to the usefulness and applicability of the guidelines, including through the national reports under the Convention on Biological Diversity;

(i) Encourage Parties, other Governments and relevant organizations to support the active participation of indigenous and local communities in all stages of rapid assessments of biological diversity of inland waters traditionally occupied or used by these communities, consistent with the recommendations approved in annex II of decision VI/10;

(j) Emphasize the importance of inland water biodiversity for sustainable livelihoods and, accordingly, request the Executive Secretary, in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and other relevant organizations, to prepare a study on the linkages between conservation and sustainable use of inland water biodiversity and poverty alleviation/sustainable livelihoods, including human health considerations, for consideration by the Conference of the Parties at its eighth meeting. The study should contain proposals on ways and means to ensure that implementation of the programme of work contributes appropriately to poverty alleviation and sustainable livelihoods;

6. Recommends that the Conference of the Parties request the Executive Secretary to compile, in collaboration with relevant organizations and experts, existing information and disseminate it in a format that is useful to policy makers, recognizing that comprehensive information about the function of inland water ecosystems is invaluable to land and resource managers for planning, evaluating and executing plans and programmes. Emphasis should be put on assessment of, and research on, factors that affect ecosystem functions, the valuation of ecosystem functions, and remedial actions to restore ecosystem functions;

Classification systems and criteria for the identification of important inland water biodiversity

7. Recommends that the Conference of the Parties:

(a) Request those Parties to which this is appropriate, to adopt the Ramsar classification of wetlands as an interim classification system and use it as a framework for the initial inventorying of inland water ecosystems for the purpose of preparing indicative lists of inland water ecosystems important in the framework of the Convention, as requested in paragraph 12 of the programme of work on inland water biodiversity annexed to decision IV/4;

(b) Request the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice, to review the interim classification system prior to its tenth meeting, taking into account the multi-year programme of work, on the basis of experiences accumulated by Parties, other Governments and relevant organizations, taking into account the options described in the note by the Executive Secretary (UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA/8/8/Add.4);

(c) Invite the Ramsar Bureau and the Scientific and Technical Review Panel of the Ramsar Convention, in collaboration with the Executive Secretary and the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice, respectively, and in line with paragraph 30 of resolution VIII.10 of the Conference of the Parties to the Ramsar Convention, and with a view to achieving a more comprehensive coverage of components of biological diversity through the designation of Ramsar sites:

          (i) To further elaborate the guidelines on existing criteria for the following features:

            a. Wetlands supporting wild relatives of domesticated or cultivated species;
            b. Wetlands that support species or communities and genomes or genes of economic, social, scientific or cultural importance;
            c. Wetlands supporting species or communities that are important for research into the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity including indicators of ecosystem health and integrity; and
            d. Wetlands that support important populations of taxonomic groups with wetland-dependent species, including, inter alia, amphibians;

          (ii) To consider the development of additional criteria, including, as appropriate, quantitative criteria;
          (iii) To develop guidelines on the geographical scale at which criteria should be applied;

(d) Further invite the Ramsar Bureau, in collaboration with the Executive Secretary, to provide guidance, based on experiences, for the interpretation and application of the Ramsar criteria at the national and regional levels.

Annex

PROPOSED REVISED PROGRAMME OF WORK ON INLAND WATER BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY

CONTENTS

Page

INTRODUCTION (intro)

PROGRAMME ELEMENT 1: CONSERVATION, SUSTAINABLE USE AND BENEFIT-SHARING (pg1)

Goal 1.1. To integrate the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity into all relevant sectors of water-resource and river-basin management, taking into account the ecosystem approach (g1.1)

Goal 1.2: To establish and maintain comprehensive, adequate and representative systems of protected inland water ecosystems within the framework of integrated catchment/watershed/river basin management (g1.2)

Goal 1.3: To enhance the conservation status of inland water biological diversity through rehabilitation and restoration of degraded ecosystems and the recovery of threatened species (g1.3)

Goal 1.4: To prevent the introduction of invasive alien species which potentially threaten the biological diversity of inland water ecosystems, and to control, and where possible, eradicate established invasive species in these ecosystems. (g1.4)

PROGRAMME ELEMENT 2: INSTITUTIONAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC ENABLING ENVIRONMENT (pg2)

Goal 2.1: To promote the integration of conservation and sustainable use of the biological diversity of inland water ecosystems into relevant sectoral and cross-sectoral plans, programmes, policies and legislation. (g2.1)

Goal 2.2: To encourage the development, application and transfer of low-cost appropriate technology, non-structural and innovative approaches to water resource management and the conservation and sustainable use of the biological diversity of inland water ecosystems, taking into account any decision taken by the Conference of the Parties at its seventh meeting on technology transfer and cooperation (g2.2)

Goal 2.3: To provide the appropriate incentives and valuation measures to support the conservation and sustainable use of inland water biological diversity, and to remove, or reform appropriately, all perverse incentives opposing such conservation and sustainable use of ecosystems[, and which include those subsidies to local production and/or consumption that distort international trade][consistent with decision VI/15] . (g2.3)

Goal 2.4: To implement the programme of work for the Global Initiative on Communication, Education and Public Awareness (as adopted by the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity in its decision VI/19), giving particular attention to matters relating to the conservation and sustainable use of the biological diversity of inland water ecosystems (g2.4)

Goal 2.5: Promote the involvement of local and indigenous communities and other relevant stakeholders in the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity of inland water ecosystems (g2.5)

PROGRAMME ELEMENT 3: KNOWLEDGE, ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING (pg3)

Goal 3.1: To develop an improved understanding of the biodiversity found in inland water ecosystems, how these systems function, their ecosystem goods and services and the values they can provide. (g3.1)

Goal 3.2: To develop, based on inventories, rapid and other assessments applied at the regional, national and local levels, an improved understanding of threats to inland water ecosystems and responses of different types of inland water ecosystems to these threats (g3.2)

Goal 3.3. To ensure projects and actions with the potential to impact negatively on the biological diversity of inland water ecosystems are subjected, in accordance with national legislation and where appropriate, to suitably rigorous impact assessments, including consideration of their potential impact on sacred sites and on lands and waters traditionally occupied or used by indigenous and local communities (g3.3)

Goal 3.4. To introduce and maintain appropriate monitoring arrangements to detect changes in the status and trends of inland water biodiversityError! Bookmark not defined. (g3.4)

INTRODUCTION

1. The revised and further elaborated programme of work for the conservation and sustainable use of the biological diversity of inland water ecosystems builds upon ongoing activities, uses existing knowledge, and also focuses attention on gaps in the institutional frameworks and the knowledge base upon which management decisions are made. It seeks to respond to the constraints identified by Parties through their national reports and to provide an integrated package of activities to address these obstacles and impediments. The activities within the programme of work are intended to be targeted towards, and address first and foremost, national priorities as prescribed through the national biodiversity strategy and action plan of each Party.

2. In furthering work under this programme duplication of effort should be avoided, and harmonization of respective programmes of work is to be pursued through strong coordination between the Convention on Biological Diversity and other relevant conventions and international bodies, with a particular view to the list of lead actors and collaborators. The programme and activities of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands and its Scientific and Technical Review Panel (STRP) have been studied very carefully and actions were identified to optimize harmonization of activities of the Convention on Biological Diversity and its lead partner in the implementation of the programme of work on biological diversity of inland water ecosystems. This has been done in accordance with the third joint work plan between the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Ramsar Convention, as endorsed by the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity in its decision VI/20 .

3. The Executive Secretary is expected to continue and further develop collaboration with programmes, organizations, institutions, and conventions working with research, management and conservation of inland water biological diversity. These include (but are not limited to) the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS), the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar Convention), BirdLife International, Conservation International, DIVERSITAS, the Global International Water Assessment, the Global Water Partnership, the WorldFish Center (formerly the International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management, ICLARM), IUCN-the World Conservation Union, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, the World Water Council, Wetlands International, the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and the World Bank.

4. The clearing-house mechanism should continue to be used as a primary vehicle to promote and facilitate the exchange of information and transfer of technology relevant to the conservation and use of inland water biological diversity.

5. The aim of the revised programme of work on biological diversity of inland water ecosystems is to further enhance the implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity in this area at the catchment/watershed/river basin levels, and to fulfil its leadership role in international biodiversity issues relating to inland water ecosystems. [In accordance with Article 22 of the Convention, nothing in this programme of work shall lead to the creation or perpetuation of barriers to international trade or of trade-distorting domestic support measures in violation of international law, including trade-related agreements.]

6. The revised programme of work identifies goals, objectives and activities within the three programme elements: conservation, sustainable use and benefit-sharing; institutional and socio-economic enabling environment; and knowledge, assessment and monitoring. The programme of work is not intended to be prescriptive for Parties, given that that national circumstances, capacities and priorities can and do vary greatly. As such, it should be viewed as providing a comprehensive and integrated framework of activities from which Parties can formulate their own nationally appropriate responses within the context of the national biodiversity and sustainable development strategies and action plans.

7. Throughout the programme of work it should be assumed that references to biological diversity, unless otherwise specified, refers to genomes and genes, species and communities, ecosystems and habitats. It should also be understood that the order of presentation within this programme of work does not convey any indication of relative priority.

8. Within the programme of work goals and objectives are listed under each programme element. Overarching these, and operating as fundamental guiding principles, are the following:

      (a) To promote the conservation and sustainable use of inland water biological diversity including by appropriate transfer and development of technologies and by appropriate funding;

      (b) To apply the ecosystem approach to the management of inland water ecosystems;

      (c) To support indigenous and local communities to re-establish, develop and implement traditional approaches and/or adaptive management approaches to conserve and use sustainably the biological diversity of inland water ecosystems;

      (d) To promote the fair and equitable sharing of benefits gained from the use of inland water genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge based on prior informed consent in accordance with national laws.

      (e) To use and draw upon scientific, technical and technological knowledge of indigenous and local communities, with their participation and prior informed consent in accordance with national laws, in the implementation of all programme elements.

      PROGRAMME ELEMENT 1: CONSERVATION, SUSTAINABLE USE AND BENEFIT-SHARING

Goal 1.1. To integrate the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity into all relevant sectors of water-resource and river-basin management, taking into account the ecosystem approach

Context and linkages

      Article(s) of the Convention on Biological Diversity: 6 (a) and (b)

      Strategic Plan objective(s): 1.2, 1.5, 2.1, 3.1, 3.3 and 3.4

      Related element(s) of first programme of work: paragraphs 8 (c), 9 (a) (i) and (ii), (b) (i), (g) (i) and (ii), (k), (m) (v)

      Intra and inter-programmatic linkages:

      Goal 1.2 (In situ conservation through protected areas)

      Goal 2.1 (Integration with other sectors etc)

      Goal 3.2- relating to identification of stressed inland water ecosystems.

      Plan of Implementation of the World Summit: paragraphs 24, 32 (c), 40 (b) and 66 (b)

Objectives

      (a) Adopt integrated land and catchment/watershed/river basin management approaches that incorporate the ecosystem approach, and the conservation and sustainable use of inland water ecosystems, including transboundary catchments, watersheds and river basins;

      (b) Encourage the adoption of such integrated watershed, catchment and river basin management strategies to maintain, restore or improve the quality and supply of inland water resources and the economic, social, cultural, spiritual, hydrological, biological diversity and other functions and values of inland water ecosystems;

      (c) Integrate into land-and water-use management approaches appropriate adaptive management and mitigation responses to combat, and prevent where possible, the negative impacts of climate change, El Niño, unsustainable land use and desertification on the biodiversity of inland water ecosystems.

Activities of the Parties

        1.1.1. Assess current management approaches and strategies with regard to their integration of the ecosystem approach and sustainable use principles and adjust them as needed.

        1.1.2. Apply the appropriate environmental water allocations (in terms of both quantity and quality of water) to maintain or improve the ecological functioning and productivity of priority inland water ecosystems, including those identified as most stressed (see activities 1.1.6 and 3.2.2 below). In so doing consideration should also be given to the likely impacts of climate change and desertification, and factor in suitable mitigation and adaptive management approaches.

        1.1.3. Identify and remove the sources, or reduce the impacts, of water pollution (chemical, thermal, microbiological or physical) on the biological diversity of inland waters.

        1.1.4. Promote effective collaboration among scientists, local stakeholders, planners, engineers, and economists, and including indigenous and local communities with their prior informed consent (both within and among countries) in the planning and implementation of development projects to better integrate the conservation and sustainable use of inland water biological diversity with water resource developments.

        1.1.5. Contribute to, and participate in, as appropriate, the River Basin Initiative (RBI) by sharing case studies, experiences and lessons learned on:

          (a) Examples of watershed management that incorporate the conservation and sustainable use of inland water biological diversity with special reference to examples that use the ecosystem approach to meet water management goals; and

          (b) Examples of water resource development projects (water supply and sanitation, irrigation, hydropower, flood control, navigation, groundwater extraction) that incorporate consideration of the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity.

        1.1.6. Introduce into national, catchment, watershed and river-basin level, and local water and land-use planning and management, adaptive management and mitigation strategies to combat and prevent, where possible, the negative impacts of climate change, El Niño, unsustainable land-use practices and desertification, noting the ongoing work of the Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group on Biodiversity and Climate Change and the programme of work on dry and sub-humid lands.

        1.1.7 Provide to the Executive Secretary advice on national experiences and approaches to promoting and implementing adaptive management and mitigation strategies for combating the impacts of climate change, El Niño and desertification.

        1.1.8 Use, where appropriate, all available information on dams in order to ensure that the biological diversity of inland water ecosystems is fully taken into account in decision making on large dams.

Supporting activities

        1.1.9. SBSTTA should:

          (a) Review existing information on the allocation and management of water for maintaining ecological functions, including the relevant guidelines and technical papers on this topic, and prepare advice for the Conference of the Parties;

          (b) Develop specific expert guidance on the management of the negative impacts of climate change, El Niño, unsustainable land-use practices and desertification on inland water biodiversity and appropriate adaptive management and mitigation responses, in collaboration with relevant partners.

        1.1.10. The Convention Secretariat and the Ramsar Bureau should finalize the development and move into full implementation of the River Basin Initiative, with input from collaborating partner organizations, as appropriate.

        1.1.11. The Ramsar Bureau should be invited to bring to the attention of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity relevant guidance or approaches adopted by the Ramsar Convention for the wise use of wetlands, such as:

          (a) The Ramsar Convention guidelines for integrating wetland conservation and wise use into river basin management; and

          (b) Model approaches to transboundary watershed or river basin management that can demonstrate effective mechanisms for cooperative management.

        1.1.12. The Executive Secretary, in collaboration with relevant partners as appropriate, should compile and disseminate, including through the clearing-house mechanism of the Convention on Biological Diversity:

          (a) Case-studies, lessons learned and best-practice guidance on ways and means to address all forms of water pollution at both the local and catchment scales;

          (b) Examples of water resource development projects (water supply and sanitation, irrigation, hydropower, flood control, navigation, groundwater extraction) that incorporate biological diversity considerations, and which aim for sustainable use and maintenance of ecological processes; and

          (c) The information provided by Parties in response to activity 1.1.7 above.

        1.1.13. Also in collaboration with appropriate partners, the Executive Secretary should develop practical management guidance and associated instruments on sustainable use of inland water biodiversity, with special attention for sustainable tourism developments, sustainable use of freshwater fish stocks, and sustainable agricultural practices in association with inland water ecosystems, taking into account the ongoing work in response to the implementation of decisions V/24 and VI/13 of the Conference of the Parties, on sustainable use.

        1.1.14. The Ramsar Bureau should be invited to make available to Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Ramsar Convention guidelines for global action on peatlands, adopted at the eighth meeting of the Conference of the Contracting Parties to the Ramsar Convention.

Main partners

Ramsar Bureau and STRP, RBI, UNESCO, International Water Management Institute (IWMI), subsidiary scientific bodies of UNFCCC, CCD and Ramsar, IPCC, WMO.

Other collaborators

Relevant international, regional and national organizations such as UNEP, International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU), DIVERSITAS, IUCN, FAO.

Goal 1.2: To establish and maintain comprehensive, adequate and representative systems of protected inland water ecosystems within the framework of integrated catchment/watershed/river basin management

Context and linkages

      Article(s) of the Convention on Biological Diversity: 8 (a), (b), (c), (d) and (e)

      Strategic Plan objective(s): 1.2, 1.5, 2.1, 3.1, 3.3 and 3.4

      Related element(s) of first programme of work: paragraph 8 (c) (vii)

      Intra and inter-programmatic linkages:

        Goal 3.3 (National inventories and assessment)

        Goal 3.6 (Further elaboration of Annex I).

      Plan of Implementation of the World Summit: paragraph 32 (c)

Objective

      (a) Comprehensive, adequate and representative systems of protected inland water ecosystems (including all IUCN protected area categories, as appropriate) are developed and maintained within the framework of integrated catchment/watershed/river basin management.

      (b) Where appropriate, transboundary, collaborative approaches to identifying, recognizing and managing protected inland water ecosystems are undertaken between neighbouring Parties.

Activities of the Parties

        1.2.1 Provide, as appropriate, to the Executive Secretary, examples of protected area establishment and management strategies that are supporting the conservation and sustainable use of inland water ecosystems.

        1.2.2. Undertake the necessary assessments to identify priority sites for inclusion into a system of protected inland water ecosystems, applying in particular the guidance on operationalizing Annex I of the Convention on Biological Diversity and its harmonized application with the criteria for identifying Wetlands of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention (see activity 3.2.3).

        1.2.3. As part of activity 1.2.2 above, identify sites important for migratory species dependent on inland water ecosystems.

        1.2.4. Develop incrementally, as the availability of resources and national priorities determine, and as part of an integrated catchment/watershed/river basin management approach, protected area systems (aquatic reserves, Ramsar sites, heritage rivers, etc.), which can contribute in a systematic way to the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, and to maintaining overall ecosystem function, productivity and "health" within each drainage basin.

        1.2.5. As appropriate, work collaboratively with neighbouring Parties to identify, have formally recognized and managed, transboundary protected inland water ecosystems.

        1.2.6. In undertaking activity 1.2.4 above, those Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity that are also Parties to the Ramsar Convention 1/ should harmonize this work with the development of national networks of Wetlands of International Importance, which are `comprehensive and coherent' in line with the Ramsar strategic framework for the future development of the List of Wetlands of International Importance.

Supporting activities of the Executive Secretary

        1.2.7. Review and disseminate relevant information and guidance, including through the clearing-house mechanism, on national and transboundary experiences and case-studies to assist efforts in establishing and maintaining protected inland water ecosystems considering inter alia:

          (a) The range of resource materials and guidance available through the IUCN Commission on Protected Areas;

          (b) The Ramsar Convention strategic framework for the future development of the List of Wetlands of International Importance, and its specific guidance in relation to the identification and designation of certain inland water ecosystem types such as karsts and subterranean hydrological systems, peatland, wet grasslands etc;

          (c) The new Ramsar guidelines on management planning for Ramsar sites and other wetlands, adopted by the Conference of the Contracting Parties to the Ramsar Convention at its eighth meeting; and

          (d) Advice and guidance available from the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere programme, International Hydrological Programme (IHP) and World Heritage Centre.

        1.2.8. In collaboration with the secretariats of the Convention on Migratory Species and the Ramsar Convention identify opportunities for collaborative work on protected area networks for migratory species dependent on inland water ecosystems, through the respective bilateral joint work plans.

Main partners

Ramsar Bureau and STRP, CMS secretariat and Scientific Council, UNESCO-MAB, World Heritage Centre, IUCN

Other collaborators

Relevant international, regional and national organizations and interested Parties.

Goal 1.3: To enhance the conservation status of inland water biological diversity through rehabilitation and restoration of degraded ecosystems and the recovery of threatened species

Context and linkages

      Article(s) of the Convention on Biological Diversity: 8 (f), 9 (c), 10 (d)

      Strategic Plan objective(s): 1.2, 1.5, 2.1, 3.1, 3.3 and 3.4

      Related element(s) of first programme of work: paragraph 8 (c) (iv)

      Intra and inter-programmatic linkages:

Goal 1.1 (Integrating biodiversity conservation into water resource and river basin management). Apart from the clear benefits for biodiversity conservation that come from restoring or rehabilitating inland water ecosystems, there is the added benefit gained for overall "health" of catchment and river basins from reinstating these part of the natural water infrastructure.

Goal 1.2 (Protected areas)

Goal 2.1 (Integration into other sectors, etc)

      Plan of Implementation of the World Summit: paragraphs 26 (c) and 37 (d)

Objectives

      (a) Degraded inland water ecosystems are rehabilitated or restored, where appropriate and possible.

      (b) The conservation status of threatened species reliant on inland water ecosystems is improved.

Activities of the Parties

        1.3.1. Provide, as appropriate, to the Executive Secretary case-studies, national experiences and any relevant local, national or regional guidance relating to the successful rehabilitation or restoration of degraded inland water ecosystems, and the recovery of threatened species.

        1.3.2. Identify nationally priority candidate inland water ecosystems and/or sites for rehabilitation or restoration and proceed to undertake such works, as resources allow. In identifying potential candidate sites, consider the relative conservation status of the threatened species involved, and the potential gains for the overall ecosystem functioning, productivity and "health" within each drainage basin (see activity1.2.4).

        1.3.3. Identify nationally and then act, as appropriate, to improve the conservation status of threatened species, including migratory species, reliant on inland water ecosystems, (see activities 1.2.3 and 1.2.4), taking into account the programme of work on restoration and rehabilitation of degraded ecosystems being developed by the Conference of the Parties as part of its multi-year programme of work up to 2010.

Supporting activities

        1.3.4. SBSTTA to prepare guidelines on promoting rehabilitation and restoration of inland water ecosystems, on the basis of the Ramsar principles and guidelines on wetlands restoration, the findings of the IUCN Species Survival Commission regarding the conservation status of threatened species reliant on inland water ecosystems, and other information provided by Parties (see activity 1.3.1).

Main partners

Ramsar Bureau and STRP, Wetlands International, CMS secretariat and Scientific Council, CMS-related agreements, IUCN, DIVERSITAS

Other collaborators

MAB and other relevant international, regional and national organizations.

Goal 1.4: To prevent the introduction of invasive alien species that potentially threaten the biological diversity of inland water ecosystems, and to control and, where possible, eradicate established invasive species in these ecosystems

Context and linkages

      Article(s) of the Convention on Biological Diversity: 7 (c), 8 (h), 8 (l) and 14 (a)

      Strategic Plan objective(s): 1.2, 1.5, 2.1, 3.1, 3.3, 3.4, 4.1, 4.3 and 4.4

      Related element(s) of first programme of work: paragraphs 8(c)(vi) and 9(h)

      Intra and inter-programmatic linkages:

        Goal 2.1 (Integration with other sectors)

        Goal 2.4 (CEPA)

        Goals 3.2 and 3.3 (Assessments)

Objective

Through national biodiversity strategies and action plans and other relevant national and regional policies, programmes and plans undertake appropriate actions to prevent invasive alien species, which threaten the biological diversity of inland water ecosystems, from spreading and either control or eradicate them where invasion has already taken place.

Activities of the Parties

        1.4.1. Promote and implement relevant guidelines and/or guiding principles in relation to invasive alien species making use of the expert guidance available such as through the "toolkit" of the Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP), the SCOPE of ICSU, and other sources referred to under the heading "Supporting activities" below.

        1.4.2. Provide the Executive Secretary, as appropriate, with examples of the impacts of invasive alien species and of programmes used to control their introduction and mitigate negative consequences on inland water ecosystems, especially at the catchment, watershed and river basin levels.

        1.4.3. Raise awareness, as part of communication, education and public awareness-raising activities (see goal 2.4) of the possible problems and costs associated with the deliberate or accidental introduction of alien species, genotypes and genetically modified organisms that adversely affect aquatic biological diversity, taking into consideration the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity.

        1.4.4. Within the context of transboundary catchments, watershed and river-basin management, and especially in relation to inter-basin water transfers, provide appropriate mechanisms to prevent the spread of invasive alien species.

        1.4.5. Prevent the introduction of invasive alien species through aquaculture development and restore, where appropriate, indigenous wild-capture fisheries stocks in preference to other aquaculture developments.

Supporting activities

        1.4.6. In collaboration with GISP, the Executive Secretary should implement the project on assessment of impacts of invasive alien species in inland waters 2/ and make proposals on future assessments for consideration by SBSTTA.

        1.4.7. The Ramsar Bureau should be requested to make available to Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity the results of the consideration of the issue of invasive alien species in wetlands at the eighth meeting of the Contracting Parties to the Ramsar Convention.

        1.4.8. The Executive Secretary should compile information provided by Parties pursuant to activity 1.4.2 above and other suitable information products including the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries and that prepared by the Ramsar Bureau, Commonwealth Secretariat, and IUCN for the communications and awareness-raising project on African wetland invasive alien species.

        1.4.9 CITES, the Ramsar STRP, TRAFFIC and other appropriate collaborators should be invited to advise Parties on the impact of the aquarium trade and the use of exotic pasture grasses on the conservation of biodiversity in inland water ecosystems and make the results of this study available to Parties.

Partners

GISP, ICSU-SCOPE.

Other collaborators

Secretariat and STRP of the Ramsar Convention and its STRP, CITES, TRAFFIC, Commonwealth Secretariat, FAO, IUCN, UNEP-WCMC, IWMI, ICLARM.

PROGRAMME ELEMENT 2: INSTITUTIONAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC ENABLING ENVIRONMENT

Goal 2.1: To promote the integration of conservation and sustainable use of the biological diversity of inland water ecosystems into relevant sectoral and cross-sectoral plans, programmes, policies and legislation

Context and linkages

      Article(s) of the Convention on Biological Diversity: 6(a) and (b), 14.1 (b) and 18.1, 24.1 (d)

      Strategic Plan objective(s): 1.2, 1.3, 1.5, 2.1, 3.1, 3.3, 3.4, 4.1, 4.3 and 4.4

      Related element(s) of first programme of work: 9 (a) (i), 9 (e) (ii), 9 (g), 9 (j), 9 (l) (iii), 9 (m) (iv) and (v)

      Intra and inter-programmatic linkages

        Goal 3.5 (EIAs).

      Plan of Implementation of the World Summit: paragraphs 32 (e) and 40 (b).

Objectives:

      (a) Relevant sectoral plans, programmes, policies and legislation are compatible with, and where appropriate supportive of, plans, policies, programmes and laws for the conservation and sustainable use of the biological diversity of inland waters.

      (b) Strategic environmental assessments are operating to ensure national institutional arrangements (plans, programmes, policies and legislations) are supporting the implementation of this programme of work.

      (c) The national implementation of relevant multilateral environment agreements, which relate to inland water biodiversity and ecosystems, is taking place in an integrated, efficient and effective way.

Activities of the Parties

        2.1.1. Undertake reviews and introduce reforms to policies, legal and administrative frameworks as necessary, in order to integrate the conservation and sustainable use of inland water biodiversity into the mainstream of government, business, and societal decision-making.

        2.1.2. Apply, as urged by decision VI/7, the guidelines for incorporating biodiversity-related issues into environmental impact assessment legislation and/or processes (see goal 3.3) and in strategic environmental assessment[, which should not be used in violation of international law, including trade-related agreements].

        2.1.3. Review institutional arrangements (policies, strategies, focal points and national reporting approaches) for national implementation of relevant multilateral environment agreements (see objective (c) above) and introduce reforms to streamline and, where appropriate, integrate implementation.

        2.1.4. Provide the Executive Secretary with case-studies and information on lessons learned from policy, legal and institutional review and reform processes relating to inland water biodiversity and ecosystems, including measures taken to harmonize national implementation of the relevant multilateral environment agreements.

Supporting activities of the Executive Secretary

        2.1.5. Identify and make available to Parties, guidance, case-studies and lessons learned, including those relating to the practical application of strategic environmental assessment, to assist in reviewing and fine-tuning institutional frameworks (plans, programmes, policies and legislations) for the conservation and sustainable use of the biological diversity of inland waters.

        2.1.6. Continue to support and participate in the WCMC-led project on harmonizing information management between the five biodiversity-related Conventions (CBD, Ramsar, CITES, CMS and the World Heritage Convention).

        2.1.7. Together with other relevant multilateral environmental agreements and interested Parties, seek the resources to establish working models (demonstration sites) show-casing the collaborative implementation of activities to achieve the complementary objectives of several multilateral environmental agreements.

Main partners

International Association for Impact Assessment (IAIA), Ramsar Bureau and STRP, UNFCCC, UNCCD, CITES, CMS, World Heritage, UNESCO MAB, WCMC.

Other collaborators

International Water Management Institute (IWMI), other relevant international, regional and national organizations and interested Parties.

Goal 2.2: To encourage the development, application and transfer of low-cost appropriate technology, non-structural and innovative approaches to water resource management and the conservation and sustainable use of the biological diversity of inland water ecosystems, taking into account any decision taken by the Conference of the Parties at its seventh meeting on technology transfer and cooperation

Context and linkages

    Article(s) of the Convention on Biological Diversity:16 and 17

    Strategic Plan objective(s):

    Related element(s) of first programme of work: 9 (b) (i) and (ii) and 9 (c)

    Intra and inter-programmatic linkages: All others.

    Plan of Implementation of the World Summit: paragraphs 9 (e), 10 (a), 25 (a), (c) and (d), 26 (e) and (f), 28, 41 (a) and 54 (l)

Objectives

      (a) Promote the development, documentation and transfer of appropriate technologies and approaches to water-resource management and the conservation and sustainable use of the biological diversity of inland water ecosystems.

      (b) Apply, as appropriate, the technologies and approaches identified and made available in response to the above objective.

Activities of the Parties

        2.2.1. Make available to the Executive Secretary information on appropriate technologies and effective approaches to managing biodiversity of inland water ecosystems for transfer to other Parties.

        2.2.2. Encourage the use of low-cost (appropriate) technology, non-structural and innovative approaches, and, where appropriate and through prior informed consent in accordance with national laws traditional or indigenous practices for inland water biodiversity assessment and to meet watershed management goals, such as using wetlands to improve water quality, using forests and wetlands to recharge groundwater and maintain the hydrological cycle, to protect water supplies and using natural floodplains to prevent flood damage, and to use, whenever possible, indigenous species for aquaculture.

        2.2.3. Encourage the development of preventative strategies such as cleaner production, continual environmental improvement, corporate environmental reporting, product stewardship and environmentally sound technologies to avoid degradation and promote maintenance, and, where applicable, restoration of inland water ecosystems.

        2.2.4. Emphasize more effective conservation and efficiency in water use, together with non-engineering solutions. Environmentally appropriate technologies should be identified, such as low-cost sewage treatment and recycling of industrial water, to assist in the conservation and sustainable use of inland waters.

Supporting activities of the Executive Secretary

        2.2.5. Through the clearing-house mechanism, make available to Parties information on appropriate technologies and approaches to water resource management and the conservation and sustainable use of the biological diversity of inland water ecosystems.

        2.2.6. Through partnerships with relevant organizations seek to provide Parties with access to the latest technologies and innovative management approaches relating to programme elements 1 and 3 developed by the private sector, catchment-management bodies and others actively engaged in integrated water resource management.

Main partners

Challenge Programme on Water and Food of the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), the International Water Management Institute (IMWI) , Ramsar Bureau and STRP

Other collaborators

Relevant international, regional and national organizations and interested Parties.

Goal 2.3: To provide the appropriate incentives and valuation measures to support the conservation and sustainable use of inland water biological diversity, and to remove, or reform appropriately, all perverse incentives opposing such conservation and sustainable use of ecosystems[, and which include those subsidies to local production and/or consumption that distort international trade][consistent with decision VI/15]

Context and linkages

    Article(s) of the Convention on Biological Diversity: 11

    Strategic Plan objectives: 1.2, 1.3, 1.5, 3.1, 3.3 and 3.4

    Related element(s) of first programme of work: paragraphs 8(d), 9(f)(i) and (iii), 9(m)

    Intra and inter-programmatic linkages:

        Goal 2.1 - in relation to strategic environmental assessment.

    Plan of Implementation of the World Summit: Articles 26 (b) and 40 (k)

Objectives

      (a) Apply for inland water biological diversity the proposals for the design and implementation of incentive measures (as endorsed through decision VI/15 of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity and contained in annex I of that decision).

      (b) Encourage valuation of the full range of goods and services provided by inland water biological diversity and ecosystems in development proposals and with respect to applying incentive measures, and the identification and removal or modification of perverse incentives.

Activities of the Parties

        2.3.1. Apply to inland water ecosystems the proposals for the design and implementation of incentive measures, including identification and removal or mitigation of perverse incentives, as endorsed by the Conference of the Parties in decision VI/15 and taking into account land tenure systems. In particular:

          (a) Review the range and effectiveness of national incentives, subsidies, regulations, and other relevant financial mechanisms, which can affect inland water ecosystems, whether adversely or beneficially;

          (b) Redirect, as appropriate, financial support measures, that run counter to the objectives of the Convention regarding the biological diversity of inland waters;

          (c) Implement targeted incentive and regulatory measures that have positive impacts on the biological diversity of inland waters;

          (d) Develop the policy research capacity needed to inform the decision-making process in a multidisciplinary and sectorally integrated manner;

          (e) Encourage the identification of the interdependence between conservation and sustainable use of inland water ecosystems and sustainable development;

          (f) At appropriate levels (regional, national, subnational and local), encourage the identification of stressed inland waters, the allocation and reservation of water for the maintenance of ecosystem functions, and the maintenance of environmental flows as an integral component of appropriate legal, administrative and economic mechanisms.

        2.3.2. In accordance with decision VI/15, submit case-studies, lessons learned and other information on positive or perverse incentives, land-use practices and tenure relating to inland water biodiversity to the Executive Secretary. Include within this submission national experiences and guidance in relation to water rights, markets and pricing policies.

        2.3.3. Undertake comprehensive valuations of the goods and services of inland water biodiversity and ecosystems, including their intrinsic, aesthetic, cultural, socio-economic and other values, in all relevant decision-making across the appropriate sectors (see also goal 3.3 in relation to environmental, cultural and social impact assessments).

Supporting activities

        2.3.4. The Ramsar STRP should be invited to consider the proposals of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity for the design and implementation of incentive measures (as endorsed through decision VI/15) and identify ways and means to see this guidance developed further, specifically for inland water ecosystems.

        2.3.5. SBSTTA should compile and disseminate studies on valuation of inland water ecosystem goods and services; and identify ways and means to further integrate the use of economic valuation into national inland water-related plans, programmes and policies (e.g., within integrated water management approaches) as a core component of policy reform.

        2.3.6. In collaboration with key partners such as OECD, IAIA, IUCN, WWF, the Ramsar STRP and Bureau, the Executive Secretary should compile information on relevant guidance, resource kits and other information on incentive measures, including that relating to the development of incentives options through water rights, markets, pricing policies and land use and tenure. More specifically, he may wish to:

          (a) Compile and disseminate case studies and best practices on the use of incentive measures for the management of inland water ecosystem goods and services;

          (b) Further explore the advantages and disadvantages of wetland mitigation banking, including the identification of institutional requirements, possible shortcomings and limitations;

          (c) Further explore the respective advantages and disadvantages of tax/charge approaches as well as their interaction, including the identification of institutional requirements, possible shortcomings and limitations;

          (d) Identify ways and means to further integrate the use of incentive measures into inland water-related plans, programmes and policies, including opportunities for the removal or mitigation of perverse incentives;

          (e) Further monitor recent discussions on incentive measures with a view to identifying other measures of specific use for the sustainable management of inland water ecosystems.

Main partners

Secretariat and STRP of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, IUCN, WWF, IWMI.

Other collaborators

Relevant international, regional and national organizations and interested Parties.

Goal 2.4: To implement the programme of work for the Global Initiative on Communication, Education and Public Awareness (as adopted by the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity in its decision VI/19), giving particular attention to matters relating to the conservation and sustainable use of the biological diversity of inland water ecosystems

Context and linkages

      Article(s) of the Convention on Biological Diversity: 13

      Strategic Plan Objectives: 3.1, 3.4, and 4.1

      Related element(s) of first programme of work: paragraph 9 (i)

      Intra and inter-programmatic linkages:

        Programme of work for the global initiative on communication, education and public awareness (as adopted by the Conference of the Parties in decision VI/19)

      Plan of Implementation of the World Summit: paragraphs 7 (c) and 41 (d)

Objectives

      (a) Comprehensive and well-targeted national programmes for communication, education and public awareness for the conservation and sustainable use of the biological diversity of inland water ecosystems are put in place and operate effectively;

      (b) Key national, catchment/river basin and local-level decision makers and stakeholders are identified and appropriate communication mechanisms are established between them.

Activities of the Parties

        2.4.1. Review the Global Initiative on Communication, Education and Public Awareness (CEPA) contained in decision VI/19 with a view to identifying how best to promote its application for supporting the implementation of the programme of work on inland water biological diversity, as appropriate, taking into account the second CEPA programme adopted by the Conference of the Contracting Parties to the Ramsar Convention at its eighth meeting.

        2.4.2. In undertaking activity 2.4.1, identify case-studies and best practices and provide these to the Executive Secretary to be made available to other Parties.

        2.4.3. Ensure effective working linkages between the focal points for the Convention on Biological Diversity, and the Ramsar (government and non-government) focal points for wetlands communication, education and public awareness, including the amalgamation, at a national level, of communication, education and public awareness (CEPA) programmes under both conventions.

        2.4.4. Identify key national, catchment/river basin and local level decision makers and stakeholders and establish appropriate communication and awareness raising mechanisms to ensure they are all informed of, and supporting through their actions, the implementation of this programme of work.

        2.4.5. Undertake suitable initiatives to enhance awareness of the knowledge held by indigenous and local communities and the appropriate procedures, such as prior informed consent, for accessing such knowledge in accordance with national legislation on access to traditional knowledge.

        2.4.6. Review, and as necessary reform, formal educational curricula to ensure they are operating to inform and educate about the conservation and sustainable use of the biological diversity of inland water biological diversity.

        See also activity 3.1.5 in relation to the communication of research findings.

Supporting activities of the Executive Secretary:

        2.4.7. In collaboration with key partners and collaborators, review the global initiative on communication, education and public awareness and develop and make available guidance for Parties on how best to promote its application for supporting this programme of work.

        2.4.8. Pursuant to activity 2.4.2, make available to Parties case-studies, advice on best practice approaches, plus other sources of information and expertise in the field of communication, education and public awareness.

Main partners

UNEP, UNESCO, Ramsar Bureau and CEPA Working Group, IUCN, Wetlands International

Other collaborators

Ramsar national focal points for communication, education and public awareness, other multilateral environmental agreements, relevant international, regional and national organizations.

Goal 2.5: Promote the involvement of local and indigenous communities and other relevant stakeholders in the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity of inland water ecosystems

Context and linkages

      Article(s) of the Convention on Biological Diversity: 8(j), 10, 17, 18

      Strategic Plan objectives: 4.3

      Related element(s) of first programme of work: 9 (l)

      Intra and inter-programmatic linkages:

        Goal 2.1 (Integration with other sectors etc)

        Goal 3.3 (Cultural, environmental and social impact assessment)

      Plan of Implementation of the World Summit: paragraphs 7(c), 24, 40 (b), (d) and 66 (a)

Objective

Relevant stakeholders, including representatives of local and indigenous communities, are involved, as far as appropriate, in the policy-making and in the planning, implementation and monitoring of the implementation of the programme of work.

Activities of the Parties

        2.5.1. Involve, as far as possible and appropriate, local and indigenous communities in the development of management plans and in the implementation of projects that may affect inland water biological diversity.

        2.5.2. Implement Article 8(j) as related to inland water biological diversity.

        2.5.3. Encourage appropriate involvement and participation of affected parties, including end-users and local and indigenous communities, in policy-making, planning and implementation

        2.5.4. Implement capacity-building measures to facilitate the involvement of indigenous and local communities and the application of indigenous knowledge, with their prior informed consent in accordance with national laws, in the management, conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity of inland water ecosystems.

Activities of the Executive Secretary

        2.5.5. Promote the implementation of the programme of work and decisions of the Conference of the Parties on Article 8 (j) and related provisions.

Main partners

FAO and other relevant organizations

PROGRAMME ELEMENT 3: KNOWLEDGE, ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING

Goal 3.1: To develop an improved understanding of the biodiversity found in inland water ecosystems, how these systems function, their ecosystem goods and services and the values they can provide

Context and linkages

      Article(s) of the Convention on Biological Diversity: 5, 7, 12, 14, 17, 18

      Strategic Plan objectives: 1.2, 1.3, 2.1, 2.5, 3.1, 3.3 and 3.4

      Related element(s) of first programme of work: paragraphs 1, 8 (a), 9 (d), 13, 15 (b), 16, 18 and 21

      Intra and inter-programmatic linkages:

        Goal 1.1 relates to implementation of the ecosystem approach

        Goal 2.4 (Communication, education and public awareness) is relevant also.

        This goal also has links with all other goals under programme element 3.

      Plan of Implementation of the World Summit: paragraph 40 (c)

Objectives

(a) Develop an improved picture of the status and trends of the biological diversity of inland waters, its uses, taxonomy and threats and ensure adequate dissemination of this information.

(b) Establish, maintain and further develop expertise in inland water biological diversity and ecosystems.

Activities of the Parties

        3.1.1. Encourage, and where possible support, applied research to gain an improved understanding of the status, trends, taxonomy and uses of biological diversity in inland water ecosystems, including transboundary systems where applicable.

        3.1.2. Promote research to improve the understanding of the social, economic, political and cultural drivers within civil society that are directly impacting on the conservation and sustainable use of the biological diversity of inland waters.

        3.1.3. In line with the Global Taxonomy Initiative (GTI) encourage studies aimed at improving the understanding of the taxonomy of the biological diversity of inland water ecosystems.

        3.1.4. Support efforts to achieve international consistency and interoperability of taxonomic nomenclature, databases and metadata standards, as well as data-sharing policies.

        3.1.5. As part of national communication, education and public awareness activities/programme (see goal 2.4), provide mechanisms for disseminating research findings to all relevant stakeholders, in a form which will be most useful to them. Make this same information available to the Executive Secretary to for sharing with other Parties.

Supporting activities of the Executive Secretary

        3.1.6. Strengthen working partnerships with appropriate organizations and institutions which undertake, or can assist in mobilizing, research efforts leading to an improved understanding of the biodiversity and functioning of inland water ecosystems, and the practical application of the ecosystem approach.

        3.1.7. As part of the agreed programme of work for the GTI, support and assist, in collaboration with suitable partners, the development of the series of regional guides to the taxonomy of freshwater fish and invertebrates (including adult terrestrial forms where appropriate) as an input to ecosystem monitoring for river and lake health (as specified by decision VI/8 of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity).

        3.1.8. Further develop methods and techniques for the valuation of goods and services of inland water ecosystems, incentives and policy reform, and the understanding of ecosystem function.

Main partners

IUCN, UNEP, WCMC, WRI, FAO, World Fisheries Trust.

Collaborators

Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA), World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP), Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, FAO, Global Environmental Outlook, Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), WRI, Conservation International, and other relevant international, regional and national organizations.

Goal 3.2: To develop, based on inventories, rapid and other assessments applied at the regional, national and local levels, an improved understanding of threats to inland water ecosystems and responses of different types of inland water ecosystems to these threats

Context and linkages

      Article(s) of the Convention on Biological Diversity: 7 (a), (c) and (d)

      Strategic Plan objectives: 2.1, 3.1, 3.3 and 3.4

      Related element(s) of first programme of work: paragraphs 6, 7, 8 (b), 9 (e) (i)-(iv) and 9 (m) (v), 12, 19 and 20

      Intra and inter-programmatic linkages:

        Goal 1.2 (Integrating biodiversity conservation into water management).

        Goal 1.3 (In situ conservation through protected areas).

        Goals 3.3, and 3.4.

      Plan of implementation of the World Summit: paragraph 66 (c)

Objectives

      (a) Assessments and inventories of inland water biodiversity undertaken, including the urgent identification of stressed inland water ecosystems and those mentioned in Annex I of the Convention.

      (b) Rapid assessments, using suitable indicators, being undertaken for inland water biodiversity, in particular in small island States and States where inland water ecosystems suffer from ecological disasters.

      (c) Build national capacity for undertaking the above-mentioned assessments through appropriate mechanisms.

See also goal 3.3 in relation to environmental, cultural and social impact assessments.

Activities of the Parties

        3.2.1. In accordance with the priorities set down in national biodiversity strategies and action plans, undertake comprehensive national inventories and assessments of inland water biological diversity, which may be regarded as important in accordance with the terms of Annex I of the Convention. Furthermore, undertake assessments of threatened habitats and species, and conduct inventories and impact assessments of alien species in inland water ecosystems using the guidelines adopted by the Conference of the Parties in decision VI/7 A. The transboundary nature of many inland water ecosystems should be fully taken into account in assessments, and it may be appropriate for relevant regional and international bodies to contribute to such assessments.

        3.2.2. Identify the most cost-effective approaches and methods to describe the status, trends and threats of inland waters and indicate their condition in functional as well as species terms.

        3.2.3. Adopt an integrated approach in the assessment, management and, where possible, remedial actions of inland water ecosystems, including associated terrestrial and in-shore marine ecosystems. It should be noted that:

          (a) Assessments should involve all stakeholders, including indigenous and local communities, should be cross-sectoral and should make full use of indigenous knowledge based on prior informed consent;

          (b) Suitable organisms should be identified as being particularly important in the assessment of inland water ecosystems. Ideally, such groups (taxa) should meet the following criteria:

                (i) The group should contain a reasonable number of species with varied ecological requirements;
                (ii) The taxonomy of the group should be reasonably well understood;
                (iii) The species should be easy to identify;
                (iv) The group should be easy to sample or observe so that density - absolute or as indices - can be assessed, used objectively and treated statistically;
                (v) The group should serve as indicators of overall ecosystem health or indicators of the development of a key threat to ecosystem health; 3/

          (c) In view of the great economic importance of some groups (e.g. inland water fish species), and of the large gaps in taxonomic knowledge for many species, capacity-building in taxonomy should focus on inland water biodiversity of economic importance.

        3.2.4. Apply the rapid assessment guidelines for national circumstances and adapt these as necessary to suit current and emerging priorities. In accordance with SBSTTA recommendation II/1, endorsed by the Conference of the Parties in decision III/10, assessments should be simple, inexpensive, rapid and easy to use. Such rapid assessment programmes will never replace thorough inventories.

        3.2.5. Seek the resources, opportunities and mechanisms to build national capacity for undertaking assessments and inventories.

        3.2.6. Promote the development of criteria and indicators for the evaluation of the impacts on inland water ecosystems from both physical infrastructure projects and watershed activities, including, inter alia, agriculture, forestry, mining and physical alteration, taking into consideration the natural variability of water conditions. 4/

        3.2.7. Assessments should be carried out with a view to implementing other articles of the Convention and, in particular, to addressing the threats to inland water ecosystems within an appropriate framework such as that included in paragraphs 39-41 of the note by the Executive Secretary on options for implementing Article 7 of the Convention prepared for the third meeting of the Conference of the Parties (UNEP/CBD/COP/3/12). Of particular importance is the undertaking of environmental impact assessments on biological diversity of development projects involving inland water ecosystems.

Supporting activities

        3.2.8. Make available to Parties guidelines for rapid, simple, inexpensive, and easy-to-use assessments of inland water biological diversity, taking into account the different types of such ecosystems and regional considerations, and giving special consideration to the priority needs of small island developing States, and States in which inland water ecosystems are suffering from ecological disasters.

        3.2.9. In collaboration with the Ramsar Convention and other partners, make available to Parties guidance for:

          (a) Undertaking national inventories and assessments of inland water biological diversity;

          (b) The identification of stressed inland water ecosystems;

          (c) The national elaboration of Annex I of the Convention on Biological Diversity in relation to biological diversity of inland waters;

          (d) A list of indicators grouped as driver, state, impact, and response to pressures on biological diversity of inland water ecosystems (taking into account the implementation of decision VI/7 B of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, on monitoring and indicators).

        3.2.10. Through continued collaboration with global and regional assessments including, but not restricted to, GIWA, WWAP, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, the FAO Fisheries Assessment, GEO, GBIF, the report on State of the World's Plant and Animal Resources and the IUCN Freshwater Biodiversity Assessment and Red List of Threatened Species, seek to advance the generation of information on status and trends, which can assist and support global, transboundary and national priority setting processes for the conservation and sustainable use of inland water biodiversity.

        3.2.11. Make available to Parties information on the various global and regional assessments referred to in activity 3.2.10, and how these may offer information to support the implementation of national biodiversity strategies and action plans in relation to inland waters.

Main partners

Ramsar Bureau and STRP of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, Conservation International.

Other collaborators

UNESCO (SIDS programme), GIWA and WWAP, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and other relevant international, regional and national organizations particularly those active in the small island States. Relevant international, regional and national organizations.

Goal 3.3. To ensure projects and actions with the potential to impact negatively on the biological diversity of inland water ecosystems are subjected, in accordance with national legislation and where appropriate, to suitably rigorous impact assessments, including consideration of their potential impact on sacred sites and on lands and waters traditionally occupied or used by indigenous and local communities

Context and linkages

      Article(s) of the Convention on Biological Diversity: 14

      Strategic Plan objectives: 2.1, 3.1, 3.3 and 3.4

      Related element(s) of first programme of work: paragraphs 9 (e) (ii), 18, and 20

      Intra and inter-programmatic linkages:

        Goal 2.1 Strategic environmental assessments are a core part of integrating biodiversity conservation considerations into national institutions and programmes

        This element of the inland waters programme of work is a further elaboration for the cross-cutting work on impact assessment being pursued by the Convention.

      Plan of Implementation of the World Summit: paragraph 37

Objectives

      (a) Undertake environmental impact assessments, in accordance with national legislation and where appropriate, for all projects with the potential to impact on the biological diversity of inland water ecosystems, ensuring that these take into account the "...inter-related socio-economic, cultural and human-health impacts, both beneficial and adverse". 5/

      (b) Conduct cultural, environmental, and socio-economic impact assessments, in accordance with national legislation and where appropriate, regarding developments proposed to take place on, or which are likely to impact on, sacred sites and on lands and waters traditionally occupied or used by indigenous and local communities, in accordance with decision VI/10.

Activities of the Parties:

        3.3.1. Taking into account decision VI/7 A of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, on guidelines for incorporating biodiversity-related issues into environmental impact assessment legislation and/or processes and in strategic environmental assessment, and decision VI/10, on Article 8 (j) and related provisions, including its annex II, containing recommendations for the conduct of cultural, environmental, and social impact assessments regarding developments proposed to take place on, or which are likely to impact on, sacred sites and on lands and waters traditionally occupied or used by indigenous and local communities:

          (a) Apply environmental impact assessments on water-development projects, aquaculture and watershed activities including agriculture, forestry and mining, and best predictions with well designed sampling schemes that can adequately distinguish the effects of anthropogenic activities from natural processes;

          (b) Apply environmental impact assessments which assess the impacts, not only of individual proposed projects, but also the cumulative effects of existing and proposed developments on the watershed, catchment or river basin; and

          (c) Incorporate, where appropriate, environmental flow assessments into impact assessment processes for any projects with the potential to have negative effects on inland water ecosystems, and also undertake baseline ecosystem assessments in the planning phase to ensure that the necessary basic data will be available to support the environmental impact assessment process and the development of effective mitigation measures if necessary.

        3.3.2. Apply the recommendations for the conduct of cultural, environmental, and social impact assessments regarding developments proposed to take place on, or which are likely to impact on, sacred sites and on lands and waters traditionally occupied or used by indigenous and local communities.

        3.3.3. For transboundary inland water ecosystems undertake, where feasible and appropriate and by agreement between the Parties concerned, collaborative impact and environmental flow assessments when applying the Convention's guidelines for incorporating biodiversity-related issues into environmental impact assessment legislation and/or processes and in strategic environmental assessment.

Supporting activities of the Executive Secretary

        3.3.4. Collaborate with the International Association for Impact Assessment (IAIA) and other relevant organizations to contribute to the implementation of decision VI/7 A on further development and refinement of the guidelines, particularly to incorporate all stages of the environmental impact assessment processes taking into account the ecosystem approach.

        3.3.5. Compile

          (a) Information on impact assessment and other methodologies that address inland water biological diversity issues in an adaptive management framework; and

          (b) Examples of the impacts of invasive alien species and of programmes used to control their introduction and mitigate negative consequences on inland water ecosystems especially at the watershed, catchment and river-basin level.

Main partners

IAIA, Ramsar Convention Bureau and STRP, IUCN, Conservation International.

The Ramsar Bureau is expected to share with the Executive Secretary of the Convention on Biological Diversity the resolutions of the eighth meeting of the Conference of the Contracting Parties to the Ramsar Convention concerning the guidelines for integrating biodiversity considerations into environmental impact assessments legislation and/or processes and in socio-economic impact assessment, annexed to decision VI/7 A.

Other collaborators

Other relevant international, regional and national organisations and interested Parties.

Goal 3.4. To introduce and maintain appropriate monitoring arrangements to detect changes in the status and trends of inland water biodiversity

Context and linkages

      Article(s) of the Convention on Biological Diversity: 7 (b)

      Strategic Plan objectives: 2.1, 3.1, 3.3 and 3.4

      Related element(s) of first programme of work: New element

      Intra and inter-programmatic linkages:

        Goal 3.2 - Indicators, national inventories, rapid and other assessments

      Plan of Implementation: paragraph 66(c)

Objective

Establish and maintain national monitoring programmes for the components of inland water biodiversity, paying particular attention to those requiring urgent conservation measures and those which offer the greatest potential for sustainable use.

Activities of the Parties

        3.4.1. Introduce appropriate monitoring regimes based on the Convention on Biological Diversity and other guidance for priority inland water biodiversity and ecosystems in the first instance, taking into account the implementation of decision VI/7 on identification, monitoring, indicators and assessments and possible adoption by the Conference of the Parties at its seventh meeting of principles for developing and implementing national-level monitoring and indicators.

Supporting activities of the Executive Secretary

        3.4.2. Develop a proposal on the establishment of monitoring programmes for inland water ecosystems taking into account existing guidance, including the Ramsar Convention guidance, relating to the establishment of monitoring programmes for wetland sites

Lead partners

Ramsar Convention Bureau and STRP

Other collaborators

Relevant international, regional and national organizations.


1 / 133 as at 14 March 2003.

2 / The project brief was distributed at the seventh meeting of SBSTTA (UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA/7/3).

3 / See decision IV/4, annex I, paragraph 15.

4 / See decision IV/4, annex I, paragraph 9 (e) (ii).

5 / Paragraph 1 (a) of the annex to decision VI/7 A.

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