Canada: Financing for Biodiversity

National strategies/plans/priorities/needs
Canadian Biodiversity Strategy: Canada’s Response to the Convention on Biological Diversity, 1995
The Biodiversity Outcomes Framework: Building on a Decade of Federal–Provincial–Territorial Cooperation 2006
Canada has approximately 3.48 million km2 of forest – representing 38% of the country’s total land area and 10% of the world’s forest cover – as well as another 409 thousand km2 of other wooded land and 85 thousand km2 of other land with tree cover. Deforestation (the conversion of forest to non-forest land uses due to human activity) resulted in the loss of about 12,100 km2 (1,210,000 hectares (ha)) of forested land between 1990 and 2012 or about 0.33% of Canada’s total forest area. An average of 485 km2 (48,500 ha) was lost annually between 2008 and 2012, compared to about 640 km2 in 1990.
As of December 2013, Canada has protected 1,036,645 km2 (10.4%) of its terrestrial area and inland water and 51,485 km2 (0.9%) of its marine area.


National biodiversity expenditure
In 2012, the Canadian Government announced new funding totaling $17.5 million over five years to protect the Great Lakes from the threat of Asian carp. Similarly, in order to help protect marine and freshwater systems against invasive species, Canada augmented its support in enforcement and monitoring of ballast water regulations and increased ballast water inspection capacity in the Arctic. The Saskatchewan government will provide up to $1.1 million over the next year as part of a partnership agreement with Alberta to help prevent the spread of the Mountain pine beetle into northern forests. Between 2005 and 2012, the federal Invasive Alien Species Partnership Program supported 170 projects totaling nearly $5.6 Million in funding to engage Canadians in actions to prevent, detect, and manage invasive alien species.
The New Brunswick Wildlife Trust Fund was established in 1997 to further wild life conservation in the province. The fund is managed by the NB Wildlife Council, a group of 17 volunteers appointed by the Minister of Natural Resources. These dedicated individuals represent a wide range of wild life interests: hunters, fishers, trappers, naturalists, environmentalists and First Nations. The main source of revenue for the fund is a conservation fee applied to all hunting, fishing and trapping licenses. Additional monies come from New Brunswickers that pay a little extra to buy specialized “conservation” license plates for their vehicles. Individuals and corporations can also donate directly. The fund contributes almost 1 million dollars per year to successful applicants for project related to fish and wildlife population and habitat enhancement, education and science. Between 1997 and 2011, the Wildlife Trust Fund supported over 1,200 conservation projects.

Official development assistance
In 2012 Canada submitted to the CBD Secretariat a report on resources mobilized by Canada for biodiversity: 2006 to 2010. The document provided an estimate of Canadian public and private contributions to biodiversity resource mobilization, using a diverse range of publicly-available and published source data and information. The report estimated that annual Canadian public and private financial flows related to the objectives of the CBD range between $8.45 billion in fiscal year (FY) 2006-2007 to $9.48 billion in FY 2010-2011, with a five-year average of $9.17 billion. Additionally, the report estimated that Canada had provided an estimated average of $83.17 million annually from FY 2006-2007 to 2010-2011 in Official Development Assistance to support developing countries’ efforts under the CBD.
Canada assesses all of its development assistance activities for potential risks and opportunities with respect to environmental sustainability and works with its partner countries to ensure that they have the capacity to do the same. This support includes enhancing partners' abilities to manage natural resources and address issues such as desertification and climate change. Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada (DFATD) protects and enhances biodiversity through its food security programming by supporting sustainable seed banks and agricultural research.

Triangular and South-South Cooperation

Global Environment Facility

Markets and non-governmental sector
Natural Areas Conservation Program: In 2007, the Government of Canada allocated $225 million over five years for the Natural Areas Conservation Program, which has helped the Nature Conservancy of Canada, Ducks Unlimited Canada, and other non-profit non-government organizations secure and ensure the protection of ecologically significant land in southern Canada. In 2013, the federal government invested an additional $20 million in the Program. As of December, 2013, over 3,690 km2 had been conserved through the Program. Areas protected through the program appear in every province and provide habitat for at least 160 species at risk as well as many other species.
Ecological Gifts Program: The federal and some provincial governments offer tax benefits for land donations under initiatives such as the Ecological Gifts Program. The Ecological Gifts Program encourages Canadians to donate ecologically significant land for conservation. As of December 2013, over 1,050 ecological gifts valued at more than $640 million have been donated, protecting over 1,500 km2 (150,000 ha) of wildlife habitat across Canada. More than one-third of these ecological gifts contain areas designated as being of national or provincial significance, and many are home to some of Canada’s species at risk.
Habitat Stewardship Program for Species at Risk: Since its inception in 2000, the Habitat Stewardship Program for Species at Risk has supported local and community organizations in securing over 1,730 km2 (173,000 ha) of habitat. Another 2,000 to 3,000 km2 (200,000 to 300,000 ha) of habitat are afforded temporary protection under voluntary conservation agreements with landowners on an annual basis. In addition, the Aboriginal Fund for Species at Risk program helps to build capacity and protect and recover critical habitat or habitat important for species at risk on First Nations reserves or on lands and waters traditionally used by Aboriginal peoples. Ontario’s Species at Risk Stewardship Fund supports Ontario’s efforts under the Ontario Endangered Species Act to protect and recover listed species and their habitats. The fund is available to individuals and groups, including landowners and farmers, Aboriginal communities, academic institutions, industries, municipalities and conservation organizations. In 2013/14, $5 million in funding was provided for 75 new projects and 32 multi-year projects. Since its inception, the project has helped restore more than 240 km2 (24,000 ha) of important habitat and more than 200 different species at risk, while also supporting 2,100 jobs and an estimated 256,600 hours of volunteer work in Ontario communities.
Reverse auction: In Saskatchewan, Ducks Unlimited Canada has led an innovative “reverse auction” to pay landowners for restoring wetlands in their fields and pastures, as a mechanism to restore 560 km2 (56,000 ha) of wetlands over 20 years.
The Canadian Boreal Forest Agreement (CBFA): is a private agreement, signed in May 2010, which currently includes 19 forest companies, who are members of the Forest Products Association of Canada, and 7 environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs). It seeks to develop a new model of collaboration among these parties to enable a stronger, more competitive forest industry as well as a better protected, more sustainably managed boreal forest.
National Environmental Farm Plan (EFP) Initiative: In April 2003, Canada launched a National Environmental Farm Plan (EFP) Initiative, which includes a set of nationally consistent principles and program elements for EFP programs across the country. An EFP is a voluntarily prepared, formal written assessment of environmental issues or risks on a farm such as soil erosion, potential sources of water contamination or pesticide drift. An EFP contains an action plan detailing the beneficial management practices (BMP) that should be put in place to mitigate or eliminate those risks. These potential on-farm agri-environmental risks and practices are identified by the farmer in consultation with agrologists, EFP facilitators/coordinators, and supporting materials (e.g., EFP workbooks and reference manuals). In 2011, 35% of Canadian farms had a formal Environmental Farm Plans (compared to 27% in 2006), while 2% indicated they were in the process of developing their EFP (Figure 33). Of the farms with an EFP, the majority (95%) had either fully or partially implemented the practices recommended in their EFP.
Species at Risk Farm Incentive Program (SARFIP). Funded by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and the Government of Canada, and administered by the Ontario Soil and Crop Improvement Association, SARFIP provides cost-share funding for best management practices that promote the protection of species at risk and habitats on privately-owned Ontario farms. While encouraging land owners to protect species, it also recognizes the need for sustainable production and profitability. Eligible activities include controlling the spread of invasive plants, protecting or restoring habitats for at-risk species, managing erosion damage along riverbanks, and improving pest management.
The Canadian Business and Biodiversity Council (CBBC): is an initiative involving business, government, non-government organizations and academia arising from recommendations by industry and government leaders. Operational support for the initiative comes primarily from Canadian businesses. The role of the CBBC is to assist Canadian businesses in conserving biodiversity and maintaining ecosystem services in Canada and globally, by encouraging good environmental stewardship practices based on sound science, by sharing best practices and lessons learned, and by showcasing successful results.
Through its Towards Sustainable Mining Initiative, Mining Association of Canada members are required to publicly report annually on their environmental performance at the facility level (for Canadian operations), using specific indicators related to tailings management and biodiversity conservation management. ATCO Electric was one of the first utilities in Canada to formalize an avian protection initiative. In 2012, the company retrofitted existing power line structures in south-eastern Alberta to reduce the number of bird electrocutions. In 2011, FortisBC partnered with Columbia Power Corporation to expand the geographic scope of Umatilla dace research that BC Hydro initiated in the Columbia watershed. In 2011, Nova Scotia Power and the provincial Department of Natural Resources signed a collaborative agreement to monitor 10 lakes identified as critical habitat for the Atlantic Coastal Plain Flora, a group of 90 species of taxonomically unrelated wetland plants that inhabit lake and river shores, bogs, fens, and estuaries. Syngenta Crop Protection Canada, Inc. and the Fondation de la faune du Québec are partners in the Operation Pollinator program. The Canadian Sphagnum Peat Moss Association, through Scientific Certification Systems (SCS) of California, has developed a third party certification program of its peatland management practices.

Economic considerations
Canada continues to operate the Environmental Valuation Reference Inventory (EVRI), the largest and most globally-oriented information system of environmental valuation studies. Over 1,400 studies have been added to the database since 2010, bringing the total number of records to over 3,600, many of which are directly related to biodiversity.
The collapse of the cod fishery in Newfoundland in the 1990s resulted in the loss of tens of thousands of jobs and the costs of income assistance and retraining reached an estimated $2 billion.
A study of the ecosystems neighboring Vancouver, a city with a population of 2.5 million, estimated the non-market value of ecosystems to provide services such as climate regulation ($1.7 billion), water supply ($1.6 billion), flood regulation ($1.2 billion), clean air ($409 million), waste treatment ($48 million), pollination ($248 million), salmon habitat ($1.3 million), recreation and tourism ($119 million), and local food production ($24 million) (Wilson, 2010). When estimates were summed over the study area (13 600 km2) the authors calculated the total non-market value of selected ecosystem services as $5.4 billion per year (all values in CDN 2005 dollars). The analysis used primarily cost-based methods and the authors note that these estimates are preliminarily and likely conservative (Wilson, 2010).
Another report assessed services provided by ecosystems of the Greater Golden Horseshoe region of southern Ontario, an area of rapid urban expansion and home to about 25% of Canada’s population (Wilson, 2013). The study focused on selected ecosystem services benefits from natural capital in 940 km2 of rural and agricultural lands designated for development. Estimates were provided for annual non-market values for a selection of ecosystem services generated by wetlands ($39.1 million), forests ($28.6 million), croplands ($28 million), and idle land ($20.5 million), among others. The summed estimate for the study area was $122.3 million per year (all values in CDN 2013 dollars).
Ecosystem services assessments have been carried out by governments in Canada in support of regulatory process, environmental assessment, policy development, and management strategies. For example, the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment developed a guidance document in 2010 to help jurisdictions integrate water valuation information into decision-making for water management issues. The Province of Alberta undertook a pilot project (2010-2011) to improve methods for interdisciplinary ecosystem services assessment through which they demonstrated the use of an ecosystem services approach to support wetland management and decision-making; provided information to support potential compensation decisions related to development; and identified information and capacity gaps for future ecosystem services assessment. In 2013 the federal government used a values transfer approach to estimate an economic value for species preservation in the Regulatory Impact Analysis Statement for the greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a nationally-listed species at risk. In another case, the Province of Prince Edward Island partnered with four non-government organizations and businesses for a pilot study aimed at reducing agriculture-related erosion, improving water quality, improving/increasing wildlife habitat, and reducing impacts of climate change. Ultimately the pilot resulted in a voluntary “payment for ecosystem services” (PES) program to support best practices (Lantz et al., 2009). The Alternative Land Use Services PES program has been measurably successful in meeting its objectives, leading to its extended renewal from 2013 through 2018 (PEI, 2013).
The Measuring Ecosystem Goods and Services (MEGS) initiative among seven federal government departments and agencies between 2011 and 2013 was designed to develop statistical capacity to measure, map, and value natural capital and ecosystem services in support of national-scale accounting as well as regulatory analysis (Statistics Canada, 2013). Key outcomes include development of the MEGS geodatabase, and a land cover analysis showing a decrease in deciduous and mixed forest cover of 4% between 2001 and 2011 across Canada and significant conversion of prime agricultural land and natural areas to built settlement. A case study in the 22.3 km2 Thousand Islands National Park identified pressures on the ecosystem due to human activity, habitat fragmentation and loss, introduction of exotic species, and pollution. The case study also estimated monetary values for ecosystem services7 flows in the park, at between $12.5- $14.7 million (CDN 2012 dollars) using two different approaches to transfer values from existing studies of other locations (value transfer method) (Statistics Canada, 2013).
In 2013 Statistics Canada adopted an environmental statistics framework based on the concept of natural capital. Statistics Canada currently measures selected stocks and flows related to natural capital in physical terms and, where feasible and appropriate, in monetary terms. They maintain a set of extensive, geo-referenced, national-scale databases on land cover and land use, fresh water resources, timber, and agriculture. These databases make it possible to measure and produce map layers of individual elements of Canada’s natural capital. This work is ongoing and is already being published in sources such as the Human Activity and the Environment and Envirostats reports. Additional progress on ecosystem services data will focus on freshwater, building on existing national data on the renewal of freshwater.
Statistics Canada has been working with partner departments to implement its new Framework for Environmental Statistics. This includes working towards implementing the United Nations recommendations on Environmental – Economic Accounting (UN SEEA Central Framework), and working with the federal policy departments and the international community to develop guidelines and data for ecosystem accounts (UN SEEA EEA). As a result, new data series have been made available recently. For example, data on land cover, biomass, wetland extent, natural land parcel size and ecosystem goods and services valuation are now available.

Putting a Value on the Ecosystem Services Provided by Forests in Canada: Case Studies on Natural Capital and Conservation. March 21, 2017, Prepared by TD Bank Group & the Nature Conservancy of Canada. The case study properties provide services valued at between $5,800 to $46,000 per hectare, per year in natural capital benefits, with an average benefit of $26,382 per hectare per year. The specific valuation depends on the type of forest and where it is located. For example, the ecological services of the maple-dominated forests of NCC’s Kenauk property in the Great Lakes–St. Lawrence forest region of Quebec is valued at approximately $20,000 per hectare per year. The lowland boreal forests in eastern Manitoba on the Kurian property have an annual value of $26,800 per hectare, and demonstrate the importance of peatlands in storing and holding carbon. The big trees of the Gullchucks Estuary property in BC’s coastal forest region provide over $33,000 per hectare of ecological services each year.
River piracy and drainage basin reorganization led by climate-driven glacier retreat, by Daniel H. Shugar et al. Nature Geoscience, published online: 17 April 2017, DOI: 10.1038/NGEO2932. Between 1956 and 2007, the Kaskawulsh glacier retreated by 600-700m. In 2016, there was a sudden acceleration of the retreat, and the pulse of meltwater led to a new channel being carved through a large ice field. The new channel was able to deliver water to the Alsek’s tributary whose steeper gradient resulted in the Slims headwater being suddenly rerouted along a new southwards trajectory. For hundreds of years, the Slims carried meltwater northwards from the vast Kaskawulsh glacier in Canada’s Yukon territory into the Kluane river, then into the Yukon river towards the Bering Sea. But in spring 2016, a period of intense melting of the glacier meant the drainage gradient was tipped in favour of a second river, redirecting the meltwater to the Gulf of Alaska, thousands of miles from its original destination.
Climate assistance
Canadians made an estimated $41.3 billion in nature-related expenditures. Within that total, $40.4 billion dollars was spent in Canada engaging in nature-related activities. Expenditures included transportation (e.g., gasoline, plane, or bus tickets); accommodations (e.g., hotels); food; and equipment, fees, and supplies (e.g., camping or hiking gear, entry fees, boats) as well as investments in maintaining land at least partly for conservation purposes. A further $874 million was contributed by Canadian individuals for donations or memberships to nature or conservation groups. Of all nature-related expenses, Canadians overwhelmingly spent money on non-motorized, non-consumptive nature-based recreation activities—totaling slightly less than $14.5 billion, or roughly 36% of all reported nature-related expenditures. Expenses on motorized recreation (snowmobiles, ATVs or motorboats) totalled approximately $6.1 billion (15% of all expenses); nature-based leisure accounted for $6.2 billion (15%); non-commercial fishing $2.2 billion (5%); and non-commercial hunting and trapping $1.8 billion (5%). Birding accounts for $537 million, or 1% of all expenditures.
FAO: National Forest Funds (NFFs) (2013): Towards a solid architecture and good financial governance. Forestry Financing Working Paper 16. Forest Resource Improvement Association of Alberta, Forest Renewal BC (British Columbia)
Human Activity and the Environment: Measuring ecosystem goods and services in Canada 2013
Sovereign funds: Alberta Heritage Savings Trust Fund (2013)
Rio marker (bio) 2002-2012
Climate Finance Regional Briefing: Latin America and the Caribbean
Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: GHG Emission Reduction Trading (GERT) scheme, Pilot Emission Reduction Trading (PERT) scheme - trading air pollutants, e.g. NOx, volatile organic compounds, SO 2, CO2, KEFI-exchange - carbon credit trading; Case studies for landscape beauty markets: Parks Canada increasing self-financing - access rights
Experiences from Canada in Tracking and Reporting on CBD-related Resource Mobilization: public budgets of three-level governments, business expenditure and user fees, by Scott Wilson
Canada submission on funding needs
Financing Canada's protected areas by Scott Wilson: $600 million annual budget and $118 million in revenues for Canada’s National Parks and Historic Sites. Province of Ontario moves from government funding towards a user-funded protected area system system - $69 million per year or 86% of total budget is now recovered through user fees and other revenue streams.
Financial Mechanisms for Canadian Biodiversity
Canada submission on resources mobilization. Counting private sector spending in million of dollars: 1,013 (2006), 914 (2007), 810 (2008), 737 (2009), 678 (2010). Counting contributions of non-governmental organizations in millions of CAN$ (current prices): 402 (2006), 405 (2007), 563 (2008), 549 (2009), 480 (2010). Federal, provincial and local biodiversity expenditure estimates in million Canadian dollars: 6,987 (2006), 7,823 (2007), 7,952 (2008), 7,959 (2009), 8,185 (2010)
OECD: Canada 2012 review: CIDA, DFAIT, the Department of Finance, IDRC and Citizenship and Immigration Canada
Organic agriculture and the law – Canada (2012)
Sectoral integration: fisheries, forest products, mining and prospecting, energy, tourism, agriculture and agri-foods, human health
Information on the Existing Resources Mobilized by Canada for Biodiversity: 2006 to 2010
OECD: Application of Environmental Damage Assessment and Resource Valuation Processes In Atlantic Canada, February 2012. The Environmental Damages Fund (EDF) is a special holding or trust account of Environment Canada (monitored by the Treasury Board of Canada) for managing monies collected via court orders, awards, out-of-court settlements, and other legal judgements. The Fund is used to channel resources in support of remediation and restoration activities identified through the EDA process (and often stipulated in the negotiated compensation agreement or court decision).
Canada submission on resource mobilization indicators
Canada submission on four-year framework of programme priorities for GEF-6
Canada submission on funding needs
Canadian submission on innovative financial mechanisms
Fish habitat banks, wetland compensation, Status 2011
The Marine Economy & the Regional District of Mt. Waddington in BC, March 2011
Conversion to Native Grasslands Offset Project Protocol Framework, March 2011
Environmental Protection Expenditures in the Business Sector (2010): Businesses operating in Canada spent $9.5 billion in 2010 to protect the environment, up 9%from 2008, and the largest share of these expenditures was spent to deal with pollutants. The oil and gas extraction industry spent more on environmental protection than any other industry surveyed, followed by the electric power generation, transmission and distribution industry, accounting for 42% and 12% of the total for 2010 respectively. Of the $4.2 billion in capital expenditures made for environmental protection, the majority was for pollution abatement and control (35%) followed by pollution prevention (26%). Wildlife and habitat protection was $178.8 million in 2010 while $90.3 in 2008. Operating expenditures for environmental protection totaled $5.3 billion in 2010, up 8% from 2008. The majority of these expenditures were directed towards waste management and sewerage services ($1.6 billion) followed by pollution abatement and control processes ($1.2 billion). The oil and gas extraction industry had the highest operating expenditures for environmental protection in 2010, reporting over half a billion in expenditures each for site reclamation and decommissioning and for pollution prevention processes. Wildlife and habitat protection was $50 million in 2010 while $51.8 million in 2008.
Wetland restoration for carbon sequestration in Prairie Canada (2010)
Just Us, Coffee Roasters, Nova Scotia and Mexico Fair Trade Cooperative (2010)
Natural Capital Valuation in the Credit River Watershed, Ontario, 2010
Valuation of Ecological Goods and Services in Canada’s Natural Resources Sectors, November 2010
Cree IIyiyiu Anti diabetic Plant medicines, 2010
Global Institutional Philanthropy:Philanthropic Foundations Canada, Community Foundations of Canada, Garfield Weston Foundation, Vancouver Foundation, J.W.McConnell Family Foundation, Winnipeg Foundation (2010)
National reports: Conservation Agreements, Alberta’s Land-Use Framework and Land Stewardship Act.
Land Trusts Easements and Covenants: the Lands and Legacies Conservation Partnership between the Nova Scotia government and the Nova Scotia Nature Trust for the acquisition of lands contributing to representation targets for the provincial protected area network; Manitoba Habitat Heritage Corporation and Ducks Unlimited Canada’s Riparian Conservation Agreement Initiative and Conservation Agreements Program facilitating long-term agreements for wetland protection; the Southern Alberta Land Trust Society that works with landowners to protect the land base and agricultural livelihoods associated with cattle ranching from development pressures and to facilitate intergenerational transfer; and, the Edmonton and Area Land Trust, which was created to support natural area conservation within the city and surrounding municipalities. It is estimated that Canadian Land Trusts have 1.3 million hectares of Canada’s natural heritage land under permanent protection across the country with 25 000 active volunteers; the number of land trusts in Canada roughly doubled from 1995 to 2005.
How Canadians Value Nature: A Strategic and Conceptual Review of Literature and Research (June 2009).
Fourth national report (2009): Value of Ecosystem Services in Canada
Counting canada’s natural capital: assessing the real value of canada’s boreal ecosystems, 2009. This updated report shows major changes that increase the original ecological services product (ESP) to gross domestic product (GDP) value ratio from 2.5 to 13.8. The changes in nonmarket ecological service values jumped from $93.2 billion to $703 billion, primarily due to the revaluation of stored carbon in forests and wetlands, which is now $582 billion (based on an amortized annuity calculation of stored carbon) versus our original net carbon sequestration value of $1.85 billion in the 2005 report. All other ecosystem service values remain the same as those reported in 2005.
Fourth national report (2009): Forest certification
Fourth national report (2009): Institutional Mapping
Environmental Damages Fund: Canada’s Wild Animal and Plant Protection and Regulation of International and Interprovincial Trade Act.
Suncor: commitment to issuing an annual, externally audited Report on Sustainability. The compliance costs with the Kyoto Protocol were estimated to come to between $0.20 and $0.27 per barrel of oil. 2007
WWF and Lafarge partnership on biodiversity (2007): the aim of which is to improve its environmental performance and contribute to raising standards in industry. In 2005, this partnership was renewed for a further three years. The first phase of the partnership included commitments and joint work in the following areas to: Reinforce the environmental policy of Lafarge, by implementing and monitoring annually performance indicators and targets (environmental audits, reduction of fossil fuel consumption, waste recovery, emissions control, etc), Combat the greenhouse effect by curtailing emissions of CO2, Develop a strategy for the ecological rehabilitation of quarries, Heighten awareness amongst the widest possible audience on the importance of environmental preservation through local partnerships such as in Kenya, Austria, France and China.
Creating markets for environmental goods and services from private land (2007)
Caring Canadians, Involved Canadians: Highlights from the 2007 Canada Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating (2007)
Thinking Globally? Canadian Foundations and Trends in International Philanthropy (2007)
Financial Mechanisms for Canadian Biodiversity, National Submission (UNEP/CBD/WG-RI/2/INF/8, 16 April 2007). Government Funded Biodiversity Education, Biodiversity Fundraising, Land Trusts and Stewardship Programs, Conservation Easements and Tax Incentives
Natural Values: Linking the Environment to the Economy, September 2007
OECD: Subsidy Reform and Sustainable Development: Economic, Environmental and Social Aspects - Subsidies and the 2003 Cod Fishery Closure in Canada. OECD Sustainable Development Studies. Canada's response to closures of 3 Atlantic cod stocks in 1992/93 through Licence Retirement Programs (LRPs) for government financial transfers. Its response to the 2003 closure of the same cod stocks did not include a LRP. Instead, the Government introduced a two year response program including a CAD 44 million community-based economic development assistance program to provide assistance for short-term job creation. Removing licences does nothing if the underlying reasons for the overcapacity remain. A LRP was not the appropriate policy response to the 2003 closure of the 3 cod stocks. Economic diversification assistance and a transition income grant were better able to realize economic and social adjustment.
Concepts, sources and methods of the Canadian system of Environmental and Resource Accounts (2006), by Statistics Canada
Concepts, Sources and Methods of the Canadian System of Environmental and Resource Accounts, 2006
Third national report: Ecological fiscal reform (EFR)
For 2005-2006, the total budget of Biodiversity Convention Office (BCO) of Environment Canada was approximately $1.5 million
Northern Workshop on Access to Genetic Resources and Associated Traditional Knowledge and Benefit-Sharing, 2005
OECD: Environmental performance review: Canada 2004. Agri-environmental measures in Canada, ecological gifts, stumpage fees, water charges, reducing environmentally harmful subsidies in energy, agriculture and fishery sectors, environmentally related taxes on energy and transport, taxation of resource-based activities. Environment and employment, active environmental employment policies, Integrating trade and environmental policies. Environmental ODA. Certified forests, environmental certification. Pollution abatement control and environmental expenditure. Export credits and guidelines for multinational enterprises.
IUCN: Integrating Mining and Biodiversity Conservation: Tuktusiuqvialuk National Park, Tailings to Biodiversity Initiative. The lands set aside for a proposed Tuktusiuqvialuk National Park in Canada’s western High Arctic included much of the critical habitat of the endangered Peary caribou herd. Yet a mineral and energy resource assessment found a very high mineral and hydrocarbon potential in many of the areas used by the caribou. The Canadian Nature Federation approached the Mining Association of Canada (MAC) to determine whether mining companies would waive their interest in Bathurst Island in order to protect the caribou. After some discussions with its members, MAC suggested that one part of the eastern side of the island be excluded from the proposed park but agreed to support a moratorium on exploration and development throughout the area until the Peary caribou herd was no longer considered at risk of extinction. The Tailings Management Project of Iron Ore Company of Canada (IOC) demonstrates how operational risk can be converted into opportunity. IOC identified the management of mine tailings as a chance to control risk to biodiversity; improve community relations and interactions with stakeholders; uphold company standards for environmental stewardship and responsibility; ensure compliance, particularly in the event of regulatory review; and anticipate legacy issues in the event of closure.
Proceedings & Papers of the Ninth Meeting of The London Group on Environmental Accounting (2004), by Statistics Denmark
The Value of Natural Capital in Settled Areas of Canada, 2004
WWF: Debt Conversion Initiative for Sustainable Development (2003)
Final research agreement for a project on Iiyiyiu Anti-Diabetic Plant Medicines. 2003
Incentive Measures: Examples of case studies, guidelines and best practices, Submission by Canada, January 31st 2002. Capital Gains Tax Exemptions, Conservation Agreements, Ecogifts, NRTEE Ecological Fiscal Reform Program.
Lessons Learned from Environmental Accounting (2000), by IUCN - The World Conservation Union
Germplasm License Agreement for "Line Ten" between Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada (Licensor) and Company Canada Inc. (Licensee) (2000)
Material Transfer Agreement (MTA) Germplasm and Unregistered Lines between the Department of Agriculture and Agri-Foods, Canada (AAFC) and several public breeding institutions, 2000
Agreement between Montreal Botanical Garden and Private Companies, 2000
OECD: Using the Income Tax Act of Canada to Promote Biodiversity and Sensitive Lands Conservation (1998). The amendments to the Income Tax Act that were adopted by Parliament on June 22, 1996 to facilitate donation of ecologically sensitive lands and the cooperative efforts of federal, provincial and non-government partners in the North American Waterfowl Management Plan.
Environmental Accounting in Theory and Practice (1998), by Kluwer Academic
OECD: Revealing the Economic Value of Biodiversity: A New Incentive Measure to Conserve and Protect It. January 1998.
National Accounts and the Environment - Papers and Proceedings from the Fourth Meeting of the London Group (1997), by Statistics Canada
Canadian Environmental Grantmakers Network


Anielski, M. and S.J. Wilson (2005), Counting Canada’s natural capital: assessing the real value of Canada’s boreal ecosystems. Canadian Boreal initiative, Pembina institute, Canadian.
Boreal region, Canada
Forests: Boreal /coniferous Forests
  • Raw materials (Timber) in 2002 (Direct market pricing, Annual): 61.41 CAD/ha/yr (estimated based on market value of forestry-related GDP in the boreal region, service area: 241,985,000 ha)
  • Climate sequestration in 2002 (Replacement Cost, Annual): 3,227 CAD/ha/yr (Value of carbon stored based on the replecement cost of afforestation on the mariginal agricultural land, service area: 241,985,000 ha)
  • Climate sequestration in 2002 (Benefit Transfer, Annual): 7.03 CAD/ha/yr (Based on cost of replecement value through afforestation, service area: 241,985,000 ha)
  • Water (Drinking water) in 2002 (Direct market pricing, Annual): 0.076 CAD/ha/yr (Watershed service: municipal water use metres/year, service area: 241,985,000 ha)
  • Food (NTFPs, food only) in 2002 (Direct market pricing, Annual): 0.326466517 CAD/ha/yr (Underestimate. Including NTFPs- Mushrooms, barries and wild rice. service area: 241,985,000 ha)
  • BioControl (Pest control) in 2002 (Benefit Transfer, Annual): 22.31543277 CAD/ha/yr (replacement cost by pesticides, service area: 241,985,000 ha)
  • Genepool (Biodiversity protection) in 2002 (Benefit Transfer, Annual): 0.049589851 CAD/ha/yr (Socio-economic Evaluation of Woodland Caribou in Northwestern Saskatchewan - $16.81 per household per year in 2002CA$, service area: 241,985,000 ha)

Inland Wetlands: Swamps / marshes
  • Extreme events (Flood prevention) in 2002 (Benefit Transfer, Annual): 571 CAD/ha/yr (The ecosystem considered_ Boreal Mineral wetlands ( excludes peatlands). The estimated value was based on the average wetland values from the meta analysis. service area: 2,836,800 ha)
  • Genepool (Biodiversity protection) in 2002 (Benefit Transfer, Annual): 263 CAD/ha/yr (service area: 2,836,800 ha)

Inland Wetlands: Peat wetlands
  • Climate sequestration in 2002 (Benefit Transfer, Total Economic Value): 0.00005043 CAD/ha (service area: 83,199,800 ha)
  • Climate sequestration in 2002 (Benefit Transfer, Annual): 4.6 CAD/ha/yr (service area: 83,199,800 ha)
  • Extreme events (Flood prevention) in 2002 (Benefit Transfer, Annual): 926 CAD/ha/yr (service area: 83,199,800 ha)

Multiple ecosystems - Recreation in 2002 (Benefit Transfer, Annual): 18.59619398 CAD/ha/yr (service area: 241,985,000 ha)

Forests and Boreal Boreal / coniferous Forests Climate C-sequestration 2002 Benefit Transfer Total Economic Value 3402 CAD/ha Norway's carbon fee on fossil fuel emissions as proxy of social cost (Solberg 1997) 241985000 Forests and Boreal Boreal / coniferous Forests Climate C-sequestration 2002 Benefit Transfer Total Economic Value 10989 CAD/ha Estimated cost of damages due to climate change as risk to global insurance sector Re/UNEP FI 2001 241985000 Forests and Boreal Boreal / coniferous Forests Climate C-sequestration 2002 Benefit Transfer Total Economic Value 8212 CAD/ha stock value; UNEP global climate change damage estimate 2000 241985000 Forests and Boreal Boreal / coniferous Forests Climate C-sequestration 2002 Direct market pricing Annual 3.27 CAD/ha/yr Direct marketing? European Union carbon trading price 241985000 Forests and Boreal Boreal / coniferous Forests Climate C-sequestration 2002 Benefit Transfer Annual 23.96 CAD/ha/yr Mitigation and restoration cost: global cost estimate for the cost of climate change damages 241985000 Inland Wetlands Swamps / marshes Waste Water purification 2002 Benefit Transfer Annual 354.43 CAD/ha/yr original data from Schuyt and Brander (2004) 2836800 Forests and Boreal Boreal / coniferous Forests Climate C-sequestration 2002 Direct market pricing Total Economic Value 1500 CAD/ha Carbon emissions trading price $ (EU assessment value; April 4, 2005) 241985000

Proceedings & Papers of the Ninth Meeting of The London Group on Environmental Accounting, including Australia, Canada, China (Peoples Republic of), Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Republic of Moldova, South Africa, Sweden, United Kingdom, by Statistics Denmark, 2004