National financing: Africa

Algeria
2009
Making the Economic Case: A Primer on the Economic Arguments for Mainstreaming Poverty-Environment Linkages into National Development Planning. In Algeria, presentation of data on the economic costs of environmental degradation to high-level political decision-makers led to new investments of around $450 million being made in environmental protection.
Economic loss
29 billion Algerian dinars for the forestry program, the steppe ecosystem, biodiversity and management of natural resources (2005). As part of the five-year national economic and social development for 2005-2009, the budget for the protection of biodiversity, coastal and marine environment reached a total of 35.5 billion dinars.
agriculture and forestry, land planning, environment and tourism, agriculture, forests, fisheries, water, health, population and habitat, education, high training, scientific research, industry and mining, tourism
National Fund Regulatory and Development Fund (FNRDA); Fund for the fight against desertification and the development of pastoralism and steppe (FLDDPS); Fund for environmental and pollution control (FEDEP); Special Development Fund of the southern regions (FSDRS); National Fund for coastal protection and coastal areas; Special Fund for Economic Development in the highlands (FSDEHP); Rural Development Fund (FDRMVTC); National Fund for the development of fisheries and aquaculture (FNDPA); National Fund for Regional Planning and Sustainable Development (FNAT-DD)
Revenue Regulation Fund
Swap Opportunities
NBSAP1997

Angola
Indicativecosts2006
national, subregional and regional integration.
Oil Fund, National Scientific and Technological Development Fund, reforestation fund, National Solidarity and Assistance Fund
Fundo Soberano de Angola

Benin
(2014) Engagement du secteur privé. Malgré, l’émergence au Bénin depuis quelques années de plusieurs institutions (entreprises) dans le secteur privé, on observe une faible implication de ses acteurs dans les activités relatives à la conservation de la diversité biologique. Pour celles qui sont impliquées, l’intérêt est surtout porté vers la contribution à la formation de ressources humaines en conservation et en environnement au travers des universités privées. Il faut noter aussi que les exploitants forestiers s’investissent de plus en plus dans la mise en place de plantations d’espèces de reboisement à croissance rapide suite à leur sensibilisation et l’auto-prise de conscience de l’impact de leur activité sur la conservation de la diversité biologique. De plus, des efforts sont faits par les associations et comités villageois de gestion des réserves dans la conservation des ressources. L’état béninois n’étant pas en mesure de s’investir dans tous les domaines, des projets devraient être confiés à ces structures privées. Mais la plupart du temps, on observe que c’est la société civile notamment les organisations non gouvernementales (ONG) qui jouent le rôle du secteur privé dans les discussions relatives à la conservation de la diversité biologique. Cette importance donnée aux ONG a entrainé leur fleurissement ces dix dernières années. Leurs actions sont aussi bien diverses que variées. Certaines d’entre elles s’intéressent à l’écotourisme et à la sensibilisation (cas de l’ONG Eco-Bénin qui coordonne actuellement un réseau d’une dizaine de sites d’écotourisme communautaire autogérés à travers le Bénin et utilise l’écotourisme comme pilier économique du développement des communautés locales, soit dans des régions où les revenus traditionnellement liés à la pêche ou à l’agriculture sont en baisse, soit dans des localités disposant d’un patrimoine naturel et culturel menacé de disparition ou mal exploité). D’autres par contre oeuvrent pour la préservation de l’environnement et la création de réserve naturelle. Les structures telles que CREDI-ONG, BEES, ECO-ECOLO, Nature Tropicale, CEIBA mènent également des actions de création et d’accompagnement, notamment d’associations villageoises de gestion de l’environnement; D’autres encore s’investissent dans l’aménagement participatif de réserve communautaire et la protection d’espèces menacées (Nature tropicale, CerGET ONG, CRGB, etc.). Aussi, des associations locales de développement (AVPN, Jardin botanique de Papatia, de plantes et de la Nature de Porto Novo) existent et continuent à s’investir dans la conservation de la diversité biologique. Les ONG interviennent sur fonds nationaux mis en place par l’état ou les collectivités pour accompagner les actions de conservation au niveau national ou local.
Programme for South-South Cooperation between Benin, Bhutan, Costa Rica and the Kingdom of the Netherlands
National Fund for the Environment, Fond National de Lutte contre la Désertification, Fonds de Solidarité Nationale pour l’Emploi, fonds d’innovations du CBRST
En ce qui concerne la mobilisation des ressources financières, il faut dire que les partenaires techniques et financiers ont été d’un grand soutien pour le Bénin dans la mesure où presqu’aucun des projets n’a été financé à 100% par le budget national. La conservation de la biodiversité n’est pas une activité économique rentable qui peut s’auto financer au Bénin. Les ressources publiques nationales n’arrivent pas à couvrir toutes les charges de gestion. Les parcs génèrent des recettes propres, mais insuffisantes d’où la nécessité de procéder au financement à long terme des Parcs Nationaux du Bénin. Dans ce cadre un nouveau Projet d’Appui à la Gestion des Aires Protégées (PAGAP) à vue le jour depuis Février 2012. D'un coût total d'environ 3 milliards 285 millions de francs CFA (environ 6,57 millions de dollars américains), conjointement financé par la Banque mondiale, le Fonds mondial pour l'Environnement (FEM) et la Coopération financière Allemande (KFW), ce projet étudiera également pendant son exécution les possibilités d'extension du réseau des aires protégées, notamment au centre et au sud du pays, et préparera la mise en place d'un mécanisme financier pour la prise en charge durable des coûts récurrents de la gestion des réserves de faune.
En somme, le Ministère en charge des finances, dans l’élaboration des SCRP, prend en compte les dimensions du développement durable. Cette prise en compte des piliers du développement durable dans les documents stratégiques élaborés par le Ministère des Finances facilite l’intégration des préoccupations et le financement des activités orientées vers le développement durable et développées par les différents ministères sectoriels. Au Bénin, la notion d’économie verte n’est pas encore suffisamment intégrée dans les politiques de développement durable, malgré le fait qu’il est de plus en plus confirmé que l’environnement est l’une des composantes clés de la croissance économique en faveur des pauvres. Les ressources écologiques doivent être considérées comme un capital naturel productif. Leur transformation doit se baser sur des options d’investissements visant à pérenniser ce capital naturel et son utilisation à d’autres fins. En réalité, les décideurs politiques n’ont pas encore convenu jusque-là de l’organisation d’un forum sur ce concept émergent, même s’il a été abordé la notion du verdissement dans la SCRP III. D’ailleurs, aucune étude n’a encore été réalisée sur les facteurs de succès, les défis et les risques associés à l’économie verte sur le plan national. Toutefois, la mise en oeuvre des composantes relatives à la reforme et à l’aménagement des écosystèmes forestiers et la Stratégie nationale de mise en place de marchés ruraux de boisénergie au Bénin adoptée en 2009 a constitué une des principales nouveautés dans l’approche de gestion participative des massifs forestiers et la création de revenus au niveau local pour la réduction de la pauvreté au Bénin qui justifie déjà des prémices de l’économie verte.
public health sector; energy, mining and water sector; land planning and local communities; handicrafts and tourism sector; agriculture, livestocks and fisheries sector; high education and scientific research
2002
Costs2002

Botswana
2017
World Bank: The Global Partnership on Wealth Accounting and the Valuation of Ecosystem Services. Even though per-person water use decreased by 12% between 1990 and 2011, a growing population means that overall water use increased by 28%. Most of the water used is groundwater, which may not be sustainable if it is not allowed to replenish. Agriculture and livestock are important for livelihoods. However, they use more than 40% of the available water and contribute less than 3% to GDP, and little to formal employment. Services is the most successful sector in terms of water productivity: it contributes almost 50% of GDP, uses only 5% of water, and provides the most formal employment.
2009
UNDP and UNEP: Making the Economic Case: A Primer on the Economic Arguments for Mainstreaming Poverty-Environment Linkages into National Development Planning. In the Chobe region of Botswana, the poor were found to depend on wild products from common property lands for half their income, as compared to less than a fifth for richer households.
OECD: Natural Resources and Pro-Poor Growth, The Economics and Politics, DAC Guidelines and Reference Series, A Good Practice Paper. Minerals provide significant revenues to countries. More than half of Botswana’s fiscal revenues are derived from mining.
The commercialisation of the Devil’s Claw
NBSAP2004, 2007
2004
level of integration of biodiversity into sectoral and cross-sectoral strategies and plans
Management of forest reserves
Tropical Forest Conservation Fund (TFCF), national environmental fund
Ecosystem accounts and the link to BIOFIN in Botswana, by Dineo D. Gaborekwe, Ministry of Environment, Wildlife and Tourism
Economic Valuation
Ecosystem valuation in Kgalagadi
Economic Valuation of Communal Rangelands in Botswana: a Case Study
The Real Jewels of the Kalahari: Drylands Ecosystem Goods and Services in Kgalagadi South District, Botswana
Alternative Measures of the Value of Resource Rent and Natural Capital in Constant Prices (2006), by The Earth Institute at Columbia University
Environmental Accounting in Action: Case Studies from Southern Africa (2003), by Edward Elgar Publishing
Using Environmental Accounts to Promote Sustainable Development: Experience in Southern Africa (2003), by Blackwell Synergy
Debt swap
The Pula Fund

Burkina Faso
2014
Stories of Change from Africa: Joint UNDP-UNEP Poverty-Environment Initiative. In Burkina Faso, natural resources contribute to 30.9 % of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), fuelling key strategic sectors such as mining and agriculture. The Public Investment Plan has set an annual investment target of 4 % (about US$128 million) of the national budget for pro-poor environmentally sustainable investments, as opposed to the current 0.5–0.8 %. Environmental degradation costs the government 18-22% of annual GDP.
National Environmental Fund, fonds d'aménagement forestier pour les aménagements, fonds de l'énergie
Remittance Markets
Economic Benefits
Costs of Environmental Degradation
Economic Valuation of Natural Resources
Wetland valuation changes development policy perspectives in Burkina Faso
Wetland valuation changes policy perspectives, Burkina Faso
Fonds forestier
programs and projects in sectors other than environment; civil society and private organizations such as associations and producer groups in subsectors forests, wildlife and fisheries, private operators in sub-sector forest, wildlife and fishing, operators of subsector improvement of life, environmental associations and NGOs; media
Summary of expenditures (in millions of F CFA): 3,338.97 (1992), 4,978.95 (1993), 6,487.02 (1994), 5,130.22 (1995), 4,677.98 (1996)
Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: Sustainable Energy Project
NBSAP1999

Burundi
(2014) l’adoption du système de paiement des services des écosystèmes en faisant prévaloir le rôle prépondérant joué par les écosystèmes naturels dans l’économie nationale et locale du pays à travers la fourniture de divers services. Il est donc nécessaire d’imaginer un processus pour rémunérer ces différents services de manière à garantir la pérennité des écosystèmes et donc la durabilité des activités économiques en résultant. Il s’agit de créer les conditions d’une meilleure valorisation économique des services des aires protégées. Ce cas peut concerner le secteur de l’agriculture qui bénéficie du support des écosystèmes forestiers en terme de micro-climat, d’apport hydrique (bassin versant), de brume et d’eau de source qui favorisent une production quasi permanente en toutes saisons. Des paiements de ces services écologiques devront être faits par l’office du Thé du Burundi (OTB) dont les services écologiques du Parc National de la Kibira permettent la production du thé en zones riveraines et la Société Sucrière de Mosso (SOSUMO) dont la production du sucre est intimement liée aux fonctions hydriques des marais de la Réserve Naturelle de la Malagarazi. Le secteur de l’énergie garde une importante centrale d’énergie hydro-électrique localisée dans le Parc National de la Kibira qui lui fournit l’eau nécessaire pour faire tourner ses turbines. A ce niveau, le paiement de ces services écologiques peut se faire sur la production du courant électrique et les adductions de l’eau potable dans les zones urbaines par la Régie de Distribution d’Eau et d’Electricité (REGIDESO). De même, l’hôtellerie qui se développe dans les aires protégées et en milieu riverain peut générer des redevances liées à la qualité des attraits touristiques de ces espaces en défens. Il faut ainsi prélever des taxes sur ces recettes.
L’opérationnalisation au Burundi du mécanisme REDD + et MDP nouvelles sources de ressources financières non négligeables pour la conservation de la biodiversité, la gestion durable des forêts et l’amélioration des stocks de carbone terrestres. Le mécanisme de développement propre (Clean Development Mechanism-CDM) est déjà opérationnel et pourra, dans un proche avenir aboutir au financement des projets déjà approuvés au niveau national. Quant au mécanisme REDD+, le Burundi est en phase préparatoire de production du Readness Prepartion Proposal (R-PP) et de mise en place du système national de Mesurage, Notification et Verification (MNV).
(2011) Watershed Approach to Sustainable Coffee Production in Burundi (GEF 2011)
Fonds National d’Adaptation
Plan Stratégique d’Investissement et de Mobilisation des Ressources Financières dans le domaine de la Biodiversité 2013-2020
Reports
Mécanisme de compensation de la biodiversité : c’est un autre mécanisme de financement de la compensation de la biodiversité sur une base volontaire ou obligatoire permettant de faire face aux effets résiduels inévitables des projets de développement de la biodiversité qui a fait ses preuves dans de nombreux pays. Concrètement ce mécanisme serait constitué d’une sorte de taxe de dissuasion imposée aux activités de développement ayant des impacts négatifs sur la biodiversité des aires protégées. On peut distinguer des taxes prélevées sur l’exploitation des tourbes, moellons, des sables, des carrières, d’argile, etc., le transport routier sur les axes traversant les aires protégées, le transport lacustre (taxes par bateaux et ports), le transport aérien (taxes par avion et aéroports), taxes sur la construction des routes, la fabrication d’huile de palme et des savons en bordure des rivières et lacs (industries et unités artisanales), taxe sur les industries polluantes et les entreprises utilisant de grande quantité d’eau d’irrigation.
(2014) Droit sur la bioprospection : Certains pays ont récemment adopté des lois exigeant que les scientifiques et les sociétés paient le permis de « bioprospection » (collecte de plantes indigènes et leur analyse à des fins pharmaceutiques éventuelles) et paient également des redevances sur les ventes de tout produit commercial qui en résulterait. Les droits sur la bioprospection peuvent être utilisés pour contribuer au financement des coûts de gestion des aires protégées.
(2006) three cases. 1. Cinematographic exploitation of the Nile crocodile called “Gustave” with a French filming association for commercialisation on the national and international video market. Agreed benefits (40 % of the revenues accrued from the video sales) to the national partner and the Government of Burundi. 2. The cichlid fishes (200 different endemic species) are collected by paid local divers from Lake Tanganyika and later on prepared for the export to Europe and America, where they are sold as ornamental fish for aquariums and more recently as ecological, taxonomic as well as biotechnological research objects in Europe. 3. The local community of the Batwa, who live in and around the Kibira National Park, know the hiding-places of Kibira snakes and how to capture them alive without the highly venomous animals harming them. They use the snakes for traditional medicine and their skins for ornamental purposes. 10% of the generated income through the sales to zoos and museums as well as to laboratories and individuals abroad by a local environmental and herpetological association (AHEB) is shared with the Batwa.
(2009) Measures. Burundi benefits from scientific research results of other Contracting Parties, and has initiated cooperation between the Tervuren Museum in Belgium and INECN on non-insect invertebrates. Moreover Burundi receives banana cultivars from the University of Leuven (KUL) through IRAZ. The INECN also signed a memorandum of understanding with the International Centre for Ecology and Physiology of Insects (PKI) based in Nairobi, Kenya, for the sharing of benefits arising from research and development through this collaboration INECN-ICP-ISABU.
(2014) Allocations from the budget to the Ministry in charge of Agriculture and Livestock has gradually increased to above 10% of the annual state budget
agriculture, education, mining, health, forest, finance, trade and industry
Allocations to environment USD1,807,500(2006), USD2,001,667(2007), USD3,343,333(2008), USD6,416,667(2009)
Swap Opportunities
NBSAP2000
Biodiversity investment and financial resource mobilization strategic plan 2013-2020

Cabo Verde
environment and water resources; environment, health and basic sanitation; environment and biodiversity; environment and planning, infrastructure and civil construction; environment and education, training, information and awareness; environment and tourism; environment and agriculture, forestry and livestock; environment and fisheries; environment and industry, energy and commerce
Energy Security Fund
Remittance Markets
The Government of Cape Verde has allocated the amount of 13,937,564 American dollars in 2006, for the Protection and Conservation of the Environment Program (2007)
No1999

Cameroon
2016
World Bank: Biodiversity Offsets: A User Guide, October 2016. Case Study: Cameroon Lom Pangar Hydropower. As a biodiversity offset for the Lom Pangar Dam, an area comprising 58,000 ha of the Deng Deng forest was gazetted as a National Park in March 2010. In terms of area, this was a 1-to-1 offset for the 54,000 ha of inundated land and the 4,000 ha footprint of associated Project infrastructure. During Project preparation, it was estimated that EDC would collect about US$29 million annually in water use tariffs from the two existing hydro¬electric plants downstream of the Project. This was estimated to be more than sufficient to pay for the annual operating and maintenance costs of the Lom Pangar Dam, including the contin¬ued protection and management of the Deng Deng National Park as well as the other recur¬rent costs of Project environmental mitigation. Under the financing agreement with the World Bank, the Government is expected to either (i) adopt a water tariff structure which will pay for the recurrent costs of the Deng Deng National Park or (ii) provide an alternative financing mechanism to the satisfaction of the Bank. Until such a financing mechanism is in place, funding from the French Development Agency (AFD) loan for the Lom Pangar Project are being used to cover Park operating costs.
Fifth national report. La stratégie Nationale pour le REDD+. De 2010 à 2013, l’Etat a récolté plus de 540 millions de F CFA au titre de la taxe de régénération pour une moyenne annuelle de l’ordre de 135 millions de F CFA selon des données de la Sous-Direction des Agréments, MINFOF en 2013. Les revenus de la sylviculture et de l’exploitation forestière sont pris en compte dans les comptes nationaux : 539.01, 478.7, 526.5 (prix courant en Milliards de FCFA) en 2008, 2009, 2010. Decree 2013/0065/PM of 13 January 2013 requires the study of environmental and social impacts and mitigating, avoiding, eliminating or compensating for adverse effects on the environment. COMIFAC: un modèle de coopération sous régionale (Sud -Sud). La COMIFACa été créée pour concrétiser les engagements souscrits en mars1999 dans la «Déclaration de Yaoundé» par les Chefs d’Etat d’Afrique Centrale sur la conservation et la gestion durable et concertée des écosystèmes forestiers de la sous-région. La COMIFAC regroupe ensonsein, dix pays membres d’Afrique Centrale dont le Cameroun. La COMIFACest chargéede l’orientation, de l’harmonisation et du suivides politiques forestières et environnementales en Afrique Centrale.
Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: The African International Cooperative Biodiversity Group (ICBG) - biodiversity access rights; Access rights for bioprospecting
integrating into other strategies and programmes
The Forestry Taxation System and the Involvement of Local Communities in Forest Management in Cameroon
Structural Adjustment and Sustainable Development in Cameroon: A WWF Study
2009
Incentive Measures for Sustainable Use and Conservation of Agrobiodiversity: Experiences and Lessons from Southern Africa – Commercialization as an incentive and threat for Gnetum Spp. (Eru) in Cameroon
Making the Economic Case: A Primer on the Economic Arguments for Mainstreaming Poverty-Environment Linkages into National Development Planning. In Cameroon, forests make up from just under 30 percent to more than 40 percent of national exports. A quarter of Cameroon’s taxes come from timber. The economic value of floodplain restoration in the Waza Logone floodplain and return on investment can be significant. Adding just under $2.5 million a year to the regional economy—or $3,000 per square kilometre of flooded area—the benefits of reinundation will have equaled initial investment costs in less than five years. Investment in flood restoration measures shows an economic net present value of $7.76 million and a benefit-cost ratio of 6.5:1. Ecological and hydrological restoration will also have significant impacts on local poverty alleviation, food security and economic well-being.
Cameroon Foundation Tri-Nationale de la Sangha
Special Forestry Development and Wildlife Fund, Cameroon Mountain Conservation Foundation (CAMCOF), Foundation for Environment and Development in Cameroon (FEDEC)
2000
National Environment Foundation
Fonds Spécial de Développement Forestier
Cane Rat Domestication Programme
The Green Sahel Reforestation Programme
Waza Logone Floodplain, Cameroon: economic benefits of wetland restoration
Total public spending (2000-2001 and 2001-2002) of $US48,220,000 on biodiversity within annual budget for Ministry of the Environment and Forestry (MINEF), Ministry of Agriculture (MINAGRI) and Ministry of Fisheries and Animal Industries (MINEPIA)
Bio-prospection
An International Cooperative Bioprospecting Effort and the Evolution of Legislation
Ancistrocladus korupensis: A Species with Pharmaceutical Potential from Cameroon
Sustainable Harvesting of Prunus africana on Mount Cameroon: Benefit-Sharing between Plantecam Company and the Village of Mapanja; Prunus africana as a genetic resource
1999
NBSAP1999

Central African Republic
2009
OECD: Natural Resources and Pro-Poor Growth, The Economics and Politics, DAC Guidelines and Reference Series, A Good Practice Paper. In the Central African Republic, forests make up from just under 30 percent to more than 40 percent of national exports.
2000, 2010
Ministry of Planning, Economy and International Cooperation, Ministry of Communication, Citizenship, National Reconciliation and Dialogue Monitoring, Ministry of Justice, General Secretariat of the Government, Ministry of Public Service, Social Security and Youth Opportunities, Ministry of National Security and Public Order, Ministry of Youth, Sports, Arts and Culture, Ministry for the Promotion of Small and Medium Enterprises, Informal Sector and the Single Window, nongovernmental organizations and civil society, such as Council Inter NGO Central (CIONGCA), unions and associations of human rights
Compte d’Affectation Spécial (CAS), Forestry Development and Tourism Trust Fund, Tri-National Foundation
Trust Fund for Dzanga-Sangha Reserve
Swap Opportunities
NBSAP2000

Chad
Le tarif des permis de pêche sont revus à la hausse. La Loi 14/PR/PM du 10 juin 2008 en son article 230 interdisant la pêche sans permis ; article 240 interdisant la pêche à la palangre et l’usage des filets prohibés ; article 241 interdisant l’usage des explosifs, armes à feu, substances toxiques, poisons d’origine industrielle ou végétale, ou procédés d’électrocution destinés à étourdir, endormir, affaiblir, blesser ou tuer les ressources halieutiques.
Au Tchad il existe un fonds spécial en faveur de l’environnement. Ce fonds est mis sur pied par Décret n°168/PR/PM/MERH/2012 du 24 février 2012. Ce fonds est renfloué par tout individu qui paye une taxe de circulation pour son véhicule ou sa moto. Compte tenu du nombre croissant des véhicules et motocyclettes dans le pays, cette opportunité de mobilisation des ressources financières s’avère durable pour la mise en oeuvre du Plan stratégique 2011-2020.
Fonds National de lutte contre la Désertification (FND)
(2014) Engagement du secteur privé. Malgré, l’émergence au Tchad depuis quelques années de plusieurs institutions (entreprises) dans le secteur privé, on observe une faible implication de ses acteurs dans les activités relatives à la conservation de la diversité biologique. Pour celles qui sont impliquées, l’intérêt est surtout porté sur la contribution à la formation de ressources humaines en conservation et en environnement au travers des universités et les instituts privés. Il faut noter aussi que les associations villageoises en faveur de la protection de l’environnement s’investissent de plus en plus dans les plantations d’espèces de reboisement suite à leur sensibilisation et l’auto-prise de conscience de l’impact de leur activité sur la conservation de la diversité biologique. De plus, des efforts sont faits par les associations et comités villageois de gestion des réserves dans la conservation des ressources naturelles. C’est le cas des Instances Locales d’Orientation et Décision (ILOD) dans la région du Mayo-Kebbi, les volontaires cantonaux du Moyen-Chari, les Comités villageois de Surveillance (CVS) dans la région du Ouaddaï. Selon la Constitution de 1996, révisée en en 2001, délègue une partie de ses prérogatives aux Collectivités Territoriales Décentralisées (CTD) pour la gestion de l’environnement. Il est à remarquer que le plus souvent ce sont la société civile et les organisations non gouvernementales (ONG) qui participent à la mise en oeuvre des politiques, des stratégies, des projets et programmes en matière de conservation et d’utilisation durable de la diversité biologique.
Triennial Public Investment Programme (PTIP) 2004-2006 provided 15,781.019 million CFA for agriculture, livestock, environment and water. Triennial Public Investment Programme (PTIP 2008-2010) contained FCFA 129.901000.000 for the rural sector (agriculture, livestock, environment and water)
rural development, agriculture, livestock, forestry, fishing and aquaculture, hydraulic, mining, energy, health, crafts, culture, tourism, education
Swap Opportunities
projectcosts1999

Comoros
Climate action
2009
(2014) Agriculture, forests and watersheds, fisheries, tourism, energy, water and sanitation, health and land transport, the Strategy for Growth and Poverty Reduction.
(2009) Environmental sector, agricultural sector, livestock, education, health, rural development, fishing, forestry, mining, tourism, finance, commerce, industrial sector.
Fund for environmental management
(2009) Integration of biodiversity in the financial sector
Reports
(2009) Fisheries agreement with EU and regulatory framework.
(2014) Biodiversity provides 40% to 50% of food needs and nearly 40% of animal protein in the country, contributes to 41% of the GDP, i.e., US$209 million and about 90% of export revenues.
(2001) Economic assessments of reefs
Swap Opportunities
NBSAP2000

Congo
Sangha Tri-National Foundation (TNS Foundation), fonds de développement du secteur de l’électricité
Fonds d’aménagement et des ressoures naturelles
Fund for Odzala National Park
sectoral strategies, plans and programs
Swap Opportunities
2001
projectcosting2001

Côte d'Ivoire
Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Shade cocoa in the Upper Guinean forest
Foundation for Parks and Reserves for Côte d’Ivoire, Fond National de l’Environnement, Fonds National d’Energie Electrique (FNEE), Fonds National de Gestion Intégrée des Ressources en Eau, Fonds de Développement et de Promotion des activités des Producteurs de Café et de Cacao (FDPCC); *Foundation for the Financing of Protected Areas
Côte d'Ivoire spent 6.48 billion CFA francs for the preservation of biodiversity (2009)
development of sustainable agriculture, forest management, national reforestation programme, water management, land management
Swap Opportunities
NBSAP2002

Democratic Republic of the Congo
2016
World Bank: Balancing Mining Development and Forest Conservation in the Congo Basin. Strengthening Land Use Planning in the Republic of Congo: Assessment, Proposed Roadmap, and Draft Implementation Plan. The associated infrastructure—roads, railroads, and energy supplies—needed to extract, process, and market mineral resources and agricultural production is a particular concern, because of the wider impact on communities and forested landscapes beyond individual investment sites. 2014
Promotion of payment for environmental services and augmentation of biodiversity benefits: D’ici à 2020, les écosystèmes qui fournissent des services essentiels sont sauvegardés et restaurés et des payements des services écosystémiques y sont identifiés, valorisés et partagés entre l’Etat, le secteur privé et les populations riveraines et autochtones. D’ici à 2016, les dispositions légales et réglementaires relatives à l’accès aux ressources génétiques et au partage des avantages découlant de leur utilisation sont en place et effectivement mis en oeuvre.
Accroissement des moyens affectés à la biodiversité: D’ici à 2020, la part du budget national alloué aux activités de conservation et d’utilisation durable de la biodiversité est augmentée graduellement pour atteindre 5%. D’ici à 2015, les ressources humaines, financières, techniques et technologiques sont mobilisées pour mettre en oeuvre la Stratégie et le Plan d’Action Nationaux de la Biodiversité (SPANB).
Document de la stratégie de croissance et de réduction de la pauvreté (DSRP-2), Changement climatique, Lutte contre la désertification, agriculture, transport et voies de communication, mines et hydrocarbures, energie.
Afforestation on the Batéké plateau – Ibi Batéké
Costs of protected areas in the Niger Delta – Congo Basin Forest Region
USD 20,000 national budget (2005)

(2009)agriculture and rural development, transport and communication, mines and hydrocarbons, energy, health and social protection
UNDP and UNEP: Making the Economic Case: A Primer on the Economic Arguments for Mainstreaming Poverty-Environment Linkages into National Development Planning. De Merode, E., K. Homewood, and G. Cowlishaw. 2003. “Wild Resources and Livelihoods of Poor Households in Democratic Republic of Congo.” Wildlife Policy Briefing Paper No. 1. London: Overseas Development Institute. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, wild foods comprise around one-third of household production. Wild meat, fish and plants contribute 3, 6 and 10 percent, respec¬tively, of the total value of the food consumed in the household, corresponding to 0.04, 0.06 and 0.11 kilograms per day, respectively. They also make an important contribution to household income—thus indirectly increasing food security—generating twice as much for household sales as crops.
Fonds de Reconstitution du Capital Forestier
(2002) Total cost of NBSAP was estimated at US$189 million
Swap Opportunities

Djibouti
National Environmental Fund
The budget of the Environment Directorate is 3 million FDJ (USD16,667) per year (2006)
biodiversity considerations in laws, sectoral and cross-sectoral development strategies and plans
Swap Opportunities
NBSAP2000
1998
Djibouti Biodiversity: Economic Assessment. "La Diversité Biologique de Djibouti: Analyse Economique, Bureau Nationale de la Diversité Biologique, Direction de l’Environnement, Ministère de l’Environnement, du Tourisme et de l’Artisanat.” L. Emerton. Government of Djibouti. In times of severe drought, Djibouti’s pastoral population relies on emergency foods col¬lected from woodlands. Since these food supplies can be worth up to $2 million, this makes for large tangible savings on the part of the government and donors in terms of food relief expenditures.

Egypt
2014
Ethiopian Climate Resilient Green Economy Strategy
2010
Law for the Environment
Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Strategic Environmental Assessment: Lessons from Influential Cases - West Delta Water Conservation and Irrigation Rehabilitation Project (Egypt, 2006)
Water transfer project influenced by ecosystem services valuation
Fund for financing national programme, Social Fund for Development
(2008) The Siwa Sustainable Development Initiative, led by the private sector, emphasizes employing local workers, applying traditional systems of building and environmental management and using local materials. In Siwa, EQI’s portfolio of enterprises includes three lodges, a female artisanship initiative, organic farming and production and community art projects. Today, 75 Siwans are employed full-time in EQI enterprises in Siwa, and there are typically 310 income-generating opportunities each month. The case highlights the challenges and opportunities from various programmes to alleviate poverty, improve living conditions and advance the Millennium Development Goals.
Al Fanar Foundation, Sawiris Foundation for Social development (SFSD), Mansour Foundation for Development (MFD)
Development of community-based eco-tourism
Skills for green jobs in Egypt (2010)
Swap Opportunities
Swap with Switzerland
NBSAP1998
Egypt's Submission on Resource Mobilization Strategy

Equatorial Guinea
(2014)Aim for establishment of a financial plan for the implementation of the Strategy (National target 14. by 2020, at the latest, have increased funding opportunities and mobilizing resources for the implementation of the Conservation Strategy.
1998
integration of biodiversity into sectors: civil society and gender; integration of biodiversity in budget plans; mainstreaming biodiversity in the National Strategy to Combat Poverty
Fondo Nacional para el Medio Ambiente (FONAMA), Fondo de Compensación Ambiental (FOCA)
(2005)Financing for biodiversity in petroleum sector national programme.
Fund for Future Generations

Eritrea
Climate planning
Eritrean National Desertification Fund (ENDF)
Reports
Values
(1998) Eritrea Biodiversity: Economic Assessment
Government subventions of USD 55,000 to the Department of Environment for the period 1997 – 1998
agriculture sector, marine and coastal sector, transport sector, mines sector, tourism sector, water sector, education sector, as well as macro policy, Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, National Environmental Management Plan, land tenure and land use policy, biotechnology sector, and environmental impact assessment of development
NBSAP2000

Ethiopia
2017
IIED: Reconciling forest conservation with food production in sub-Saharan Africa: case studies from Ethiopia, Ghana and Tanzania. Phil Franks and Xiaoting Hou-Jones et al, IIED Research Report, London. Forest sector’s economic potential is underestimated; Changes in institutional arrangements; Lack of political support for biodiversity conservation; Lack of information on commercial farming; Lack of funding to support policy implementation.
Land leasing agreements
(2010) Prospect of Reconciling Conservation and poverty Reduction in the forest Coffee landscapes of Ethiopia: the Role of PES

Ethiopia 2014
(2014)Ethiopian Climate Resilient Green Economy Strategy, Growth and Transformation Plan, agriculture, tourism, energy, education
(2009)relevant sectoral and cross-sectoral institutions, the processes and measures taken by stakeholders at different levels
Incentive Measures for Sustainable Use and Conservation of Agrobiodiversity: Experiences and Lessons from Southern Africa – Experiences with community seed banks in Ethiopia
National Desertification Fund
Trust Fund for the Conservation of Ethiopia’s Protected Areas
Remittance Markets
Reports
Specialty market and co-management of Bale Wild coffee
(2014)The agreement between EBI and a private USA based company on access and benefit sharing from the use of Dichrostachys cinerea, Osyris quadripartitum and Withania somnifera species for the purpose of producing essential oils, cosmetics and herbal medicine. Ethiopia earned an upfront payment and the benefits accrued from the access of the above genetic resources will be shared equitably between the company and the local communities/the government of Ethiopia. The benefits are incentives to the local communities/government to conserve and sustainably utilize biodiversity. Moreover, local companies that were using different genetic resources such as Aloe and Moringa stenopetala species for various commercial purposes came into legal agreements with EBI for the use of the genetic materials in a way that the agreements enable income generation for the companies as well as the local communities and sustainably utilize the resources base.
(2012)The Access and Benefit-Sharing Agreement on Teff Genetic Resources
(2009)The case of teff and vernoni Teff
(2006)Beneftit sharing in the teff case; Institute of Biodiversity Conservation of Ethiopia and Vernique Biotech Ltd (UK) (2014)Values of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services
(2009)The Value of the Ethiopian Protected Area System: Message to Policy Makers, by Ethiopian Wildlife Conservation Authority (EWCA)
(2011)The Economics of Managing Crop Diversity On-farm: Economic analysis of Ethiopian farmers’ preferences for crop variety attributes: A choice experiment approach; Farmers’ perceptions on replacement and loss of traditional crop varieties: Examples from Ethiopia and implications
(2014) Directly related central biodiversity expenditure in million US dollars: 2 (2006), 3 (2007), 5 (2008), 6 (2009), 10 (2010)
Federal government allocated USD 4,789,050 regular and capital budget during the period July 1994 - June 2005
Swap Opportunities
NBSAP2005

Gabon
CBSP: Sustainable Management of the Mbe River Forested Watershed through the Development of a Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) Mechanism (GEF)
Forestry Fund
(2000) Fund for Protected Areas
Sovereign Fund
Swap Opportunities
NBSAP1999

Gambia
2014
By 2020, the mobilization of financial resources for effectively implementing the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 from all sources should increase substantially by 35%. Government Allocation of Financial Resources to Department of Parks and Wildlife: D3.34 million (2007), D4.44 million (2008), D5.32 million (2009), D6.47 million (2010), D5.32 million (2011), D5.07 million (2012). Programme for Accelerated Growth and Employment-2012-2015 (PAGE), livestock, agriculture, fisheries, health, education & security
UTG Competitive Research Fund, Desertification and Biodiversity Trust Funds; *National Forestry Fund
2009
Making the Economic Case: A Primer on the Economic Arguments for Mainstreaming Poverty-Environment Linkages into National Development Planning. The fisheries sector contributes more than 5 percent in Gambia.
Governmental allocations, (1998, 2003, 2006)
1998
A vigorous funding strategy for biodiversity conservation would be developed.

Ghana
2017
IIED: Reconciling forest conservation with food production in sub-Saharan Africa: case studies from Ethiopia, Ghana and Tanzania. Phil Franks and Xiaoting Hou-Jones et al, IIED Research Report, London. Ambiguous ecological zoning; Outdated and unclear land-use type definitions; Sectoral planning silos; Conflicting objectives in the middle of the country; Can the north feed the country? Trade-offs between meeting domestic food demand and exports; Aligning national and local land-use priorities; A bleak future for biodiversity.
Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Shade cocoa in the Upper Guinean forest, Nature-Debt Swaps
Realising REDD: Implications of Ghana’s Current Legal Framework for Trees
forestry, fisheries, livestock, crops
Removal of fuel subsidies
Ghana Heritage Conservation Trust (GHCT), Social Investment Fund (SIF), Community Development Fund (CDF), District Assemblies’ Common Fund (DACF), Energy Foundation, Biodiversity Trust Fund; *Ghana Heritage Conservation Trust
(2008) The Integrated Tamale Fruit Company—operating in the Savelugu-Nanton District in Ghana’s Northern Region, an area of widespread poverty—cultivates certified organic mangoes for local and export markets. To boost its power in the export market with higher production volumes, the company established a scalable business model that includes local farmers. Instead of acquiring a very large piece of land—physically and financially impractical—the company produces high volumes through an outgrower scheme, which started in 2001 and today includes 1,300 outgrower farmers. Each has a farm of about an acre, with 100 mango trees that supplement the nucleus farm of 160 acres. The company provides an interest-free loan to the outgrowers through farm inputs and technical services, and farmers start paying for the loan from selling mangos only after the trees yield fruit. This arrangement allows the company to reliably source a large volume of quality organic mangoes, and the farmers can enter mango production with long-term income prospects. The nucleus farm’s profits are on track to reach $1 million a year by 2010. The case examines the key challenges of the outgrower scheme and its implications for the company’s business.
Remittances and Poverty in Ghana
Remittance Markets
Hunting to Extinction: Addressing the Threat of the Bushmeat Trade to Wildlife in the Upper Guinea Forest (2004)
Increasing incomes and food security of small farmers in West and Central Africa through exports of organic and fair-trade tropical products (2009)
Akyem gold mine offset project
Access to, equity and protection of genetic resources in Ghana: The case of tilapia (O. niloticus)
The Ministry of Environment and Science allocated an amount of ¢364,915,064 (equivalent to $40,546.118) for activities relating to biodiversity conservation in 2004 and 2005
Case study
Economic Analysis
The Economics of Wildlife: Case Studies from Ghana, Kenya, Namibia, and Zimbabwe (1996)
Swap Opportunities
Commercial debt swap
Petroleum Fund
NBSAP2002

Guinea
Fonds de Sauvegarde de l'Environnement; *Fonds Forestier
forestry, livestock and animal production, protected areas, agriculture and rural infrastructure, mining; health, tourism, fisheries, education
Economic Values
Rio Tinto Simandou offset project
Agence Guinéenne de Coopération Technique (AGCT)
Swap Opportunities
2002
NBSAP2002

Guinea-Bissau
2009
OECD: Natural Resources and Pro-Poor Growth, The Economics and Politics, DAC Guidelines and Reference Series, A Good Practice Paper. Between 1993 and 1999, fishery access agreements with foreign fleets provided 30 percent of government revenues in Guinea-Bissau.
2008
Spending 2008
Policy Letter for Agricultural Development, Tropical Forestry Action Plan, Forest Act, Law of Wildlife, Support Programme of Integrated Management of Natural Resources in upstream Niger and Gambia, Broad Policy Letter of Livestock Development, Strategic Plan for the Development of Fisheries, National Plan for Health Development
National Environment Fund, National Investment Fund (PNIA)
Swap Opportunities
Swap with Switzerland
2000
NBSAP2000

Kenya
2014
Green Economy Assessment: economic benefits estimated USD 45 billion by 2030 as well as greater food security, a cleaner environment and higher productivity of natural resources
2009
Making the Economic Case: A Primer on the Economic Arguments for Mainstreaming Poverty-Environment Linkages into National Development Planning. Subsistence-level forest use in 2001 was worth more than 20 times as much as formal sector .commercial forestry earnings in Kenya.
2006
Wild Life Conservation in Amboseli, Kenya: Paying for Nonuse Values (2006)
Growing farm timber: practices, markets and policies - The Meru timber marketing pilot programme case studies and reviews
2005
Agricultural Productivity and Sustainable Land Management (GEF 2005)
Bioprospecting for enzymes in protected areas
Millennium Seed Bank Project – Kenya
The Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS), The International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), and Novozymes and Diversa (Verenium) Corporation: Agreements in the Industrial Biotech Sector
Measures
1996
The Economics of Wildlife: Case Studies from Ghana, Kenya, Namibia, and Zimbabwe
Case studies for landscape beauty markets: Mwaluganje Community Wildlife Reserve Ltd. - access to landscape beauty & wildlife, Illngwesi Co.Ltd. - access to landscape beauty and wildlife
Climate strategy
Sasumua Water Treatment Plant: Private payments to local farmers for improved water quality using payments for ecosystem services in Kenya
Watamu Beach Turtle Watch Nest Protection Programme, Kenya
Forest Fund, National Biodiversity Trust Fund
mainstreaming processes
Tax exemption on tree planting, Study on Stumpage Fee Reform, Entrance Fees
Stumpage fee reform
Livelihood and market incentives for sustainable land use in natural woodland areas of Kibwezi, Financial and policy instruments for the conservation of Mount Kenya Forest
Structural Adjustment and Environmental Linkages: A Case Study of Kenya
East Africa Breweries Limited Foundation, Jomo Kenyatta Foundation, KCB Foundation
Kenyan Diaspora Philanthropy: Key Practices, Trends and Issues
Remittance Markets
Good Wood, wwf version
Rainforest Alliance Certification
Reports
opportunity costs of biodiversity conservation; Country Study
Economic Constraints to the Management of Marine Protected Areas: the Case of Kisite Marine National
Valuing the Subsistence Use of Forest Products in Oldonyo Orok Forest, Kenya
Allocations to the Kenya Wildlife Service, Forest Department and Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (Environment Component): USD 11,280,085(1994/95), USD 12,440,367 (1995/96), USD 12,160,412 (1996/97), USD 12,235,460 (1997/98), USD 11,851,790 (1998/99), USD 12,914,404 (1999/00), USD 13,563,230 (2000/01), USD 17,665,750 (2001/02), USD 24,145,750 (2002/03), USD 20,679,310 (2003/04), USD 18,367,840 (2004/05)
(2009) Government institutions, public expenditure and the role of development partners: Meeting Kenya’s environmental challenges
Swap Opportunities
NBSAP2000

Lesotho
(2005) Budgetary allocations by national and local Governments as well as different sectoral ministries: USD342,623 counterpart contributions
National Forestry Policy 2008, Water and Sanitation Policy 2007, Lesotho Food Security Policy 2005, Energy Policy for the Kingdom of Lesotho (Draft), Transport Sector Policy, 2006, Environmental Education Strategy towards 2014: A Strategic Plan for Education for Sustainable Development in Lesotho (2009), Lesotho Electricity Company: Safety, Health, Environmental and Quality (SHEQ) Management System
Lesotho Fund for Community Development, Lesotho Highlands Revenue Fund, social funds, Roads Fund, Disaster Management Fund
Forest fund
NBSAP2000

Liberia
2016
World Bank: Biodiversity Offsets: A User Guide, October 2016. Case Study: Liberia Nimba Western Range Iron Ore. ArcelorMittal Liberia’s Biodiversity Conservation Program (BCP) is intended to compensate for residual adverse impacts to biodiversity resulting from the company’s operations. Conservation agreements are being implemented at six initial sites started in 2015, expanding to more sites in 2016 and subsequent years. Under Phase 1 of the mining (since 2011), ArcelorMittal has been funding the BCP by itself, although CI is bringing some complementary funding support. In 2016, AML also entered an agreement with the IDH Sustainable Trade Initiative, which provided counterpart funding to allow the program to expand. For the longer term, the feasibility is being examined of establishing a Conservation Trust Fund that would sustain the program in perpetuity.
2009
OECD: Natural Resources and Pro-Poor Growth, The Economics and Politics, DAC Guidelines and Reference Series, A Good Practice Paper. In Liberia, forests make up from just under 30 percent to more than 40 percent of national exports.
forest biodiversity, agriculture biodiversity, inland water, health, fisheries and livestock, mining
The Agenda for Transformation, government giving tax break as incentive for concessionaires undertaking biodiversity off programmes, 15 companies and concessions are complying
National Multi-Donor Trust Fund (MDTF)
NBSAP2004

Libya
Libyan Investment Authority

Madagascar
2016
World Bank: Biodiversity Offsets: A User Guide, October 2016. Case Study: Madagascar Ambatovy Minerals. Ambatovy has identified multiple offset sites, including two azonal forest areas and a large block of zonal forest within the Conservation Zone, totaling 3,634 ha. In addition, there are three off-site forest offsets totaling 18,225 ha. Additionally, Ambatovy supports forest conservation in com¬munity management areas around the mine (2,937 ha).
2014
Le paiement des services environnementaux (PSE). La compensation carbone permet de générer des « crédits carbone » dont les revenus vont être versés au profit des communautés locales. Des outils ont été élaborés pour améliorer les méthodologies et les techniques de quantification de carbone qu’on compte harmoniser et être adoptées par tous en vue d’un prix meilleur. Dans le cadre de l’atténuation, il est à noter que Madagascar compte développer le mécanisme REDD+ qui offre une opportunité, aussi bien pour la conservation des forêts et de la biodiversité, que pour l’amélioration des conditions socio-économiques. Toutefois, le financement pour la préparation du mécanisme REDD + par le Forest Carbon Partnership Facility n’a pu être accordé au gouvernement en raison de la crise politique. Certaines ONGs internationales ont joué un rôle important dans le développement de projets pilotes, et ont commencé à négocier des ventes de carbone avec des acheteurs internationaux tels que Mitsubishi, Air France ou Dell. Toutefois, ces transactions ont été largement réalisées sans un cadre réglementaire national. Par ailleurs, compte tenu de l’engouement de la plupart des pays forestiers pour ce marché émergent, et malgré l’intérêt suscité par les forêts malgaches en raison de leur premium atout de biodiversité, l’absence de cadre réglementaire a probablement déjà faire perdre au pays d’autres investisseurs potentiels. La mise en place d’un marché carbone forestier pourrait par ailleurs etre mise en péril par le manque d’implication des communautés locales, qui est une clef du succès de son émergence au niveau international. En effet, l’expérience de ces vingt dernières années montre que malgré l’élaboration de politiques ambitieuses, leur application à travers l’implication des populations locales dans la gestion des forêts n’a pas été une priorité réelle à Madagascar. Le partenariat mondial pour WAVES conclu peut constituer un levier pour la promotion du paiement des services environnementaux (PSE) dans la mesure où les ressources seront désormais valorisées et comptabilisées dans un Système de comptabilité nationale et que les allocations budgétaires seront proportionnelles aux valeurs des capitaux naturels créés.
REDD Vente carbones : Le crédit carbone est une source de financement encore mal exploitée à Madagascar, malgré qu’il ait été présenté, il y a trois ans, comme une opportunité pour financer le développement durable dans la lettre de politique sur le mécanisme du développement propre (MDP) de Madagascar. Tandis qu’au niveau mondial, le marché a représenté quelques 30 milliards de US dollars en 2006, Madagascar a vendu au total 40000 unités de crédit ayant généré 200000$ à raison de 5$ la tonne dans le cadre d’un marché volontaire pour la mise en place de la nouvelle aire protégée Makira (suivant le concept de déforestation évitée, hors MDP). Le projet de reforestation du corridor, correspondant à 3020 Ha de reboisement censé rétablir la connectivité des corridors de l’Est, devrait générer autour de 1 million de $ avec un premier paiement en 2009 ; le gouvernement de Madagascar compte également vendre 9 millions de tonnes de carbone sur 30 ans en contrepartie de la protection du Corridor Ankeniheny-Zahamena. Entre autres, un projet pilote de lutte contre la déforestation et la dégradation des ressources forestières intégrant l’approche sur les forêts engagées comme réservoirs de carbone, le Projet FORECA aété initié depuis quelques années.
Des recettes d'exportation des produits forestiers (en Ariary) (2010-2012), Les recettes des Droits d’Entrée dans les Aires Protégées (DEAP) (2009-2013).
La FAPBM: La Fondation pour les Aires Protégées et la Biodiversité (FAPBM) de Madagascar est une Fondation privée malgache créée en 2005 et reconnue d’utilité publique. Elle est la plus grande Fondation environnementale de toute la région Afrique avec un capital d’un peu plus de 50 millions de dollars..La FAPBM a pour objectif de promouvoir le financement durable pour la conservation de la biodiversité et la gestion des aires protégées. La Fondation Tany Meva : La Fondation Tany Meva est la première fondation environnementale malgache à vocation communautaire qui a pour mission de mobiliser et de gérer des ressources financières afin de promouvoir la gestion durable de l’environnement avec l’implication des communautés locales.
Un grand nombre d’entreprises/organismes du secteur privé sont impliqués dans des actions de conservation de la biodiversité, de manière volontaire, ou dictées par leurs cahiers de charges environnementaux. A titre d’exemples, les cas de l’ESSA-Forêt, de QMM, du projet Ambatovy et de la Fondation Tany Meva, des entités qui diffèrent de par leurs actions et leurs obligations par rapport à l’environnement, sont présentés ci-dessous. Pour les grands projets miniers de QMM et le projet Ambatovy, leurs engagements vis-à-vis de l’environnement, à la fois réglementaires et volontaires, les ont conduit à la création de sites de conservation, à la mise en oeuvre du Plan de Gestion Environnementale, à la réalisation d’activités de restauration écologique et de reboisement, et à la prise en compte de l’insertion sociale du projet dans leurs zones d’influence. A cet effet, un programme de compensation sur la perte de biodiversité (BBOP : Business and Biodiversity Offset Program/ Programme de compensation de la Biodiversité) est instauré dans les zones d’influence du projet en vue de développer un cadre pour la mise en oeuvre effective des actions de compensation, axées notamment sur l’amélioration des moyens de subsistance des communautés locales.
Entreprise privée: La contribution du secteur privé n’est pas encore significative. Les deux grands projets miniers (Ambatovy et QMM) et la compagnie Air France sont les principaux donateurs. Dans le cadre de compensation de la perte de la biodiversité à Madagascar au niveau des deux grands projets miniers, QMM et Ambatovy, un Programme compensation sur la perte de biodiversité BBOP (Business and Biodiversity Offset Program / Programme de compensation de la Biodiversité) a été mis en place. Le coût opérationnel du programme BBOP du projet Ambatovy est estimé en moyenne entre 250 000 et 300 000 USD par an. Air France contribue au Programme Holistique de Conservation des Forêts au profit de AFD/Etceterra/ WWF/ à concurrence de 3,5 millions €, soit environ 4,73 USD prévu au titre des années 2013 – 2016.
La promotion de l’écotourisme. L’écotourisme génère des bénéfices nationaux qui sont constitués, d’une part, des Droits d’Entrée dans les Aires Protégées (DEAP) collectées par Madagascar National Parks (MNP), et, d’autre part, de la valeur ajoutée nationale (transport, hôtellerie, restauration, artisanat, guidage). Par conséquent, les communautés locales peuvent en bénéficier directement. Une part de ces recettes est versée aux communautés locales pour mettre en oeuvre des projets sociaux dans les zones périphériques des aires protégées (AP).
L’objectif environnemental primordial d’Ambatovy est de veiller à ce que l’ensemble de ses activités ne dégradent pas le capital naturel de Madagascar. Afin de réaliser les résultats escomptés en matière de conservation de l’environnement, les interventions du projet ont été focalisées sur : - La mise en oeuvre des plans de gestion environnementale adaptatifs et fondés sur les connaissances scientifiques, sociales, environnementales les plus récentes pour assurer la conformité avec les normes nationales et internationales pendant la phase de construction, d’exploitation et de fermeture du projet ; - La réduction au minimum de tous les impacts résiduels à travers la mise en oeuvre d’une bonne pratique et des programmes de compensation ; - La gestion des risques environnementaux en améliorant la participation de toutes les parties prenantes grâce à la transparence, la consultation continue et l’envoi de feedbacks, en temps opportun au public, concernant les enjeux environnementaux émergents ; - Le suivi de la performance opérationnelle et des émissions afin de s’assurer que les niveaux de conformité soient respectés et que les systèmes de contrôle opérationnel fonctionnent de façon optimale. Ambatovy travaille en étroite collaboration avec l’ONE, notamment en matière de suivi environnemental du projet. Depuis 2006, les programmes de compensation développés par le projet Ambatovy lui confèrent la qualité de projet pilote en matière de BBOP. Le coût annuel moyen du programme BBOP du projet Ambatovy est estimé entre 250 000 et 300 000 US$.
Valeurs économiques (commerce international, industrie et artisanat, tourisme, commerce intérieur), valeurs sociales (nourriture, matériaux de construction et produits ménagers, combustibles domestiques, médecine traditionnelle, emplois), valeurs culturelles, valeurs scientifiques, valeurs des services écologiques
Habitat Conservation: the dynamics of direct and indirect payments
Ankeniheny-Zahamena Corridor
The Potential for Conservation Contracts to Contribute to Biodiversity Conservation in Madagascar
NBSAP1996
Madagascar submission on funding needs
Slowing Tropical Forest Biodiversity Losses: Cost and Compensation Considerations
Madagascar Trust Fund for Sustainable Protection of Nature Reserves
Tax exemption on equipment and materials (NR3)
Foundation for Biodiversity, Tany Meva Foundation, Forestry Funds, Fisheries and Aquaculture Development Fund, Fonds d’Appui pour le Développement de l’Enseignement Supérieur
Madagascar Trust Fund for Sustainable Protection of Nature Reserves
Tany Meva – Malagasy Environment Foundation
Fonds Forestier National
Privatization, The PHCF project
Reports
Ambatovy and Rio Tinto mining offsets, Voluntary projects
Economic analysis of protected area network
Valuing Tropical Forests: Methodology and Case Study of Madagascar
Biodiversity and human well-being, valuation
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and Centre National d’Application et des Recherches Pharmaceutiques/Madagascar
Measures
tourism, education, scientific research, health, agriculture, fishing and halieutic resources, livestock, energy, forestry, mining, water, public works and meteorology, trade, industrial sector, transport
Budget allocations are voted annually, depending on the annual external funding. In 2005, the allocation amounted to USD4,468,785
Swap Opportunities
Madagascar’s Experience with Swapping Debt for the Environment: Debt-for-Nature Swaps and Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) Debt Relief
Swap with Germany
Commercial debt swaps
2009
UNDP and UNEP: Making the Economic Case: A Primer on the Economic Arguments for Mainstreaming Poverty-Environment Linkages into National Development Planning. Earnings from traditional healing practices in Madagascar are thought to exceed $10 million a year, and occupy around 10,000 individuals.

Malawi
2014
Stories of Change from Africa: Joint UNDP-UNEP Poverty-Environment Initiative. In Malawi, unsustainable natural resource use is costing the country the equivalent of 5.3 % of GDP each year, more than the proportion of GDP allocated to education and health in the 2009 national budget. Previously it had been officially estimated that forestry and wildlife contributed 1.8% and 0% to GDP respectively. However, the economic study found that they contributed 6.1% and 2.7% to GDP. Supported by donors, the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security spends 85% of their budget, approximately 10 % of the total national budget, on the Farm Input Subsidy Programme, which subsidizes improved inputs like hybrid (maize) seeds and fertilizers.
Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Malawi Environmental Endowment Trust – biodiversity company shares, Mulanje Mountain Conservation Trust – protected area; Case studies for watershed protection markets: Escom-watershed protection contracts, Waterboards - watershed protection contracts, Waterboards - protected area contracts

Malawi 2014
NAPA
chapter on environmental sustainability in 2014/15 budget guidelines. Estimated 5.3% of GDP loss due to unsustainable use of natural resources in 2011
Tax waiver on paraffin (NR3), Fertilizer vouchers
Directly related central biodiversity expenditure in US dollars: 2,000(2010), 1,500(2011), 3,000(2012), 1,800(2013)
Three permits have so far been issued to Transglobe Produce Limited and Tree Crops Limited for export of genetic materials
2013
The enabling environment for sustainable enterprises in Malawi
Guidelines for the Preparation of the 2013/14 Budget
2011
Economic Study
2010
Guidance note on how to integrate the environment into the budget process in Malawi (2010)
sectoral biodiversity coordination, cross sectoral biodiversity coordination, cross cutting national programmes and strategies, National Strategy for Sustainable Development for Malawi, Malawi Growth and Development Strategy, Malawi National Adaptation Programmes of Action, Agricultural Sector Wide Approach (ASWAp)
Public Private Partnership. African Parks (Majete) entered into a PPP arrangement with Department of National Parks and Wildlife regarding the management of Majete Wildlife Reserve in 2003. Through the partnership, Majete Wildlife Reserve has restocked species that were once locally extinct. It is evident from the case study the current PPP arrangement with African Parks Majete has contributed to conservation of such endangered species such as Black Rhinos and elephants.
Guidance note on how to integrate the environment into the budget process in Malawi
2009
UNDP and UNEP: Making the Economic Case: A Primer on the Economic Arguments for Mainstreaming Poverty-Environment Linkages into National Development Planning. In Malawi, about 90 percent percent of national energy requirements are met by fuelwood obtained from forests and trees on farm.
2006
NBSAP2006
Malawi Environmental Endowment Trust (MEET), Mount Mulanje Conservation Trust (MMCT), Environmental Management Fund, Malawi Social Action Fund
Generating benefits with wildlife trade
2000
Malawi Environmental Endowment Trust, Mulanje Mountain Conservation Trust
Forest Development and Management Fund
Measures; Case study
Reports
Economic loss
Reports 1998, 2005, 2006, 2010
Swap Opportunities

Mali
2014
Le Cadre Stratégique de Croissance et de la Réduction de la pauvreté (CSCRP), la Politique Nationale de Changement Climatique (PNCC), pêche, elevage, forestière
Stories of Change from Africa: Joint UNDP-UNEP Poverty-Environment Initiative. In Mali environmental expenditure was estimated to be 1 % of GDP, despite the fact that the costs of inaction with regards to environmental sustainability amount to 21 % of the GDP, negatively impacting on the livelihoods of the poor.
2010
Skills for green jobs in Mali (2010)
2009
land management
2008
Budget Support, Aid Instruments and the Environment: Mali Country Case Study (2008)
2005
Report 2005
Structural Adjustment and Sustainable Development in Mali: A WWF Study
fond national de l'eau, fond d'entretien du réseau tertiaire (gestion paysanne), Fond climat du Mali, Fonds National pour l’Environnement
Costs of Damages and Remediation
2000
NBSAP2000
1997
Programme test de gestion décentralisée de la pêche dans le Delta Central du Niger au Mali 1997
Better Cotton Initiative

Mauritania
2009
OECD: Natural Resources and Pro-Poor Growth, The Economics and Politics, DAC Guidelines and Reference Series, A Good Practice Paper. The fisheries sector contributes more than 5 percent in Mauritania. Between 1993 and 1999, fishery access agreements with foreign fleets provided 15 percent of government revenues in Mauritania.
Costs and Benefits of Natural Resources Management; *Costs of Degradation
Trust fund for the PNBA; *Fonds National de Développement Forestier
environmental sector, education sector, research and training sector, agriculture, fisheries, oil sector
Spending 1999, 2005, 2009
National Fund for Hydrocarbon Reserve
Swap Opportunities
1999
NBSAP1999

Mauritius
Mauritius 2014
Climate activities
Reports
Green jobs in Mauritius (2013)
(2014) Filming in Parks, Eco-tourism activities, Hawkers Operations (sales), Green Fund from Private Company (IBL), Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
Organic farming
(2014) NGO biodiversity expenditure (2010): 40,000 MUR by Mauritius Marine Conservation Society and Mauritian Wildlife Foundation
Indian Ocean Rim initiative - Integrated Regional Indian Ocean Commission Project
(2014) Central biodiversity expenditure: USD8,349,000 (2010)
(2006) Budgetary allocations by national and local Governments as well as different sectoral ministries: About 35 million USD annually (This includes both recurrent and capital measures on fisheries, environmental management, Parks management, agricultural services, waste water management, agricultural research and extension programme, support to NGOs through special fund) (2006)
Access and benefit sharing
National Environment Fund, National Parks and Conservation Fund, Fishermen Investment Trust, Food Security Fund
Reforming the Tax System to Promote Environmental Objectives: An Application to Mauritius (2011)
sustainable agriculture
Sovereign Wealth Fund
NBSAP2005

Morocco
A circular economy approach to agrobiodiversity conservation in the Souss Massa Drâa region of Morocco
MENARID Participatory Control of Desertification and Poverty Reduction in the Arid and Semi Arid High Plateau Ecosystems of Eastern Morocco (GEF 2008)
Climate Public Expenditure and Institutional Review
Le Maroc a fait de la coopération Sud/Sud, particulièrement dans son espace africain et arabe, une priorité de sa politique étrangère. À cet effet, le Maroc a créé, en 1986, l’Agence Marocaine de Coopération Internationale (AMCI), avec comme objectif d’en faire un véritable levier de cette forme de coopération. Au titre de l’année 2010, le Maroc a été le 2ème investisseur africain dans le Continent avec une enveloppe de 582 millions de Dirhams, soit près de 91% des investissements marocains directs à l’étranger. Les investissements marocains réalisés en Afrique durant les cinq dernières années s’élève à plus de 1,7 milliard de DH. Le Maroc a initié avec de nombreux pays africains, une coopération multilatérale ou triangulaire riche et diversifiée, fondée sur un véritable partenariat et une solidarité effective.
Moroccan International Cooperation Agency (AMCI)
Industrial Pollution Control Fund, Fonds National de l'Environnement (FNE)
(2014) L’État accorde une importance particulière aux secteurs sociaux dans les programmes de développement mis en oeuvre. Elle se matérialise par la part de ces secteurs dans le budget général et qui représente 55% actuellement contre 36% en 1994. En ajoutant le budget alloué au RAMED (Régime d’assistance médicale) et à l’INDH (Initiative Nationale pour le Développement Humain), soit environ 5 milliards de DH en 2012, la part du budget des secteurs sociaux, dans le budget de l’État atteint, en 2012, 57% et 16,8% du PIB. Ce sont les secteurs de l’enseignement et de la santé qui ont enregistré l’évolution la plus importante au cours de cette période puisque leur budget a plus que triplé (respectivement 3,5 et 3,9 fois) entre 1994 et 2012. Ces deux secteurs représentent, en 2012, 90% du budget alloué aux départements sectoriels à caractère social et 46,2% du total des secteurs sociaux contre respectivement 87% et 74% en 1994. Le montant total indicatif pour la concrétisation des effets escomptés est de 147,7 millions de dollars US.
2005, 2009
Argan oil; Brief; note
Des mesures fiscales et exonérations existent déjà comme notamment l’exonération totale et permanente des revenus des plantations sylvestres, non fruitières destinées à préserver les sols de l’érosion due aux vents et aux pluies. Des projets de réformes sont en cours d’étude pour identifier les meilleures mesures fiscales environnementales lesquelles doivent être appuyées sur des principes environnementaux identifiés dans la Charte de l’environnement (mutualisation des moyens et principe de responsabilité).
integration of biodiversity in sectoral strategies and action plans
Swap Opportunities
Caisse de Dépôt et de Gestion (CDG)
NBSAP2004

Mozambique
2016
A National Biodiversity Offset System: A Road Map for Mozambique, October 2016. The Mozambique Protected Area (PA) network includes both publicly managed areas (parks and reserves) and privately managed ones (such as hunting reserves and games farms) and covers 26% of the country’s land area. The PA network does contain representative samples of most of Mozambique’s biodiversity, but it is severely underfunded, receiving an estimated 9% of the funds it needs annually to provide a basic “no frills” level of biodiversity maintenance. Additional funding from offsets into the PA network would create positive biodiversity impacts and would serve to aggregate individual offsets. Getting the Legal Framework in Place; Determining the Most Suitable Geographic Locations for Offsets; Developing Implementation Mechanisms for an Aggregate Offset System (Activity 1: What are the Biodiversity Offsetting Activities and Where Will They Be Carried Out? Activity 2: How Will the Biodiversity Offset Be Managed? Activity 3: How will the Biodiversity Offset be Funded Over Time? Activity 4: How will the Offset be Monitored and Evaluated?)
2015
WWF: Understanding and Valuing Marine Ecosystem Services in the Northern Mozambique Channel, Nunes P and Ghermandi A. Major ecosystem services valued: Provisioning (Large scale fishing, Artisanal fishing, Mariculture), Cultural (Coastal tourism and recreation), Regulating (Carbon sequestration, Coastal erosion prevention).
2014
Stories of Change from Africa: Joint UNDP-UNEP Poverty-Environment Initiative. In Mozambique the average environmental expenditure for the period 2007-2010 was 1.4% of GDP, whilst the economic valuation estimated that 9 % of GDP is required to recover the 17% of GDP lost annually to environmental degradation and inefficient natural resource use. Nationwide, over 82% jobs depend on natural resources and it is estimated that natural capital contributes up to 50% of GDP. The yearly economic loss due to environmental degradation and the inefficient use of natural resources is 17 % of GDP per year. By contrast, the estimated cost to remediate these damages was calculated at only 9 % of GDP. The expenditure on environment was equivalent to only 1.4% of GDP – that is, expenditure is far below what would be justified on economic terms alone.
2010
Pilot offsets with Dutch companies
2009
The role of the private sector includes: Promotion of natural resources conservation and research; Collaboration with national and international research institutions; Involvement of community intervention; Socio-economic development; Tourism development; Involvement in the policies of economic and social development and the preservation of biodiversity, with the aim of achieving sustainable development in this for future generations; Participation in the management, conservation and exploitation of forest and faunal resources, to give greater added value, and improve development for local communities.
UNDP and UNEP: Making the Economic Case: A Primer on the Economic Arguments for Mainstreaming Poverty-Environment Linkages into National Development Planning. In Mozambique, 80 percent per¬cent of national energy requirements are met by fuelwood obtained from forests and trees on farm.
National Fund of Environment (FUNAB), National Research Fund
Forest and Wildlife Development Fund
Economic Analysis of Natural Resources; National accounting
Reports
2008
Environmental Institutions, Public Expenditure and the Role for Development Partners: Mozambique Case Study
Ministry for the Coordination for Environmental Action, Ministry of Tourism, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Fisheries, Ministry of Mineral Resources, Ministry of Public Works and Habitation, Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Ministry of Industry and Trade, Ministry of Plan and Development, Ministry of Education and Culture, Ministry of Health
Swap Opportunities
2003
NBSAP2003

Namibia
Case studies for landscape beauty markets: LianshuluLodge, Mudumu National Park, Caprivi Region - access rights & management agreements
Mainstreaming, Marthin Kasaona, Ministry of Environment and Tourism, Department of Environmental Affairs. Biodiversity expenditure: over 0.6% of GDP in 2008/9, nearly 0.8% of GDP in 2010/11, above 0.6% of GDP in 2012/3.
Namibia 2014
NBSAP2001
A biodiversity expenditure review using the BIOFIN assessment methodology in Namibia, by Lawrie Harper-Simmonds, Ministry of Environment and Tourism; Enforcing Wildlife Law and Preventing Wildlife Crime in Namibia, Department of Environmental Affairs, MET MET/GIZ Biodiversity Management and Climate Change Project; Namibia‘s Experience with Ecosystem Services Valuation for Conservation, by Dr . Konrad Uebelhör, MET/GIZ Biodiversity Management and Climate Change Project
Development of a Baseline of Biodiversity Expenditure in Namibia, 2014: Final Report and Annexes. Namibia Nature Foundation.
Ministry of Environment and Tourism (Environmental Investment Fund Act, Draft Wetland Policy (2005), Tourism Concessions Policy (2007), Protected Area and Wildlife Management Bill (2010), National Policy on Human Wildlife Conflict Management (2009), Draft National Climate Change Policy (2009), Coastal Zone Management White Paper (2010), Draft National Policy on Mining and Prospecting in Protected Areas (2009), Draft National Policy on Protected Areas, Neighbours and Resident Communities (2009), Draft National Environmental Education Policy), Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Forestry (MAWF) (National Forest Act and Policy (2001), National Water Resources Management Act (2004), Draft National Seed Policy (2005), Green Scheme Policy (2004 and revised 2008), Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Policy (2008)), Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources (MFMR) (Aquaculture Act (2002), Inland Fisheries Act (2003)), Ministry of Health and Social Services (the Atomic Energy and Radiation Protection Act (2005)), Ministry of Lands and Resettlement (the Communal Land Reform Act 2002), Ministry of Mines and Energy, National Planning Commission (National Poverty Reduction Action Programme (NPRAP 2002))
environmental taxes (Carbon Dioxide emission tax on motor vehicles, incandescent light bulbs and motor vehicle tyres)
Incentives affecting biodiversity conservation and sustainable use: the case of land use options in Namibia (1996)
Understanding Climate Finance Readiness Needs in Namibia
(2014) The Game Products Trust Fund (GPTF), established under the Game Products Trust Fund Act of 1997, serves to:• Make grants to emerging conservancies and wildlife councils for the purposes of implementing and maintaining projects and programmes regarding wildlife conservation and management and rural development; • Allocate funds to conservancies, wildlife councils and protected areas, and to approved persons, organizations and institutions regarding wildlife conservation and management and rural development; • Support measures aimed at improving the relationship between people and wildlife; and • Support improvements in the monitoring, management, protection, sustainable use and development of wildlife resources in rural areas. It allocated an annual average of N$8 million to these activities during the period 2010-2013. The main sources of income for the GPTF are derived from entrance fees to national parks, ivory sales, live export head levies, hunting concessions, live game auctions, and the trophy hunting of problem animals. The Environmental Investment Fund (EIF), established under the Environmental Investment Fund Act of 2001, has been operational since 2011. Annual budgetary allocations for the EIF averaged N$18 million during the period under review. The EIF has benefitted over 10,000 people with grants financing alone, through projects that address food security and livelihood improvements, green technology and waste management and education and training in relevant academic areas of interest. The EIF is also spearheading the process of Environmental Fiscal Reform in Namibia.
(2014) Environmental Investment Fund of Namibia, Game Product Trust Fund (established in 1997)
Environmental Investment Fund (EIF), Namibia Nature Foundation, National Disaster Management Fund; EIF (pdf), (doc)
(2010) Public Private Partnership, Changes in Ownership Rights, The Torra Conservancy. At least 20 public-private partnerships for effective biodiversity conservation underway nationwide and demonstrating positive results. Examples include 140 Private reserves covering an area of 760,000 ha, corporate social responsibility initiatives of private companies supporting conservation research and projects, and joint venture agreements between the private sector and local communities (tourism and indigenous plant products)
(2003) Appropriate Ownership Models for Natural Product-based Small and Medium Enterprises in Namibia
Rapid Trade and Environment Assessments conducted on trade in red meat; biochar; eco-tourism; and green labeling
Introducing sustainable fisheries management
Organic certification developed; Forestry Stewardship Council certification for Charcoal; Team Namibia; Eco awards Namibia Programme
Communal area conservancies
KAZA Tranfrontier Conservation Area (co-managed by Namibia, Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Botswana) Ai-Ais Richtersveld Transfrontier Conservation Area (co-managed by Namibia and South Africa through technical working groups on tourism; security and safety; finance; and conservation)
Three ABS agreements relating to Hoodia, Marula and Commiphora Resin
ABS agreements for commiphora resin
Eudafano Woman's Cooperative, CRIAA SA-DC, Phytotrade Africa, Aldivia S.A. of France
Measures
Strategic environmental management plan
Value of Devil’s Claw, Hoodia, Kalahari Melon Seed, Marula, Ximenia, Commiphora (2010-2020)
Economic Analysis of the Game Meat Value Chain completed in 2012
Tourism valuation
The Economics of Wildlife: Case Studies from Ghana, Kenya, Namibia, and Zimbabwe (1996)
Park pricing and economic efficiency in Namibia (2002)
Wildlife Use for Economic Gain the potential for wildlife to contribute to development in Namibia (1996)
Tourists' willingness to pay for wildlife viewing and wildlife conservation in Namibia (1997)
Economics without markets: Policy inferences from nature-based tourism studies in Namibia (2002)
Alternative Measures of the Value of Resource Rent and Natural Capital in Constant Prices (2006), by The Earth Institute at Columbia University
Environmental Accounting in Action: Case Studies from Southern Africa (2003), by Edward Elgar Publishing
Using Environmental Accounts to Promote Sustainable Development: Experience in Southern Africa (2003), by Blackwell Synergy
An Approach to Sustainable Water Management Using Natural Resource Accounts: the Use of Water, the Economic Value of Water, and Implications for Policy (1997), by Ministry of Environment and Tourism
The Contribution of Resource Rents from Minerals and Fisheries to Sustainable Economic Development in Namibia (1997), by Ministry of Environment and Tourism
Fisheries Accounting in Namibia (2000), by National Statistical Coordination Board
The Value of Namibia's Commercial Fisheries (2003), by Ministry of Environment and Tourism
Technical Summary of Water Accounts (2006), by Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Forestry
Environmental Accounting in Theory and Practice (1998), by Kluwer Academic
Lessons Learned from Environmental Accounting (2000), by IUCN - The World Conservation Union
(2014) Resources allocated in N$ (000s) from 2010-2013 to MET’s biodiversity-related programmes, to MFMR’s biodiversity-related programmes, MAWF’s biodiversity-related programmes
(2014) Central biodiversity expenditure (2010) - approximately 2.9% of total expenditure and 0.9% of GDP was spent on biodiversity
planned expenditure data from certain directorates within the MET, MAWF and MFMR to approximate maximum government spending on biodiversity 1990-2010
Implementing the Agenda of the Namibian Ministry of Environment and Tourism: A Rapid Country Environmental Analysis with a Public Expenditure Review for Aligning Policy, Institutional and Financing Priorities
Understanding readiness to access and use climate finance effectively

Niger
La mise en oeuvre de la SNPA/DB nécessite un investissement de 420,503,660,000 FCFA dont 116,160,150,000 FCFA d’acquis et 304 343 500 000 FCFA à rechercher.
In 2002, the budgetary allocation for sectors related to biodiversity (Agriculture, Livestock, Wildlife and Forestry) was estimated at 241 631 822 000 FCFA (Investment of state: 107 828 000 000 FCFA, Multilateral donors: 687 878 257 140 FCFA, Bilateral donors: 5,111,554,735 FCFA, Communities and beneficiaries: 4,072,473,552 FCFA). For the period from 2005 to 2007, the funds used for the rural sector (agriculture, livestock, forestry, wildlife and water) were 144 765 411 000 FCFA (Ministry of Economy and Finance, 2005-2007)
Ecological Funds (2% of annual Federal budget)
Ecological Funds
agriculture, breeding, forestry, wildlife, fishing, land planning, mines, energy, trade and private sector, sports and youth, health, crafts, tourism, culture and art, equipment
National Fund of Environment; *Protected Areas Trust Fund
Metarhizium anispoliae var acridum from Niger (LUBILOSA)
Contract for the Production of Hybrid Sorgum Seeds between INSORMIL, WINROCK and INRAN, represented by the Ministry of Rural Development, National Institute of Agronomic Research, Niger and Mr Abdou Garba, Producer, 2000
Valeurs de la biodiversité et des services écosystémiques
NBSAP2003

Nigeria
Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: The African International Cooperative Biodiversity Group (ICBG) - biodiversity access rights
(2007) Private Land Tenure. Issues due to conflict between land tenure systems (especially between state and communal systems), and resource management practices associated with certain land use systems.
(2013) The Central Bank and CEOs of all major financial institutions signed a joint commitment statement. Two Nigerian banks have adopted the Equator Principles: Access Bank PLC (2009) and Aterios Capital (2012). The Nigerian Bankers Committee, with support from the Central Bank, introduced the voluntary Nigeria Sustainable Banking Principles in July 2012, together with Guidance Notes. Sector-specific guidelines have also been developed for three key sectors: oil and gas, renewable energy, and agriculture. The principles apply to all banks, discount houses and development finance institutions. The Central Bank has pledged to provide necessary incentives to institutions taking concrete measures to embed the provisions of these principles and guidelines into their operational, enterprise risk management and other governance frameworks. Reporting requirements with guidelines will also be made available to the industry. Going forward, Nigeria aims to develop lasting local capacity to manage emerging E&S risks and opportunities within banks’ internal operations, as well as in relevant financial-sector government agencies, learning institutions, and service providers.
Fund for Integrated Rural Development and Traditional Medicine (FIRD-TM) Annex
Case study
Trade liberalization and environmental quality in rubber and cocoa plantations
The UK-Nigeria Remittance Corridor: Challenges of Embracing Formal Transfer Systems in a Dual Financial Environment
Remittance Markets
Natural Resource Valuation
Economic Importance of Wild Resources in the Hadejia-Nguru Wetlands
Sovereign Investment Authority
Commercial debt swap
NBSAP1998

Rwanda
2017
World Bank: Rwanda Natural Capital Accounting - Land Accounts: Progress, Key Findings, Next Steps, February 2017. The land accounts provide information about land use change, land availability and productivity, as well as potential constraints to agricultural growth. Among the major findings from the land accounts, it was found that, in 2014 and 2015, agriculture dominated land uses across all of Rwanda’s provinces. About 70 per cent of all land used falls under the agriculture and forestry sector. In addition, land cover map results revealed that between 1990 and 2010, there has been a decline of woodland and an increase in cropland, while the area of dense forest declined by half during this 20-year period. The results also revealed that sparse forest cover decreased while the area of settlements had doubled.
World Bank: Rwanda Natural Capital Accounting - Water Accounts: Progress, Key Findings, Next Steps, February 2017. Rwanda’s water resources are currently under pressure from population growth and rapid economic development, including the intensification of agriculture, and increasing urbanization and industrialization. Preliminary results from the accounts revealed that, between 2012 and 2015, agriculture was the highest consumer of water, followed by educational institutions and households. Another finding was that agricultural water was the largest contributor to both GDP and employment.
2014
PES regulatory framework under preparation, Total economic valuation of ecosystem services in Nyungwe watershed and Mukura forest reserve
Stories of Change from Africa: Joint UNDP-UNEP Poverty-Environment Initiative. In Rwanda, only 0.4% of the overall national budget was allocated to environment and climate change. Public Expenditure Review for Environment and Climate Change noted that since 2004 the country’s expenditure on the environment and climate change has increased six fold from 0.4 to 2.5 %.
PES around the Nyungwe National Park
PES and poverty reduction
Case studies for landscape beauty markets: National Park - access rights
2010
Payment for Ecosystem Services and Poverty Reduction in Rwanda (2010)
2006
Report2006
Public Environmental Expenditure Review
PEER manual
Review of Existing and Potential Environmental Fiscal Reform
Exemptions by law on donations in general (NR3), Tax exemption on subsidy on Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), Water user fees for irrigation, Annual Environmental Award for Best (Industrial) practice, Property rights for communities to participate in reforestation and afforestation on public land in all districts
agriculture, livestock and fisheries; trade, industry and tourism; energy and mining; infrastructure and transport; human settlement and sanitation; water
Burkina Faso designs a National Environment Fund (FIE) with financial assistance from the Governments of Luxembourg and Sweden, and had a south-south exchange visit to Rwanda that established and operationalized a National Fund for Environment and Climate Change (FONERWA) in 2011
(2006) Donations of private sources. The private sector contributes very little in the environment. Resources generated through financial instruments such as charges for use of biological diversity. Fees generated by tourism activities and in part support the conservation efforts by the Rwandan Office of Tourism and National Parks.
National Fund for the Environment, National Forest Fund
Economic Analysis of Natural Resource Management
State of the Environment
Promotion of organic fertilizers use (through Girinka program), a policy of one cow per poor family; composting technologies dissemination to replace harmful chemical fertilizers in order to minimize or avoid negative impacts to soil fertility and human well-being
NBSAP2003

São Tomé and Príncipe
2009
OECD: Natural Resources and Pro-Poor Growth, The Economics and Politics, DAC Guidelines and Reference Series, A Good Practice Paper. The fisheries sector contributes more than 5 percent in Sao Tomé. Between 1993 and 1999, fishery access agreements with foreign fleets provided 13 percent of government revenues in Sao Tomé.
Spending 2009
Forestry Development Fund
food security, energy and forestry
2005
Finance Strategies 2005

Senegal
2017
Climate Change Adaptation and Financial Protection: Synthesis of Key Findings from Colombia and Senegal, by Gisela Campillo, Michael Mullan, Lola Vallejo, OECD Environment Working Papers, No. 120, OECD Publishing, Paris. Cost of adaptation actions in Senegal 2016-2035: US$ 14,558 million. Financial protection tool: Insurance mechanisms (African Risk Capacity, National Company of Agricultural Insurance (CNAAS) products, Microinsurance initiatives (WFP R4 initiative, private insurers); Savings or reserve funds (Bonus Fund, Guarantee Fund, Calamity Fund, Household Savings); Ex-ante social protection (National Programme of Family Security Grants (PNSBF); Adaptive Safety Net program); Humanitarian relief and compensation payments (Emergency Funds from donors (USAID, UNOCHA))
Fifth national report. Harmful practices: removal of subsidy on butane gas in energy, fertilizer subsidy in agriculture, exemption from customs duties on inputs for fishing, tax exemption on fuel for outboard engines. Positive: vessels conversion in fisheries, participatory management in forestry, mining sector to take better account conservation of biodiversity, intensification program in livestock sector.
The Economic Value of Wild Resources in Senegal: A preliminary evaluation of non-timber forest products, game and freshwater fisheries
Remittance Markets
Fond National de Développement Pétrolier (FNDP); Fond National de l’Energie (FNE); *Fonds forestier national; *National Environmental Fund
land planning, energy, industry and mining, livestock, agriculture, fisheries, tourism, education and training, transport and infrastructure
Evolution of financial resources of the environment sector (in million FCFA): 16792 (2003), 9793 (2004), 17870 (2005), 25379 (2006), 24880 (2007), 32325 (2008), 30546 (2009), 31481 (2010)
Swap Opportunities
NBSAP1997

Seychelles
2011
Government, NGOs and private sector partnership in ecosystem rehabilitation
Environment Trust Fund (NR3), Seychelles Island Foundation, National disaster emergency fund
2010
Government allocation of approximately USD 10 million per year including solid and liquid waste management, fisheries, management of protected areas, agricultural research and extension programmes (2010)
2006
Bioprospecting of coco de mer
2001
NBSAP2001
2000 Environment Management Plan of Seychelles EMPS 2000 – 2010: Managing for Sustainability
Environmental Management Plan for Seychelles 2000-2010 (EMPS), management of the Development Cycle, sectoral strategies
2000
Seychelles Island Foundation
Tax exemptions for environmental projects, for example on equipment imports (NR3)
Economic assessment
1997
Economic Assessment of Seychelles Biodiversity, L. Emerton. Conservation and National Parks Section, Division of Environment, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Planning and Environment. Mahé, Republic of Seychelles. Environmental goods and services contribute up to a quarter of all employment opportunities, one-third of government revenues and two-thirds of foreign exchange earnings.
Swap Opportunities

Sierra Leone
Government Funds 1995-96 for the forestry programme was estimated to be 123,227,009 Leones
Increasing incomes and food security of small farmers in West and Central Africa through exports of organic and fair-trade tropical products (2009)
National Environment Fund
NBSAP2004

Somalia
Remittances and Economic Development in Somalia: An Overview
Migrant Remittances as a Development Tool: The Case of Somaliland

South Africa
2017
OECD: Estimating publicly-mobilised private finance for climate action: A South African case study, OECD Environment Working Papers, No. 125, OECD Publishing, Paris. Between 2010 and 2015, South African public co-finance is estimated to have mobilised 64% out of a total of USD 10.1 billion (ZAR 95.4 billion). This is particularly the case for South African development banks such as the Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA) and the Industrial Development Corporation (IDC). International actors play a complementary mobilisation role through upstream fund-level investments and credit lines, although volumes are very limited compared to project-level private finance mobilisation. Volumes of private finance mobilised by financial support through domestic policies are estimated to considerably outweigh volumes of private finance mobilised by public co-finance for both renewable energy and energy efficiency.

2014
Biodiversity stewardship programmes, Land Reform Biodiversity Stewardship Initiative, People and Parks Programme, the budget of Working for Water grew by 151% from R477 million in 2009 to R1.196 billion in 2013.

Working for Water (WfW) programme, C.A.P.E. Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Development Project (GEF 2003), National Grasslands Biodiversity Program (GEF 2007)
Biodiversity stewardship programme and payment for ecosystem services; Biodiversity Stewardship Programme
Case studies for watershed protection markets: Stream flow reduction licences (SFRL); Case studies for landscape beauty markets: Access rights and ecotourism activities in Kwa-Zulu Natal
Partnership for Biodiversity and Sustainable Development: Supporting South Africa’s Cape Action for People and the Environment (CAPE) Program in the Cape Floristic Region
Experiences with the Natural Resources Management (NRM) programmes in South Africa: Reflecting on PES
Conservation Stewardship: Options for landowners
Conservation Stewardship: Pilot projects in the Swartland and Overberg
Payments for Ecosystem Services: towards improved biodiversity conservation and water security in South Africa, a semi-arid, developing country; Working for Water: Addressing social and environmental problems with payments for ecosystem services in South Africa; Working for Water Programme in South Africa (2010); Scientific challenges in the field of invasive plant management (2004); Invasive alien plants and water resources in South Africa: current understanding, predictive ability and research challenges (2004); Biological control in the management of invasive alien plants in South Africa, and the role of the Working for Water programme (2004); Working For Water Programme; WfW Position Paper on Biocontrol
Payments for Environmental Services in South Africa
NBSAP2005
Biodiversity for Development: South Africa’s landscape approach to conserving biodiversity and promoting ecosystem resilience (2010)
Enhancing incentives and resource mobilization for landscape protection in support of sustainable development in South Africa, by Wilma Lutsch, Department of Environmental Affairs
Community Development Foundation: Western Cape, Greater Rustenburg Community Foundation
2005 Philanthropy and Equity: The Case of South Africa
environmental policy and employment (working for water programme), expanded public works programme, Trade and environment
Skills for green jobs in South Africa (2010)
Green markets in biodiversity and information disclosure scheme, nature-based tourism
Tourism Certification, National Standards and Biodiversity Conservation, South Africa
South-South Cooperation and as a donor of ODA
national biodiversity offsets policy framework
Provincial guidelines on biodiversity offsets in Western Cape, Status 2011
environmental liability
Wetland Mitigation Banking: Assessing the Appropriateness of Wetland Mitigation Banking as a Mechanism for Securing Aquatic Biodiversity in the Grassland Biome of South Africa (2007)
79 notifications for the discovery phase of bioprospecting have been registered. Fifteen bioprospecting permits have been approved and 69 Material Transfer Agreements and 19 Benefit Sharing Agreements have been approved by the Minister of Water and Environmental Affairs
Farmer to Pharma programme; Case study
Traditional knowledge and intellectual property rights – The San & Hoodia
South Africa National Botanical Institute and Ball Horticulture Company (NBI-Ball Agreement)
ABS policy; Integrated export and Bioprospecting permit
Hoodia; Case study
Rapitrade
South Africa’s bioprospecting, access and benefit-sharing legislation: current realities, future complications, and a proposed alternative
Edakeni Muthi Futhi Trust (2011) bioprospecting permit
Values of Biodiversity
Baseline Valuation Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services
Valuation of Biodiversity Conservation by the South African Khomani San “bushmen” community
Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Strategic Environmental Assessment: Lessons from Influential Cases - Strategic Catchment Planning at uMhlathuze municipality (South Africa, 2006)
environmental economic accounts, green economy initiative, Estimate of economic values
The existence value of biodiversity in South Africa: how interest, experience, knowledge, income and perceived level of threat influence local willingness to pay
Economic Impacts of Transfrontier Conservation Areas: Baseline of Tourism in the Kavango–Zambezi TFCA
Water quality amelioration value of Fynbos Biome wetlands
Value of the San Rock Art in the uKhahlamba Drakensberg World Heritage Site
Environmental Economic Accounts: Water Management Areas in South Africa (2010), by Statistics South Africa
Fishery Accounts for South Africa 1990-2010 (2012), by Statistics South Africa
Environmental Accounting in Action: Case Studies from Southern Africa (2003), by Edward Elgar Publishing
Using Environmental Accounts to Promote Sustainable Development: Experience in Southern Africa (2003), by Blackwell Synergy
Proceedings & Papers of the Ninth Meeting of The London Group on Environmental Accounting (2004), by Statistics Denmark
Environmental Fiscal Reform for Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction - South Africa
greening the tax system (energy tax, toward a carbon tax), removing environmentally harmful subsidies (energy subsidies, agricultural support), reducing harmful subsidies and introducing positive fiscal measures
cross-sectoral coordination
Budget of the national branch dealing with the achievement of the objectives of the Convention is approximately USD3,000,000 (2006)
public environmental expenditure, public expenditure on biodiversity
Green Trust, Table Mountain Fund (TMF), Peace Parks Foundation, National Research Foundation, National Science Foundation, Fund for Research into Development, Growth and Equity. Fynbos Foundation
National Forest Recreation and Access Trust
(2000) Green Trust, Table Mountain Fund
(2009) Private Sector Initiatives (Biodiversity and Wine Initiative, fishing industry initiatives): participatory forest guideline series developed and being implemented, e.g. employing local communities as tour guides; initiatives being undertaken through Expanded Public Works Programmes e.g. Working for Water – use wood for coffins, Working for Wetlands etc; bioregional programmes create biodiversity-based projects to generate incomes for communities; conservation agencies, such as SANParks, promote projects for development using Community Based Natural Resource Management Programmes principles; government assisting traditional healers and communities to use biological resources sustainably (e.g. DWAF bark-harvesting programmes. CSIR agro-processing of indigenous plants used for oil extraction, medicinal plant nursery projects); ecotourism projects, for example, Wild Coast agreements with local communities to work at hotels etc.; Farmer to Pharma programme. Challenges: Public Private Partnership guidelines do not exist for all biodiversity-related sectors; No standards (certification of products, labelling, packaging standards etc) for natural products that will facilitate trade in products; Additional emphasis required on “value adding” of harvested resources, since the amount of resources harvested in most areas and species should not be increased; Limited progress in establishing a natural-based product sector, especially with focus on SMMEs; Concerns that projects may not create sustainable jobs; Support from strategic/ technical partners to communities to ensure sustainability of natural resource projects often lacking; Piecemeal and uncoordinated approach to partnerships
The South African Natural Heritage Programme (SANHP)provides the opportunity for individual and corporate landowners to participate actively in the protection of biodiversity and natural areas. The programme aims to encourage the protection of important natural sites, large or small, in private and public ownership. Not only private land, but also state land managed by different spheres of government, can be registered under the programme. By informing landowners of the special attributes of a particular site, registration as a Heritage Site reduces the possibility that significant natural features and the associated biodiversity may be unwittingly degraded or destroyed
(2002) Private Supply of Protected Land in Southern Africa: A Review of Markets, Approaches, Barriers and Issues: Private management structures are more effective in capturing the economic value of biodiversity, and thereby turning conservation into a competitive form of land use. Beside the economic benefits accruing to landowners, private reserves and game ranches provide the public good ‘biodiversity’ at zero cost to the tax-payer. The experience from southern Africa further supports the economic theory that secure property rights to land and wildlife are an essential ingredient in any strategy to conserve and encourage long-term investment in wildlife habitat. Markets for biological resources are responsible for the private supply of wildlife habitat, and any policy impairing the relative competitiveness of wildlife as a land use will have a direct impact on the private supply of biodiversity.
(2003) Transforming or Tinkering? New Forms of Engagement between Communities and the Private Sector in Tourism and Forestry in Southern Africa: There are too many unsuccessful examples to suggest that ‘making markets work for the poor’ happens easily or automatically. While some of the poor are earning or will gain cash incomes and economic opportunities, there is inequality in these opportunities, and insufficient attention paid to the participation of the poor in decision-making and to the trade-offs with other livelihood priorities. For the market to be helpful in alleviating poverty there needs to be a more level playing field; a recognition that markets are intensely politicised and easily captured by elites; and a willingness on behalf of the state to intervene in markets and address the issue of equity with redistributive mechanisms where necessary.
(2013) Standard Bank Group in South Africa: the integrated management system to implement the Equator Principles. Before granting a loan, Standard Bank evaluates the E&S risks of the project using E&S Risk Screening Tools. The bank identifies the extent of the risks, and communicates with the clients to see if they have the capabilities of risk control. During the loan-approval process, the bank’s environmental team will conduct a technical assessment of the project, and carry out internal and external due diligence based on the risk. E&S risk management is integrated throughout the five phases of the bank’s loan process: i) on-boarding, ii) re-credit committee, iii) credit, iv) legal documentation, and v) monitoring.
(2004) Integrating Mining and Biodiversity Conservation: Bushmanland Conservation Initiative. Plans announced by Anglo American in 1999 to develop a zinc mine in South Africa were met by strong protests from environmental organisations and groups concerned about the possible impact on biodiversity in the area. Yet systematic conservation planning at both regional and local scales contributes to building the basis for effective engagement between mining companies and the organisations concerned about biodiversity conservation.
(2013) In 2004, the Johannesburg Stock Exchange launched the Socially Responsible Investment Index, which assesses a company’s performance against four criteria: governance, society, environment and economy. Environmental scores are established through an assessment of environmental policies, management and reporting/disclosure practices. High environmental impact companies need to score highly to meet the requirements of the Index methodology. The Sustainable Finance Forum consists of members from the financial and industrial sectors and developed a Code of Conduct for its financing activities in line with the Equator Principles. The New Banking Initiative has been established as an umbrella process for green finance. The Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA)is involved in shaping and financing biodiversity conservation/sustainable use and employment-generating programmes such as the Dry Lands Fund and the Green Fund.
Eskom sustainability indices
ITQs for fisheries resources
Investment and environment, investing in environment- and climate- related infrastructure and services

South Sudan

Sudan
Economic benefits of biodiversity in Sudan 2001: economic history; economic development planning; the debt burden; drought displacement; war displacement; desertification; direct economic flow, including forests and woodland resources, non wood products, livestock, field crops, horticultural crops, agro-based industries, and Sudan export trade
National desertification fund
Perverse incentive to farmers in mechanized farming system
forestry, wildlife, natural resources & environmental studies education
NBSAP2000
Sudan - Seeking funds for setting up a biodiversity education center

Swaziland
2006
Natural Resource Accounting
Natural Resource Accounts for the state and economic contribution of forests and woodland resources in Swaziland (2002), by Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa
(2000) Swaziland Environment Fund
Rural Electrification Fund
cross-sectoral biodiversity coordination in national plans and strategies
(2001) Private Reserves. Big Game Parks is a privately owned body which manages three reserves in the country (Mlilwane & Mkhaya Game Reserves, and Hlane Royal National Park, which is held in trust for the Nation by the King). Big Game Parks, thus, contributes to the management of the country’s biodiversity. A few other title deed land (TDL) owners have turned to ecotourism as a business venture. Private reserves and game ranches, however, cover only a small area of Swaziland, and thus their contribution to the conservation and management of Swaziland’s biodiversity is still limited (mainly to larger mammals). However, the area of land dedicated to ecotourism and game farming (and other conservation-oriented activities) is steadily increasing with the result that these TDL areas may play an important role in the future.
(2011) The enabling environment for sustainable enterprises: An “EESE” Assessment
Improving Primary Producer Incomes through Organic Certification: The Marula Case Study from Swaziland (2007)
Organic Certification – Sustainable Harvesting Volume (2004)
NBSAP2001

Togo
Establishment of a National Environmental Fund (NEF)
agriculture, transport and infrastructure, energy, water resources, industry and mining, education, and environmental sector
2005
Swap Opportunities
NBSAP2003

Tunisia
Opportunities for Promoting Aromatic, Medicinal and Non-Ligneous Plants in Arid Regions in Tunisia (2007)
Organic agriculture and the law – Tunisia (2012)
Tunisian Agency for Technical Cooperation (ATCT)
Fonds de dépollution (FODEP); *fund for sylvo-pastoral development
Ministry of Economic Development and International Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources, Ministry of Higher Education, Scientific Research and Technology, Ministry of the Interior and Local Development, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Public Health, Ministry of Cultural Affairs
Swap with Sweden
projectcosts1998

Uganda
2014
Uganda 2014
Guidelines and Action Plan for Financing Biodiversity Conservation in Uganda, national resource mobilization strategy (March 2014)
Fifth national report. Limited to small projects, about US$2 million per year, Project on testing the effectiveness of payment for ecosystem services.
Trees for Global Benefits Programme under the Environmental Conservation Trust (ECOTRUST), National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA), National Climate Chnange Policy, National REDD+ strategy, ecosystem based adaptation projects
Financing gap for biodiversity conservation related investments estimated at $455 million/year (current financing $216 million vs $671 million required), financial resources increase by at least 5% by 2017
Guidelines and Action Plans for financing biodiversity conservation (Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development)
0.21 percent of Uganda’s coffer was exported as organic and 0.5 percent as sustainable coffer (including fair trade, organic and shade coffee), the premiums earned by farmers ranged between 22 and 35%. Organic certification system for the export of shea products from the Kidepo Criticial Landswcape.
Study on Building a Foundation for Sustainable Wildlife Trade i(review of the National Wildlife Trade Policies).
Kalagala –Itanda Offset Falls (part of IDA/World Bank Bujagali Hydropower Project), including the Mabira central forest reserve and the Nile Bank central forest reserve).
Annual contribution of ecosystem services decreased from US$5,097 million in 2005 to US$4,405 million in 2010, economic value of forest resources, bequest and existence value of ecosystems, valuation of Murchison Falls Conservation Area and Budongo Central Forest Reserve.
Central government biodiversity conservation-related investments (2004-05 to 2011-12). Since the 2005/06 financial year, the budgetary allocation for biodiversity conservation related investments at the national level have increased. Investments in tourism and wildlife management, environment management and agriculture have increased from $20 to $27.7 million, $65 to $82 million and $59 to $139 million for tourism and wildlife, water and environment and agriculture respectively. The financing gap for biodiversity conservation related investments in Uganda is estimated at $455 million/year. The current financing is $216 million while $671 million is required. The largest financing gaps is in the agriculture sector at $366 million/year.
Non-tax revenues generated by Uganda Wildlife Authority (2002-03 to 2011-12), National Forestry Authority generated revenues (2005-2010), Sustainable Fisheries User Levy, National Environment Fact: environmental levy on used vehicles, environmental tax on polythene bags and plastic containers and goods, exemptions from import duty on garbage trucks.
Bwindi Mgahinga Conservation Trust, Environment Fund, Tree Fund.
Budgeting, Expenditure Review And Status Of Financing (March 2014)
Financial report 2014. Coffee, beans, cotton, maize and simsim from organic farming.
Kalagala Sustainable Development Plan.
Research Fee, PIC, MTA and Access Permit, Revenue Sharing Programme.
high taxes on second hand commodities including cars, polythene.
Economic valuation of protected areas, Contribution of the Forest Sub-sector to National Economy.
Directly related central biodiversity expenditure: USD163,372,591 (2006), USD 221,886,905 (2007), USD 41,817,905 (2008), USD 29,442,396 (2009), USD 283,595,186 (2010), USD 303,552,107 (2011), USD 65,000,000 (2012), USD 145,600,000 (2013), USD 152,800,000 (2014)
Measures; Case study
2013
Total Economic Value of Wetlands Products and Services in Uganda, Willy Kakuru et al. Market price, Productivity, and Contingent valuation methods were used to estimate the value of wetland resources. The per capita value of fish was approximately US$ 0.49 person. Fish spawning was valued at approximately US$ 363,815 year, livestock pastures at US$ 4.24 million, domestic water use at US$34 million year, and the gross annual value added by wetlands to milk production at US$ 1.22 million. Flood control was valued at approximately US$ 1,702,934,880 hectare year and water regulation and recharge at US$ 7,056,360 hectare year.Through provision of grass for mulching, wetlands were estimated to contribute to US$ 8.65 million annually. The annual contribution of non-use values was estimated in the range of US$ 7.1 million for water recharge and regulation and to US$ 1.7 billion for flood control.
2010
Compensatory conservation, Biodiversity offset policy
Developing an Experimental Methodology for Testing the Effectiveness of Payments for Ecosystem Services to Enhance Conservation in Productive Landscapes in Uganda (GEF 2010)
Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Mgahinga-Bwindi Impenetrable Forest Conservation Trust – protected area; Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: Uganda Wildlife Society – a FACE project, Tree Farms AS - carbon forward option; Case studies for landscape beauty markets: Budongo Forest Ecotourism Project - package tourism & access rights, Kyambura Game Reserve – conservation agreements
Skills for green jobs in Uganda (2010)
2009
UNDP and UNEP: Making the Economic Case: A Primer on the Economic Arguments for Mainstreaming Poverty-Environment Linkages into National Development Planning. Emerton, L., L. Iyango, P. Luwum, and A. Malinga. 1999. “The Economic Value of Nakivubo Urban Wetland, Uganda. Nairobi: IUCN. In the face of pressures to drain and reclaim Nakivubo wetland for housing and industry, a study was carried out by the government Wetlands Inspectorate Division to assess the economic importance of Nakivubo for waste treatment and water quality. The study looked at the replacement costs of achieving equivalent wastewater treatment services from artificial technologies as well as the costs of remediating for the loss of the wetland through upgrading purification facilities at the city water supply plant. The study found that the wetland currently provides water quality services to urban dwellers valued at more than $2 million a year. Using this economic argument, and highlighting the role of Nakivubo as an essential part of Kampala’s water and sanitation infrastructure, plans to drain and reclaim the wetland were reversed and Nakivubo was designated part of the city’s greenbelt zone.
2007
Assessing the Market: Conversations with Private Sector Businesses About Payments for Ecosystem Services – A Letter from Uganda (2007)
Uganda National Climate Change Finance Analysis
NAPA
2002
NBSAP2002

Remittance Markets
2002
Key roles of the private sector will be to: invest in sustainable and environmentally-sound technologies; invest in alternative income-generating activities; contribute resources to support programmes on land management and biodiversity conservation.
Correcting the undervaluation of property rights in fisheries
Biotrade
Mainstreaming Sustainable Land Management in the National Biotrade programme – Case of Uganda
2000
Mgahinga and Bwindi Impenetrable Forest Conservation Trust, Environmental Conservation Trust
Uganda National Desertification Fund
1999
Uganda Biodiversity: Economic Assessment. Emerton, L., and E. Muramira. 1999. “Economic Assessment of Biodiversity in Uganda.” Kampala: National Environmental Management Authority, Government of Uganda.
Valuation of biodiversity
Nakivubo Swamp, Uganda: managing natural wetlands for their ecosystem services
Economic benefits of biodiversity exceed costs of conservation at an African rainforest reserve
1998, 2006, 2009
Mainstreaming environmental Issues into Budget Framework
Economic Instruments
Incentives for urban wetlands conservation in Nakivubo, Uganda
Removal and Mitigation of Perverse, and the Promotion of Positive, Incentives Measures for Biodiversity use and Conservation: Experiences from Uganda
national environment management policy, agriculture policy, national fisheries policy, energy policy, tourism policy 2003, draft national policy on plant genetic resources, national policy on biotechnology and biosafety (2008), decentralization policy (1994)
Mgahinga and Bwindi Impenetrable Forest Conservation Trust (MBIFCT)
Incorporated biodiversity in its Sector Wide Investment Plans (SWIPs)

United Republic of Tanzania
2017
IIED: Reconciling forest conservation with food production in sub-Saharan Africa: case studies from Ethiopia, Ghana and Tanzania. Phil Franks and Xiaoting Hou-Jones et al, IIED Research Report, London. Sectoral silos; Scale disconnects in land-use planning; Decentralised responsibilities without decentralised funding; Lack of accountability; The Jevons paradox; ‘Orphaned’ forests outside reserves; Poor understanding of fallowing; Institutional incentives for community-based forest management; Sensitivities on population growth; Information on food-crop exports; The myth of unused land; Village land-use planning; Youth rural–urban migration.
2014
The value of land resources in Tabora Region. Continued biodiversity loss, unsustainable utilization and associated degradation of a wide range of ecosystem services amounts to at least five percent (5%) of the national GDP and affects most severely the poor communities who depend most directly on their immediate environment for survival. Unreliable power supply due to drought resulting in decreased water levels in dams used for hydropower was estimated to cost about US$ 330 million annually (about 2% of the national GDP) in 2006. Conflict between humans and wildlife due to human encroachment in wildlife habitat is an increasing problem with records (by the end of 2009) showing that elephants kill approximately 40-50 people and injuring 30-40 people each year across the country.
Fifth national report. Trend of revenues accrued from Trophy hunting, live animal trade and photographic tourism (2009-2014)
Tanzania Wildlife Protection Fund (TWPF), National Environment Trust Fund, Tanzania Forest Fund, Eastern Arc Mountain Endowment Fund
2012
FSC Certification for maintaining ecosystem services, Tanzania (2012)
2009
UNDP and UNEP: Making the Economic Case: A Primer on the Economic Arguments for Mainstreaming Poverty-Environment Linkages into National Development Planning. In Tanzania, 97 percent percent of national energy requirements are met by fuelwood obtained from forests and trees on farm. In Mtanza-Msona Village in east-central Tanzania, the local value of woodland and wetland resources is equivalent to just over $107 per capita, or 37 percent of GDP. These resources are worth almost eight times as much as all other sources of farm and off-farm production for the poorest households in the village. The value of plant-based medicines is almost 15 times as high as purchased drugs and “modern” treatments, and the wide range of wild foods harvested is worth more than 14 times as much as poor households’ annual expenditures on food from the market.
Equitable Payments for Watershed Services
Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: Tree Farms AS carbon forward option
Paying for Results: WCS experience with direct incentives for conservation - Paying local communities not to convert grasslands to crops
Direct Payments & other mechanisms for ecosystem conservation: The Tanzania Land Conservation Trust in the Maasai Steppe , The Wildlife Conservation lease program in Kitengela
Tanzania National Climate Change Finance Analysis
Understanding readiness to access and use climate finance effectively
2008
Budget Support, Aid Instruments and the Environment: Tanzania Country Case Study (2008)
2006
Traditional Knowledge in the Parakuiyo Community (Maasai)
2003
MEMA project facilitates the transfer of user rights and ownership of natural woodlands and forest reserves to local communities, and encourages the establishment of village natural resource committees in charge of the management of the forests, based in a management plan developed by the villagers and facilitated by MEMA.
2002
Towards Natural Resource Accounting in Tanzania: a study on the contribution of national forests to income, by Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa
2001
NBSAP2001
2000
Tanzania Land Conservation Trust
Economic Valuation of Ihefu Wetland, *Value of Water Resources in the Pangani Basin
Environmental flow assessment taking into account the value of ecosystem services, Pangani River Basin
Catchment Ecosystems and Downstream Water: The Value of Water Resources in the Pangani Basin
Use of Economic Instruments
Tax exemptions on imported equipment and materials (NR3), Market arrangements between local communities and the private sector in the North-west Serengeti, Tanzania
Spending 2006
national strategy for growth and reduction of poverty; strategy for urgent actions on land degradation and water catchments; national wetlands management strategy; national environmental policy; agricultural sector; livestock sector; forestry sector; wildlife sector; fisheries sector; mining sector
Tanzania Wildlife Protection Fund, National Fund for Protected Area Management ( NFPAM- Zanzibar), Amani Nature Conservation Fund, Eastern Arc Endowment Fund, and National Environmental Trust Fund
Tanzania Forest Fund, (Zanzibar) Forestry Development Fund
Swap Opportunities
Swap with Switzerland

Zambia
2009
Making the Economic Case: A Primer on the Economic Arguments for Mainstreaming Poverty-Environment Linkages into National Development Planning. In Zambia, 70 per¬cent of national energy requirements are met by fuelwood obtained from forests and trees on farm.
Paying for Results: WCS experience with direct incentives for conservation - Community Markets for Conservation (COMACO)
Understanding Climate Finance Readiness Needs in Zambia
Understanding readiness to access and use climate finance effectively
Diaspora Engagement and Mobilization Framework for Zambia
(2013) The enabling environment for sustainable enterprises in Zambia
budgetary allocation of US$1,000 for subscriptions (2006)
Incentive Measures for Sustainable Use and Conservation of Agrobiodiversity: Experiences and Lessons from Southern Africa – Seed legislation in Zambia and possible incentives for use and conservation of agrobiodiversity
Swap Opportunities
Commercial debt swaps
feasibility study to develop a trust fund for the environment
Forest Revenue Fund, Forest Development Fund, Fund for Joint Forest Management
Community Markets for Conservation
Economic value of Barotse Floodplain
Barotse Floodplain, Zambia: local economic dependence on wetland resources
(2011) The Economics of Managing Crop Diversity On-farm: Consumers’ attribute preferences and traders’ challenges affecting the use of local maize and groundnut varieties in Lusaka, Zambia: Implications for crop diversity policy
policy for national parks and wildlife, national forestry policy, fisheries policy, national agricultural policy, national energy policy, national lands policy, mines and minerals development policy; sector programmes, like Zambia forestry action programme, provincial forestry action programme, agricultural support programme, food security pack, environment and natural resources management and mainstreaming programme; *Creating and protecting Zambia’s wealth: experience and next steps in environmental mainstreaming

Zimbabwe
2009
UNDP and UNEP: Making the Economic Case: A Primer on the Economic Arguments for Mainstreaming Poverty-Environment Linkages into National Development Planning. Zimbabwe demonstrates that environmental resources make a significant contribution to the income of most households. For the poorest quintile, however, their relative role is by far the greatest: around 40 percent of total income.
Case studies for watershed protection markets: Integrated Catchment Management in Dryland Areas - watershed protection contracts
CAMPFIRE and payments for environmental services
CAMPFIRE programme
University of Lausanne – Phytera
establishment of an Environment Fund
(2003) Government departments and NGOs have gone into partnership with the private sector. In such partnership, the private sector finances specific activities. The success of such partnerships has depended on: a demonstration of accountability and transparency by the receiving institution, a commitment to corporate responsibility by the private sector partner, clarity in the deliverables and impact of the project.
(1996) The Economics of Wildlife: Case Studies from Ghana, Kenya, Namibia, and Zimbabwe
Values of biodiversity
(1993) Sustainable National Income and Natural Resource Degradation. Initial Results for Zimbabwe, by CSERGE
(1998) Incorporating Fuelwood Production and Consumption into the National Accounts. A case study for Zimbabwe, by FAO
(2002) Accounting for Forest Resources in Zimbabwe, by Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa
Nominal Zimbabwe government expenditure on issues related to biodiversity conservation (ZS million in real terms) (Forestry Commission, Natural Resources, National Parks, Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Research, Water Resources): 276 (1987-88), 274 (1988-89), 187 (89-90), 237 (90-91), 187 (91-92), 272 (92-93), 202 (93-94), 169 (94-95), 162 (95-96), 137 (96-97)
Wildlife based land reform policy, forest based land reform policy, draft national agricultural policy, national energy policy, water and sanitation sector policy, environment education policy
Public Sector Investment Programme (PSIP) contains provisions to relevant departments and institutions
NBSAP1998

Events

Subregion
Financial Planning for Biodiversity in Eastern and Northern Africa
Financial Planning in Middle Africa
Financial Planning in North Africa
Financial Planning for Biodiversity in Southern Africa
Financial Planning for Biodiversity in Western Africa
Central African Forest Commission (COMIFAC): Central African initiatives to combat proaching, by Chouaibou Nchoutpouen, Biodiversity and Desertification Programme Officer
COMIFAC: Feasibility Study on Financing Mechanisms for Conservation and Sustainable Management of Central African Forests
Approaches for Identifying Economic Potentials for Genetic Resources under ABS in Africa: Outcomes of a 6 Country ABS Capacity Building Project (Cameroon, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Senegal, South Africa) under GEF-4, hosted by the ABS Capacity Development Initiative jointly with UNEP Division of Environmental Law (DELC);
Patent Activity for Biodiversity and Traditional Knowledge from Africa, by Paul Oldham, One World Analytics & UNU-IAS
Keeping Track of Adaptation Actions in Africa. Targeted Fiscal Stimulus Actions Making a Difference

Africa
African Union (AU) - African Ministerial Conference on the Environment (AMCEN) (UNEP, UNECA) (every two years)
Environment Initiative for the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD)
African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (Algiers Convention)
Convention for the Protection, Management and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the Eastern African Region (Nairobi Convention) Convention for Cooperation in the Protection and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the West and Central African Region (Abidjan Convention)
Lusaka Agreement on Co-operative Enforcement Operations Directed at Illegal Trade in Wild Fauna and Flora
Community of Sahel- Saharan States (CEN-SAD)

North Africa
Arab Maghreb Union (AMU)
Regional Organization for the Conservation of the Environment of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden (PERSGA)
League of Arab States
Convention for the Conservation of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Environment (Jeddah Convention)
Protocol concerning Regional Cooperation in Combating Pollution by Oil and other Harmful Substances in Cases of Emergency

Central Africa
Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC): CEMAC Environmental Action Plan Conference of Ministers for the Forests of Central Africa (COMIFAC): Summit of Head of States of Central Africa on the Conservation and Sustainable Management of the Forest Ecosystems; Congo Basin Forests Partnership; COMIFAC Convergence Plan
Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS): Implementation of NEPAD Environmental Initiative; General policy on environment and natural resource management

East Africa
East African Community (EAC)
Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA)
Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD)
Indian Ocean Commission (IOC)
Nairobi Convention on the Protection and Management of the Coastal and Marine Environment of the Eastern African Region
Protocol concerning Protected Areas and Wild Fauna and Flora in the Eastern African Region
Protocol concerning Co-operation in Combating Marine Pollution in Cases of Emergency in the Eastern African Region

West Africa
Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)
West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU)
Common Policy to Improve the Environment (WAEMU)
Convention for Co-operation in the Protection and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the West and Central African Region (Abidjan Convention)

Southern Africa
Southern Africa Development Community (SADC): SADC Regional Biodiversity Action Plan; The Protocol on Wildlife Conservation and Law Enforcement (1999)

  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme