National financing: Africa

Algeria
2009
Making the Economic Case: A Primer on the Economic Arguments for Mainstreaming Poverty-Environment Linkages into National Development Planning. In Algeria, presentation of data on the economic costs of environmental degradation to high-level political decision-makers led to new investments of around $450 million being made in environmental protection.

Benin
Programme for South-South Cooperation between Benin, Bhutan, Costa Rica and the Kingdom of the Netherlands

Botswana
2017
World Bank: The Global Partnership on Wealth Accounting and the Valuation of Ecosystem Services. Even though per-person water use decreased by 12% between 1990 and 2011, a growing population means that overall water use increased by 28%. Most of the water used is groundwater, which may not be sustainable if it is not allowed to replenish. Agriculture and livestock are important for livelihoods. However, they use more than 40% of the available water and contribute less than 3% to GDP, and little to formal employment. Services is the most successful sector in terms of water productivity: it contributes almost 50% of GDP, uses only 5% of water, and provides the most formal employment.

Burundi
(2011) Watershed Approach to Sustainable Coffee Production in Burundi (GEF 2011)
Plan Stratégique d’Investissement et de Mobilisation des Ressources Financières dans le domaine de la Biodiversité 2013-2020

Cameroon
2016
World Bank: Biodiversity Offsets: A User Guide, October 2016. Case Study: Cameroon Lom Pangar Hydropower. As a biodiversity offset for the Lom Pangar Dam, an area comprising 58,000 ha of the Deng Deng forest was gazetted as a National Park in March 2010. In terms of area, this was a 1-to-1 offset for the 54,000 ha of inundated land and the 4,000 ha footprint of associated Project infrastructure. During Project preparation, it was estimated that EDC would collect about US$29 million annually in water use tariffs from the two existing hydro¬electric plants downstream of the Project. This was estimated to be more than sufficient to pay for the annual operating and maintenance costs of the Lom Pangar Dam, including the contin¬ued protection and management of the Deng Deng National Park as well as the other recur¬rent costs of Project environmental mitigation. Under the financing agreement with the World Bank, the Government is expected to either (i) adopt a water tariff structure which will pay for the recurrent costs of the Deng Deng National Park or (ii) provide an alternative financing mechanism to the satisfaction of the Bank. Until such a financing mechanism is in place, funding from the French Development Agency (AFD) loan for the Lom Pangar Project are being used to cover Park operating costs.
The Forestry Taxation System and the Involvement of Local Communities in Forest Management in Cameroon
Structural Adjustment and Sustainable Development in Cameroon: A WWF Study
2009
Incentive Measures for Sustainable Use and Conservation of Agrobiodiversity: Experiences and Lessons from Southern Africa – Commercialization as an incentive and threat for Gnetum Spp. (Eru) in Cameroon
Making the Economic Case: A Primer on the Economic Arguments for Mainstreaming Poverty-Environment Linkages into National Development Planning. In Cameroon, forests make up from just under 30 percent to more than 40 percent of national exports. A quarter of Cameroon’s taxes come from timber. The economic value of floodplain restoration in the Waza Logone floodplain and return on investment can be significant. Adding just under $2.5 million a year to the regional economy—or $3,000 per square kilometre of flooded area—the benefits of reinundation will have equaled initial investment costs in less than five years. Investment in flood restoration measures shows an economic net present value of $7.76 million and a benefit-cost ratio of 6.5:1. Ecological and hydrological restoration will also have significant impacts on local poverty alleviation, food security and economic well-being.
Cameroon Foundation Tri-Nationale de la Sangha
Cane Rat Domestication Programme
The Green Sahel Reforestation Programme
Waza Logone Floodplain, Cameroon: economic benefits of wetland restoration
An International Cooperative Bioprospecting Effort and the Evolution of Legislation
Ancistrocladus korupensis: A Species with Pharmaceutical Potential from Cameroon
Sustainable Harvesting of Prunus africana on Mount Cameroon: Benefit-Sharing between Plantecam Company and the Village of Mapanja; Prunus africana as a genetic resource

Central African Republic
2009
OECD: Natural Resources and Pro-Poor Growth, The Economics and Politics, DAC Guidelines and Reference Series, A Good Practice Paper. In the Central African Republic, forests make up from just under 30 percent to more than 40 percent of national exports.

Democratic Republic of the Congo
2016
World Bank: Balancing Mining Development and Forest Conservation in the Congo Basin. Strengthening Land Use Planning in the Republic of Congo: Assessment, Proposed Roadmap, and Draft Implementation Plan. The associated infrastructure—roads, railroads, and energy supplies—needed to extract, process, and market mineral resources and agricultural production is a particular concern, because of the wider impact on communities and forested landscapes beyond individual investment sites. 2014
Costs of protected areas in the Niger Delta – Congo Basin Forest Region
UNDP and UNEP: Making the Economic Case: A Primer on the Economic Arguments for Mainstreaming Poverty-Environment Linkages into National Development Planning. De Merode, E., K. Homewood, and G. Cowlishaw. 2003. “Wild Resources and Livelihoods of Poor Households in Democratic Republic of Congo.” Wildlife Policy Briefing Paper No. 1. London: Overseas Development Institute. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, wild foods comprise around one-third of household production. Wild meat, fish and plants contribute 3, 6 and 10 percent, respec¬tively, of the total value of the food consumed in the household, corresponding to 0.04, 0.06 and 0.11 kilograms per day, respectively. They also make an important contribution to household income—thus indirectly increasing food security—generating twice as much for household sales as crops.

Djibouti
1998
Djibouti Biodiversity: Economic Assessment. "La Diversité Biologique de Djibouti: Analyse Economique, Bureau Nationale de la Diversité Biologique, Direction de l’Environnement, Ministère de l’Environnement, du Tourisme et de l’Artisanat.” L. Emerton. Government of Djibouti. In times of severe drought, Djibouti’s pastoral population relies on emergency foods col¬lected from woodlands. Since these food supplies can be worth up to $2 million, this makes for large tangible savings on the part of the government and donors in terms of food relief expenditures.

Egypt
2010
Law for the Environment
Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Strategic Environmental Assessment: Lessons from Influential Cases - West Delta Water Conservation and Irrigation Rehabilitation Project (Egypt, 2006)
Water transfer project influenced by ecosystem services valuation
Development of community-based eco-tourism
Skills for green jobs in Egypt (2010)
Egypt's Submission on Resource Mobilization Strategy

Eritrea
(1998) Eritrea Biodiversity: Economic Assessment

Ethiopia
2017
IIED: Reconciling forest conservation with food production in sub-Saharan Africa: case studies from Ethiopia, Ghana and Tanzania. Phil Franks and Xiaoting Hou-Jones et al, IIED Research Report, London. Forest sector’s economic potential is underestimated; Changes in institutional arrangements; Lack of political support for biodiversity conservation; Lack of information on commercial farming; Lack of funding to support policy implementation.
(2010) Prospect of Reconciling Conservation and poverty Reduction in the forest Coffee landscapes of Ethiopia: the Role of PES

Ethiopia 2014
Incentive Measures for Sustainable Use and Conservation of Agrobiodiversity: Experiences and Lessons from Southern Africa – Experiences with community seed banks in Ethiopia
(2012)The Access and Benefit-Sharing Agreement on Teff Genetic Resources
(2006)Beneftit sharing in the teff case; Institute of Biodiversity Conservation of Ethiopia and Vernique Biotech Ltd (UK) (2009)The Value of the Ethiopian Protected Area System: Message to Policy Makers, by Ethiopian Wildlife Conservation Authority (EWCA)
(2011)The Economics of Managing Crop Diversity On-farm: Economic analysis of Ethiopian farmers’ preferences for crop variety attributes: A choice experiment approach; Farmers’ perceptions on replacement and loss of traditional crop varieties: Examples from Ethiopia and implications
(2014) Directly related central biodiversity expenditure in million US dollars: 2 (2006), 3 (2007), 5 (2008), 6 (2009), 10 (2010)


Gambia
2009
Making the Economic Case: A Primer on the Economic Arguments for Mainstreaming Poverty-Environment Linkages into National Development Planning. The fisheries sector contributes more than 5 percent in Gambia.

Ghana
2017
IIED: Reconciling forest conservation with food production in sub-Saharan Africa: case studies from Ethiopia, Ghana and Tanzania. Phil Franks and Xiaoting Hou-Jones et al, IIED Research Report, London. Ambiguous ecological zoning; Outdated and unclear land-use type definitions; Sectoral planning silos; Conflicting objectives in the middle of the country; Can the north feed the country? Trade-offs between meeting domestic food demand and exports; Aligning national and local land-use priorities; A bleak future for biodiversity.
Realising REDD: Implications of Ghana’s Current Legal Framework for Trees
Removal of fuel subsidies
Remittances and Poverty in Ghana
Hunting to Extinction: Addressing the Threat of the Bushmeat Trade to Wildlife in the Upper Guinea Forest (2004)
Increasing incomes and food security of small farmers in West and Central Africa through exports of organic and fair-trade tropical products (2009)
Akyem gold mine offset project
Access to, equity and protection of genetic resources in Ghana: The case of tilapia (O. niloticus)
Case study
The Economics of Wildlife: Case Studies from Ghana, Kenya, Namibia, and Zimbabwe (1996)

Guinea
Rio Tinto Simandou offset project

Guinea-Bissau
2009
OECD: Natural Resources and Pro-Poor Growth, The Economics and Politics, DAC Guidelines and Reference Series, A Good Practice Paper. Between 1993 and 1999, fishery access agreements with foreign fleets provided 30 percent of government revenues in Guinea-Bissau.

Kenya
2014
Green Economy Assessment: economic benefits estimated USD 45 billion by 2030 as well as greater food security, a cleaner environment and higher productivity of natural resources
2009
Making the Economic Case: A Primer on the Economic Arguments for Mainstreaming Poverty-Environment Linkages into National Development Planning. Subsistence-level forest use in 2001 was worth more than 20 times as much as formal sector .commercial forestry earnings in Kenya.
2006
Wild Life Conservation in Amboseli, Kenya: Paying for Nonuse Values (2006)
Growing farm timber: practices, markets and policies - The Meru timber marketing pilot programme case studies and reviews
2005
Bioprospecting for enzymes in protected areas
The Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS), The International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), and Novozymes and Diversa (Verenium) Corporation: Agreements in the Industrial Biotech Sector
1996
The Economics of Wildlife: Case Studies from Ghana, Kenya, Namibia, and Zimbabwe
Sasumua Water Treatment Plant: Private payments to local farmers for improved water quality using payments for ecosystem services in Kenya
Watamu Beach Turtle Watch Nest Protection Programme, Kenya
Stumpage fee reform
Livelihood and market incentives for sustainable land use in natural woodland areas of Kibwezi, Financial and policy instruments for the conservation of Mount Kenya Forest
Structural Adjustment and Environmental Linkages: A Case Study of Kenya
East Africa Breweries Limited Foundation, Jomo Kenyatta Foundation, KCB Foundation
Kenyan Diaspora Philanthropy: Key Practices, Trends and Issues
Good Wood
opportunity costs of biodiversity conservation
Economic Constraints to the Management of Marine Protected Areas: the Case of Kisite Marine National
Valuing the Subsistence Use of Forest Products in Oldonyo Orok Forest, Kenya
(2009) Government institutions, public expenditure and the role of development partners: Meeting Kenya’s environmental challenges

Liberia
2016
World Bank: Biodiversity Offsets: A User Guide, October 2016. Case Study: Liberia Nimba Western Range Iron Ore. ArcelorMittal Liberia’s Biodiversity Conservation Program (BCP) is intended to compensate for residual adverse impacts to biodiversity resulting from the company’s operations. Conservation agreements are being implemented at six initial sites started in 2015, expanding to more sites in 2016 and subsequent years. Under Phase 1 of the mining (since 2011), ArcelorMittal has been funding the BCP by itself, although CI is bringing some complementary funding support. In 2016, AML also entered an agreement with the IDH Sustainable Trade Initiative, which provided counterpart funding to allow the program to expand. For the longer term, the feasibility is being examined of establishing a Conservation Trust Fund that would sustain the program in perpetuity.
2009
OECD: Natural Resources and Pro-Poor Growth, The Economics and Politics, DAC Guidelines and Reference Series, A Good Practice Paper. In Liberia, forests make up from just under 30 percent to more than 40 percent of national exports.

Madagascar
2016
World Bank: Biodiversity Offsets: A User Guide, October 2016. Case Study: Madagascar Ambatovy Minerals. Ambatovy has identified multiple offset sites, including two azonal forest areas and a large block of zonal forest within the Conservation Zone, totaling 3,634 ha. In addition, there are three off-site forest offsets totaling 18,225 ha. Additionally, Ambatovy supports forest conservation in com¬munity management areas around the mine (2,937 ha).
2014
Habitat Conservation: the dynamics of direct and indirect payments
Slowing Tropical Forest Biodiversity Losses: Cost and Compensation Considerations
Voluntary projects
Economic analysis of protected area network
Valuing Tropical Forests: Methodology and Case Study of Madagascar
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and Centre National d’Application et des Recherches Pharmaceutiques/Madagascar
2009
UNDP and UNEP: Making the Economic Case: A Primer on the Economic Arguments for Mainstreaming Poverty-Environment Linkages into National Development Planning. Earnings from traditional healing practices in Madagascar are thought to exceed $10 million a year, and occupy around 10,000 individuals.

Malawi
2014
Malawi 2014 preliminary reporting
chapter on environmental sustainability in 2014/15 budget guidelines. Estimated 5.3% of GDP loss due to unsustainable use of natural resources in 2011
Directly related central biodiversity expenditure in US dollars: 2,000(2010), 1,500(2011), 3,000(2012), 1,800(2013)
Three permits have so far been issued to Transglobe Produce Limited and Tree Crops Limited for export of genetic materials
2013
The enabling environment for sustainable enterprises in Malawi
Guidelines for the Preparation of the 2013/14 Budget
2011
Economic Study
2010
Guidance note on how to integrate the environment into the budget process in Malawi (2010)
Guidance note on how to integrate the environment into the budget process in Malawi
2009
UNDP and UNEP: Making the Economic Case: A Primer on the Economic Arguments for Mainstreaming Poverty-Environment Linkages into National Development Planning. In Malawi, about 90 percent percent of national energy requirements are met by fuelwood obtained from forests and trees on farm.
2006
Generating benefits with wildlife trade

Mali
Skills for green jobs in Mali (2010)
2008
Budget Support, Aid Instruments and the Environment: Mali Country Case Study (2008)
2005
Structural Adjustment and Sustainable Development in Mali: A WWF Study
Costs of Damages and Remediation

Mauritania
2009
OECD: Natural Resources and Pro-Poor Growth, The Economics and Politics, DAC Guidelines and Reference Series, A Good Practice Paper. The fisheries sector contributes more than 5 percent in Mauritania. Between 1993 and 1999, fishery access agreements with foreign fleets provided 15 percent of government revenues in Mauritania.
Costs and Benefits of Natural Resources Management; *Costs of Degradation

Mauritius
Mauritius 2014
Green jobs in Mauritius (2013)
(2014) Filming in Parks, Eco-tourism activities, Hawkers Operations (sales), Green Fund from Private Company (IBL), Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
(2014) NGO biodiversity expenditure (2010): 40,000 MUR by Mauritius Marine Conservation Society and Mauritian Wildlife Foundation
Indian Ocean Rim initiative - Integrated Regional Indian Ocean Commission Project
(2014) Central biodiversity expenditure: USD8,349,000 (2010)

Reforming the Tax System to Promote Environmental Objectives: An Application to Mauritius (2011)

Morocco
A circular economy approach to agrobiodiversity conservation in the Souss Massa Drâa region of Morocco
Climate Public Expenditure and Institutional Review
Argan oil
Caisse de Dépôt et de Gestion (CDG)

Mozambique
2016
A National Biodiversity Offset System: A Road Map for Mozambique, October 2016. The Mozambique Protected Area (PA) network includes both publicly managed areas (parks and reserves) and privately managed ones (such as hunting reserves and games farms) and covers 26% of the country’s land area. The PA network does contain representative samples of most of Mozambique’s biodiversity, but it is severely underfunded, receiving an estimated 9% of the funds it needs annually to provide a basic “no frills” level of biodiversity maintenance. Additional funding from offsets into the PA network would create positive biodiversity impacts and would serve to aggregate individual offsets. Getting the Legal Framework in Place; Determining the Most Suitable Geographic Locations for Offsets; Developing Implementation Mechanisms for an Aggregate Offset System (Activity 1: What are the Biodiversity Offsetting Activities and Where Will They Be Carried Out? Activity 2: How Will the Biodiversity Offset Be Managed? Activity 3: How will the Biodiversity Offset be Funded Over Time? Activity 4: How will the Offset be Monitored and Evaluated?)
2015
WWF: Understanding and Valuing Marine Ecosystem Services in the Northern Mozambique Channel, Nunes P and Ghermandi A. Major ecosystem services valued: Provisioning (Large scale fishing, Artisanal fishing, Mariculture), Cultural (Coastal tourism and recreation), Regulating (Carbon sequestration, Coastal erosion prevention).
2010
Pilot offsets with Dutch companies
2009
UNDP and UNEP: Making the Economic Case: A Primer on the Economic Arguments for Mainstreaming Poverty-Environment Linkages into National Development Planning. In Mozambique, 80 percent per¬cent of national energy requirements are met by fuelwood obtained from forests and trees on farm.
Economic Analysis of Natural Resources
2008
Environmental Institutions, Public Expenditure and the Role for Development Partners: Mozambique Case Study

Namibia
Mainstreaming, Marthin Kasaona, Ministry of Environment and Tourism, Department of Environmental Affairs. Biodiversity expenditure: over 0.6% of GDP in 2008/9, nearly 0.8% of GDP in 2010/11, above 0.6% of GDP in 2012/3.
Namibia 2014: environmental taxes (Carbon Dioxide emission tax on motor vehicles, incandescent light bulbs and motor vehicle tyres).
Enforcing Wildlife Law and Preventing Wildlife Crime in Namibia, Department of Environmental Affairs, MET MET/GIZ Biodiversity Management and Climate Change Project
Development of a Baseline of Biodiversity Expenditure in Namibia, 2014: Final Report and Annexes. Namibia Nature Foundation.
Incentives affecting biodiversity conservation and sustainable use: the case of land use options in Namibia (1996)
Understanding Climate Finance Readiness Needs in Namibia
(2003) Appropriate Ownership Models for Natural Product-based Small and Medium Enterprises in Namibia
Introducing sustainable fisheries management
Communal area conservancies
KAZA Tranfrontier Conservation Area (co-managed by Namibia, Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Botswana) Ai-Ais Richtersveld Transfrontier Conservation Area (co-managed by Namibia and South Africa through technical working groups on tourism; security and safety; finance; and conservation)
ABS agreements for commiphora resin
Strategic environmental management plan
Tourism valuation
The Economics of Wildlife: Case Studies from Ghana, Kenya, Namibia, and Zimbabwe (1996)
Park pricing and economic efficiency in Namibia (2002)
Wildlife Use for Economic Gain the potential for wildlife to contribute to development in Namibia (1996)
Tourists' willingness to pay for wildlife viewing and wildlife conservation in Namibia (1997)
Economics without markets: Policy inferences from nature-based tourism studies in Namibia (2002)
(2014) Central biodiversity expenditure (2010) - approximately 2.9% of total expenditure and 0.9% of GDP was spent on biodiversity
Implementing the Agenda of the Namibian Ministry of Environment and Tourism: A Rapid Country Environmental Analysis with a Public Expenditure Review for Aligning Policy, Institutional and Financing Priorities
Understanding readiness to access and use climate finance effectively

Nigeria
Trade liberalization and environmental quality in rubber and cocoa plantations
The UK-Nigeria Remittance Corridor: Challenges of Embracing Formal Transfer Systems in a Dual Financial Environment
Economic Importance of Wild Resources in the Hadejia-Nguru Wetlands

Rwanda
2017
World Bank: Rwanda Natural Capital Accounting - Land Accounts: Progress, Key Findings, Next Steps, February 2017. The land accounts provide information about land use change, land availability and productivity, as well as potential constraints to agricultural growth. Among the major findings from the land accounts, it was found that, in 2014 and 2015, agriculture dominated land uses across all of Rwanda’s provinces. About 70 per cent of all land used falls under the agriculture and forestry sector. In addition, land cover map results revealed that between 1990 and 2010, there has been a decline of woodland and an increase in cropland, while the area of dense forest declined by half during this 20-year period. The results also revealed that sparse forest cover decreased while the area of settlements had doubled.
World Bank: Rwanda Natural Capital Accounting - Water Accounts: Progress, Key Findings, Next Steps, February 2017. Rwanda’s water resources are currently under pressure from population growth and rapid economic development, including the intensification of agriculture, and increasing urbanization and industrialization. Preliminary results from the accounts revealed that, between 2012 and 2015, agriculture was the highest consumer of water, followed by educational institutions and households. Another finding was that agricultural water was the largest contributor to both GDP and employment.
2014
PES around the Nyungwe National Park
PES and poverty reduction
2010
Payment for Ecosystem Services and Poverty Reduction in Rwanda (2010)
2006
Public Environmental Expenditure Review
PEER manual
Review of Existing and Potential Environmental Fiscal Reform
Exemptions by law on donations in general (NR3), Tax exemption on subsidy on Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), Water user fees for irrigation, Annual Environmental Award for Best (Industrial) practice, Property rights for communities to participate in reforestation and afforestation on public land in all districts
Economic Analysis of Natural Resource Management
State of the Environment

São Tomé and Príncipe
2009
OECD: Natural Resources and Pro-Poor Growth, The Economics and Politics, DAC Guidelines and Reference Series, A Good Practice Paper. The fisheries sector contributes more than 5 percent in Sao Tomé. Between 1993 and 1999, fishery access agreements with foreign fleets provided 13 percent of government revenues in Sao Tomé.

Senegal
2017
Climate Change Adaptation and Financial Protection: Synthesis of Key Findings from Colombia and Senegal, by Gisela Campillo, Michael Mullan, Lola Vallejo, OECD Environment Working Papers, No. 120, OECD Publishing, Paris. Cost of adaptation actions in Senegal 2016-2035: US$ 14,558 million. Financial protection tool: Insurance mechanisms (African Risk Capacity, National Company of Agricultural Insurance (CNAAS) products, Microinsurance initiatives (WFP R4 initiative, private insurers); Savings or reserve funds (Bonus Fund, Guarantee Fund, Calamity Fund, Household Savings); Ex-ante social protection (National Programme of Family Security Grants (PNSBF); Adaptive Safety Net program); Humanitarian relief and compensation payments (Emergency Funds from donors (USAID, UNOCHA))
The Economic Value of Wild Resources in Senegal: A preliminary evaluation of non-timber forest products, game and freshwater fisheries

Seychelles
Bioprospecting of coco de mer
Environment Management Plan of Seychelles EMPS 2000 – 2010: Managing for Sustainability
Economic Assessment of Seychelles Biodiversity, L. Emerton. Conservation and National Parks Section, Division of Environment, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Planning and Environment. Mahé, Republic of Seychelles. Environmental goods and services contribute up to a quarter of all employment opportunities, one-third of government revenues and two-thirds of foreign exchange earnings.

Sierra Leone
Increasing incomes and food security of small farmers in West and Central Africa through exports of organic and fair-trade tropical products (2009)

Somalia
Remittances and Economic Development in Somalia: An Overview
Migrant Remittances as a Development Tool: The Case of Somaliland

South Africa
2017
OECD: Estimating publicly-mobilised private finance for climate action: A South African case study, OECD Environment Working Papers, No. 125, OECD Publishing, Paris. Between 2010 and 2015, South African public co-finance is estimated to have mobilised 64% out of a total of USD 10.1 billion (ZAR 95.4 billion). This is particularly the case for South African development banks such as the Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA) and the Industrial Development Corporation (IDC). International actors play a complementary mobilisation role through upstream fund-level investments and credit lines, although volumes are very limited compared to project-level private finance mobilisation. Volumes of private finance mobilised by financial support through domestic policies are estimated to considerably outweigh volumes of private finance mobilised by public co-finance for both renewable energy and energy efficiency.
Biodiversity stewardship programme and payment for ecosystem services; Biodiversity Stewardship Programme
Partnership for Biodiversity and Sustainable Development: Supporting South Africa’s Cape Action for People and the Environment (CAPE) Program in the Cape Floristic Region
Experiences with the Natural Resources Management (NRM) programmes in South Africa: Reflecting on PES
Conservation Stewardship: Options for landowners
Conservation Stewardship: Pilot projects in the Swartland and Overberg
Payments for Ecosystem Services: towards improved biodiversity conservation and water security in South Africa, a semi-arid, developing country; Working for Water: Addressing social and environmental problems with payments for ecosystem services in South Africa; Working for Water Programme in South Africa (2010); Scientific challenges in the field of invasive plant management (2004); Invasive alien plants and water resources in South Africa: current understanding, predictive ability and research challenges (2004); Biological control in the management of invasive alien plants in South Africa, and the role of the Working for Water programme (2004)
Biodiversity for Development: South Africa’s landscape approach to conserving biodiversity and promoting ecosystem resilience (2010)
Community Development Foundation: Western Cape, Greater Rustenburg Community Foundation
2005 Philanthropy and Equity: The Case of South Africa
environmental policy and employment (working for water programme), expanded public works programme, Trade and environment
Skills for green jobs in South Africa (2010)
Green markets in biodiversity and information disclosure scheme, nature-based tourism
Tourism Certification, National Standards and Biodiversity Conservation, South Africa
South-South Cooperation and as a donor of ODA
Provincial guidelines on biodiversity offsets in Western Cape, Status 2011
environmental liability
Wetland Mitigation Banking: Assessing the Appropriateness of Wetland Mitigation Banking as a Mechanism for Securing Aquatic Biodiversity in the Grassland Biome of South Africa (2007)
Case study
Traditional knowledge and intellectual property rights – The San & Hoodia
ABS policy; Integrated export and Bioprospecting permit
Rapitrade
South Africa’s bioprospecting, access and benefit-sharing legislation: current realities, future complications, and a proposed alternative
Baseline Valuation Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services
Valuation of Biodiversity Conservation by the South African Khomani San “bushmen” community
Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Strategic Environmental Assessment: Lessons from Influential Cases - Strategic Catchment Planning at uMhlathuze municipality (South Africa, 2006)
environmental economic accounts, green economy initiative, Estimate of economic values
The existence value of biodiversity in South Africa: how interest, experience, knowledge, income and perceived level of threat influence local willingness to pay
Economic Impacts of Transfrontier Conservation Areas: Baseline of Tourism in the Kavango–Zambezi TFCA
Water quality amelioration value of Fynbos Biome wetlands
Value of the San Rock Art in the uKhahlamba Drakensberg World Heritage Site
Environmental Economic Accounts: Water Management Areas in South Africa (2010), by Statistics South Africa
Fishery Accounts for South Africa 1990-2010 (2012), by Statistics South Africa
Environmental Accounting in Action: Case Studies from Southern Africa (2003), by Edward Elgar Publishing
Using Environmental Accounts to Promote Sustainable Development: Experience in Southern Africa (2003), by Blackwell Synergy
Proceedings & Papers of the Ninth Meeting of The London Group on Environmental Accounting (2004), by Statistics Denmark
Environmental Fiscal Reform for Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction - South Africa
greening the tax system (energy tax, toward a carbon tax), removing environmentally harmful subsidies (energy subsidies, agricultural support), reducing harmful subsidies and introducing positive fiscal measures
public environmental expenditure, public expenditure on biodiversity
The South African Natural Heritage Programme (SANHP)provides the opportunity for individual and corporate landowners to participate actively in the protection of biodiversity and natural areas. The programme aims to encourage the protection of important natural sites, large or small, in private and public ownership. Not only private land, but also state land managed by different spheres of government, can be registered under the programme. By informing landowners of the special attributes of a particular site, registration as a Heritage Site reduces the possibility that significant natural features and the associated biodiversity may be unwittingly degraded or destroyed
(2002) Private Supply of Protected Land in Southern Africa: A Review of Markets, Approaches, Barriers and Issues: Private management structures are more effective in capturing the economic value of biodiversity, and thereby turning conservation into a competitive form of land use. Beside the economic benefits accruing to landowners, private reserves and game ranches provide the public good ‘biodiversity’ at zero cost to the tax-payer. The experience from southern Africa further supports the economic theory that secure property rights to land and wildlife are an essential ingredient in any strategy to conserve and encourage long-term investment in wildlife habitat. Markets for biological resources are responsible for the private supply of wildlife habitat, and any policy impairing the relative competitiveness of wildlife as a land use will have a direct impact on the private supply of biodiversity.
(2003) Transforming or Tinkering? New Forms of Engagement between Communities and the Private Sector in Tourism and Forestry in Southern Africa: There are too many unsuccessful examples to suggest that ‘making markets work for the poor’ happens easily or automatically. While some of the poor are earning or will gain cash incomes and economic opportunities, there is inequality in these opportunities, and insufficient attention paid to the participation of the poor in decision-making and to the trade-offs with other livelihood priorities. For the market to be helpful in alleviating poverty there needs to be a more level playing field; a recognition that markets are intensely politicised and easily captured by elites; and a willingness on behalf of the state to intervene in markets and address the issue of equity with redistributive mechanisms where necessary.
(2004) Integrating Mining and Biodiversity Conservation: Bushmanland Conservation Initiative. Plans announced by Anglo American in 1999 to develop a zinc mine in South Africa were met by strong protests from environmental organisations and groups concerned about the possible impact on biodiversity in the area. Yet systematic conservation planning at both regional and local scales contributes to building the basis for effective engagement between mining companies and the organisations concerned about biodiversity conservation.
(2013) In 2004, the Johannesburg Stock Exchange launched the Socially Responsible Investment Index, which assesses a company’s performance against four criteria: governance, society, environment and economy. Environmental scores are established through an assessment of environmental policies, management and reporting/disclosure practices. High environmental impact companies need to score highly to meet the requirements of the Index methodology. The Sustainable Finance Forum consists of members from the financial and industrial sectors and developed a Code of Conduct for its financing activities in line with the Equator Principles. The New Banking Initiative has been established as an umbrella process for green finance. The Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA)is involved in shaping and financing biodiversity conservation/sustainable use and employment-generating programmes such as the Dry Lands Fund and the Green Fund.
Eskom sustainability indices
ITQs for fisheries resources
Investment and environment, investing in environment- and climate- related infrastructure and services

Sudan
Economic benefits of biodiversity in Sudan 2001: economic history; economic development planning; the debt burden; drought displacement; war displacement; desertification; direct economic flow, including forests and woodland resources, non wood products, livestock, field crops, horticultural crops, agro-based industries, and Sudan export trade
Perverse incentive to farmers in mechanized farming system
Sudan - Seeking funds for setting up a biodiversity education center

Swaziland
(2011) The enabling environment for sustainable enterprises: An “EESE” Assessment

Tunisia
Opportunities for Promoting Aromatic, Medicinal and Non-Ligneous Plants in Arid Regions in Tunisia (2007)
Organic agriculture and the law – Tunisia (2012)
Tunisian Agency for Technical Cooperation (ATCT)

Uganda
2014
Uganda 2014

Total Economic Value of Wetlands Products and Services in Uganda, Willy Kakuru et al. Market price, Productivity, and Contingent valuation methods were used to estimate the value of wetland resources. The per capita value of fish was approximately US$ 0.49 person. Fish spawning was valued at approximately US$ 363,815 year, livestock pastures at US$ 4.24 million, domestic water use at US$34 million year, and the gross annual value added by wetlands to milk production at US$ 1.22 million. Flood control was valued at approximately US$ 1,702,934,880 hectare year and water regulation and recharge at US$ 7,056,360 hectare year.Through provision of grass for mulching, wetlands were estimated to contribute to US$ 8.65 million annually. The annual contribution of non-use values was estimated in the range of US$ 7.1 million for water recharge and regulation and to US$ 1.7 billion for flood control.
2010
Biodiversity offset policy
Developing an Experimental Methodology for Testing the Effectiveness of Payments for Ecosystem Services to Enhance Conservation in Productive Landscapes in Uganda (GEF 2010)
Skills for green jobs in Uganda (2010)
2009
UNDP and UNEP: Making the Economic Case: A Primer on the Economic Arguments for Mainstreaming Poverty-Environment Linkages into National Development Planning. Emerton, L., L. Iyango, P. Luwum, and A. Malinga. 1999. “The Economic Value of Nakivubo Urban Wetland, Uganda. Nairobi: IUCN. In the face of pressures to drain and reclaim Nakivubo wetland for housing and industry, a study was carried out by the government Wetlands Inspectorate Division to assess the economic importance of Nakivubo for waste treatment and water quality. The study looked at the replacement costs of achieving equivalent wastewater treatment services from artificial technologies as well as the costs of remediating for the loss of the wetland through upgrading purification facilities at the city water supply plant. The study found that the wetland currently provides water quality services to urban dwellers valued at more than $2 million a year. Using this economic argument, and highlighting the role of Nakivubo as an essential part of Kampala’s water and sanitation infrastructure, plans to drain and reclaim the wetland were reversed and Nakivubo was designated part of the city’s greenbelt zone.
2007
Assessing the Market: Conversations with Private Sector Businesses About Payments for Ecosystem Services – A Letter from Uganda (2007)
Uganda National Climate Change Finance Analysis
2002
Correcting the undervaluation of property rights in fisheries
Mainstreaming Sustainable Land Management in the National Biotrade programme – Case of Uganda
1999
Uganda Biodiversity: Economic Assessment. Emerton, L., and E. Muramira. 1999. “Economic Assessment of Biodiversity in Uganda.” Kampala: National Environmental Management Authority, Government of Uganda.
Nakivubo Swamp, Uganda: managing natural wetlands for their ecosystem services
Economic benefits of biodiversity exceed costs of conservation at an African rainforest reserve
Mainstreaming environmental Issues into Budget Framework
Economic Instruments
Incentives for urban wetlands conservation in Nakivubo, Uganda
Removal and Mitigation of Perverse, and the Promotion of Positive, Incentives Measures for Biodiversity use and Conservation: Experiences from Uganda

United Republic of Tanzania
2017
IIED: Reconciling forest conservation with food production in sub-Saharan Africa: case studies from Ethiopia, Ghana and Tanzania. Phil Franks and Xiaoting Hou-Jones et al, IIED Research Report, London. Sectoral silos; Scale disconnects in land-use planning; Decentralised responsibilities without decentralised funding; Lack of accountability; The Jevons paradox; ‘Orphaned’ forests outside reserves; Poor understanding of fallowing; Institutional incentives for community-based forest management; Sensitivities on population growth; Information on food-crop exports; The myth of unused land; Village land-use planning; Youth rural–urban migration.
2012
FSC Certification for maintaining ecosystem services, Tanzania (2012)
2009
UNDP and UNEP: Making the Economic Case: A Primer on the Economic Arguments for Mainstreaming Poverty-Environment Linkages into National Development Planning. In Tanzania, 97 percent percent of national energy requirements are met by fuelwood obtained from forests and trees on farm. In Mtanza-Msona Village in east-central Tanzania, the local value of woodland and wetland resources is equivalent to just over $107 per capita, or 37 percent of GDP. These resources are worth almost eight times as much as all other sources of farm and off-farm production for the poorest households in the village. The value of plant-based medicines is almost 15 times as high as purchased drugs and “modern” treatments, and the wide range of wild foods harvested is worth more than 14 times as much as poor households’ annual expenditures on food from the market.
Paying for Results: WCS experience with direct incentives for conservation - Paying local communities not to convert grasslands to crops
Tanzania National Climate Change Finance Analysis
Understanding readiness to access and use climate finance effectively
2008
Budget Support, Aid Instruments and the Environment: Tanzania Country Case Study (2008)
2006
Traditional Knowledge in the Parakuiyo Community (Maasai)
2002
Towards Natural Resource Accounting in Tanzania: a study on the contribution of national forests to income, by Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa
2000
Economic Valuation of Ihefu Wetland, *Value of Water Resources in the Pangani Basin
Environmental flow assessment taking into account the value of ecosystem services, Pangani River Basin
Catchment Ecosystems and Downstream Water: The Value of Water Resources in the Pangani Basin
Use of Economic Instruments
Tax exemptions on imported equipment and materials (NR3), Market arrangements between local communities and the private sector in the North-west Serengeti, Tanzania

Zambia
2009
Making the Economic Case: A Primer on the Economic Arguments for Mainstreaming Poverty-Environment Linkages into National Development Planning. In Zambia, 70 per¬cent of national energy requirements are met by fuelwood obtained from forests and trees on farm.
Paying for Results: WCS experience with direct incentives for conservation - Community Markets for Conservation (COMACO)
Understanding Climate Finance Readiness Needs in Zambia
Understanding readiness to access and use climate finance effectively
Diaspora Engagement and Mobilization Framework for Zambia
(2013) The enabling environment for sustainable enterprises in Zambia
Incentive Measures for Sustainable Use and Conservation of Agrobiodiversity: Experiences and Lessons from Southern Africa – Seed legislation in Zambia and possible incentives for use and conservation of agrobiodiversity
Economic value of Barotse Floodplain
Barotse Floodplain, Zambia: local economic dependence on wetland resources
(2011) The Economics of Managing Crop Diversity On-farm: Consumers’ attribute preferences and traders’ challenges affecting the use of local maize and groundnut varieties in Lusaka, Zambia: Implications for crop diversity policy

Zimbabwe
2009
UNDP and UNEP: Making the Economic Case: A Primer on the Economic Arguments for Mainstreaming Poverty-Environment Linkages into National Development Planning. Zimbabwe demonstrates that environmental resources make a significant contribution to the income of most households. For the poorest quintile, however, their relative role is by far the greatest: around 40 percent of total income.
CAMPFIRE and payments for environmental services
CAMPFIRE programme
(1996) The Economics of Wildlife: Case Studies from Ghana, Kenya, Namibia, and Zimbabwe
(1993) Sustainable National Income and Natural Resource Degradation. Initial Results for Zimbabwe, by CSERGE
(1998) Incorporating Fuelwood Production and Consumption into the National Accounts. A case study for Zimbabwe, by FAO
(2002) Accounting for Forest Resources in Zimbabwe, by Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa
Public Sector Investment Programme (PSIP) contains provisions to relevant departments and institutions

Events

Subregion
Financial Planning for Biodiversity in Eastern and Northern Africa
Financial Planning in Middle Africa
Financial Planning in North Africa
Financial Planning for Biodiversity in Southern Africa
Financial Planning for Biodiversity in Western Africa
Central African Forest Commission (COMIFAC): Central African initiatives to combat proaching, by Chouaibou Nchoutpouen, Biodiversity and Desertification Programme Officer
COMIFAC: Feasibility Study on Financing Mechanisms for Conservation and Sustainable Management of Central African Forests
Approaches for Identifying Economic Potentials for Genetic Resources under ABS in Africa: Outcomes of a 6 Country ABS Capacity Building Project (Cameroon, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Senegal, South Africa) under GEF-4, hosted by the ABS Capacity Development Initiative jointly with UNEP Division of Environmental Law (DELC);
Patent Activity for Biodiversity and Traditional Knowledge from Africa, by Paul Oldham, One World Analytics & UNU-IAS
Keeping Track of Adaptation Actions in Africa. Targeted Fiscal Stimulus Actions Making a Difference

Africa
African Union (AU) - African Ministerial Conference on the Environment (AMCEN) (UNEP, UNECA) (every two years)
Environment Initiative for the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD)
African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (Algiers Convention)
Convention for the Protection, Management and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the Eastern African Region (Nairobi Convention) Convention for Cooperation in the Protection and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the West and Central African Region (Abidjan Convention)
Lusaka Agreement on Co-operative Enforcement Operations Directed at Illegal Trade in Wild Fauna and Flora
Community of Sahel- Saharan States (CEN-SAD)

North Africa
Arab Maghreb Union (AMU)
Regional Organization for the Conservation of the Environment of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden (PERSGA)
League of Arab States
Convention for the Conservation of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Environment (Jeddah Convention)
Protocol concerning Regional Cooperation in Combating Pollution by Oil and other Harmful Substances in Cases of Emergency

Central Africa
Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC): CEMAC Environmental Action Plan Conference of Ministers for the Forests of Central Africa (COMIFAC): Summit of Head of States of Central Africa on the Conservation and Sustainable Management of the Forest Ecosystems; Congo Basin Forests Partnership; COMIFAC Convergence Plan
Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS): Implementation of NEPAD Environmental Initiative; General policy on environment and natural resource management

East Africa
East African Community (EAC)
Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA)
Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD)
Indian Ocean Commission (IOC)
Nairobi Convention on the Protection and Management of the Coastal and Marine Environment of the Eastern African Region
Protocol concerning Protected Areas and Wild Fauna and Flora in the Eastern African Region
Protocol concerning Co-operation in Combating Marine Pollution in Cases of Emergency in the Eastern African Region

West Africa
Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)
West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU)
Common Policy to Improve the Environment (WAEMU)
Convention for Co-operation in the Protection and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the West and Central African Region (Abidjan Convention)

Southern Africa
Southern Africa Development Community (SADC): SADC Regional Biodiversity Action Plan; The Protocol on Wildlife Conservation and Law Enforcement (1999)

  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme