National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPs)

Development of National Biodiversity Targets in the framework of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets

In decision X/2, the Conference of the Parties adopted the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity (2011-2020) and urged Parties and other Governments to develop national and regional targets in the framework of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. The information below presents examples of national targets established by Parties that contribute to the implementation of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets.


Malta's first National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (2012-2020), entitled "Working Hand-in-Hand with Nature", serves as a policy driver to set the country on the right track to meet its biodiversity and environmental objectives, as identified in Malta's National Environment Policy (2012) and in the 2020 Aichi Biodiversity Targets and EU targets. The NBSAP addresses the need to preserve biodiversity and ecosystem services through biodiversity integration in decision-making as well as within policies, plans and programmes of those sectors that act as drivers of biodiversity change. Nineteen national targets with action-driven and outcome-oriented measures, grouped under 18 thematic areas, have been set out, with implementation of actions assigned to one of four possible timeframes. CBD, EEA, SEBI and EU indicators, including the EU 2010 Biodiversity Baseline, have been adapted to serve as examples of indicators to measure progress towards NBSAP implementation and are subject to revision. Examples of prioritized actions relate to the establishment of: species and habitat action plans for priority species, especially endemic species, and for rare specialized habitats; a strict protection regime, incorporating measures to address the illegal and the incidental capture and killing of protected species, including those that are migratory; a range of governance types for long-term management of protected areas, based on good governance principles.

  • By 2020, more than 55% of Maltese citizens are aware of the term "biodiversity", know what it means amd also know what steps they can take to conserve and use biodiversity is a sustainable manner.
  • By 2020, the rate of loss of natural and semi-natural habitats of conservation value is at least halved, and degradation and fragmentation is significantly reduced. The percentage cover of "forests and semi-natural areas" has not decreased below the CORINE land cover data of 2006.
  • By 2020, Malta's 13% land area covered by terrestrial Natura 2000 sites is maintained, and Malta's sufficiency in the designation of key marine biodiversity areas is improved through a representative network of marine protected areas.
  • By 2020, the risk of local extirpation of known threatened species has been reduced, with 30% of the species of European Community Importance in the Maltese territory having a favourable or improved conservation status.
  • By 2020, vulnerable ecosystems that provide essential services are safeguarded, with at least 15% of degraded ecosystems restored, while 20% of habitats of European Community Importance in the Maltese territory have a favourable or improved conservation status.

Dominican Republic

The “Estrategia Nacional de Conservación y Uso Sostenible de la Biodiversidad y Plan de Acción (2011-2020)” constitutes the country’s first NBSAP. Aligned with the global framework, national targets have been developed for the short, medium and long terms, as have milestones and indicators. The Ecosystem Approach is promoted in planning processes. The NBSAP is linked to implementation of the National Development Strategy (2010-2030) indicating that, by 2016, actions to strengthen aspects related to biodiversity, under the fourth strategic objective of the National Development Strategy on sustainable natural resource management, will be carried out as necessary. Women were highly involved in the NBSAP development process. The business sector (e.g. Bon Agroindustrial and Fundación Propa-Gas) is engaged in numerous biodiversity conservation activities through its association with RENAEPA, the national non-profit network promoting the integration of the business sector in sustainable natural resource management processes. A draft sectoral law on biodiversity has been submitted to Parliament for adoption.

  • By 2016, the rate of loss of natural habitats is reduced by 25%, and degradation and fragmentation are reduced.


The NBSAP (2011-2020) is closely linked to the National Strategic Development Plan of Timor-Leste for the next two decades and consistent with other policy frameworks such as the National Adaptation Programme of Action on Climate Change, National Action Programme to Combat Land Degradation, Fisheries Sector Plan and the Forestry Sector Plan. It also serves as a guiding policy framework for district and sub-district authorities, civil society and the private sector. It contains 5 Priority Actions and 5 Priority Targets and 21 Strategic Actions, as well as additional detailed activities for implementing the Nagoya outcomes over the decade. The NBSAP uses the Ecosystem Approach and notably contains both a CEPA Strategy and Action Plan as well as a Partnership Strategy for addressing financing needs. A priority target of the NBSAP is to establish, by 2015, a national biodiversity monitoring and reporting system using the CHM as an operational tool. The NBSAP also outlines the strategy to ratify and implement the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-sharing.

  • By 2015, rehabilitation activities in critical watershed and degraded lands have been undertaken and at least one million trees have been planted per year; and sustainable livelihoods have been provided to local communities through ecosystem restoration activities.


"Actions for Biodiversity 2011-2016", Ireland's second National Biodiversity Plan, addresses objectives raised by the international and European communities to reduce biodiversity loss. The plan comprises 7 strategic objectives, twenty-one national targets accompanied by 102 actions (with headline biodiversity indicators expected to be adopted in 2012), as well as outcomes.

  • No protected habitats or species in worsening conservation status by 2016; majority of habitats or species in, or moving towards, favourable conservation status by 2020

United Kingdom

Launched on 19 August 2011, "Biodiversity 2020: A strategy for England's wildlife and ecosystem services" outlines the strategic direction for biodiversity policy for the next decade on land (including rivers and lakes) and at sea, building upon the Natural Environment White Paper published in June 2011. A set of outcomes for 2020 has been defined, with examples provided below. Outcomes will be delivered through actions in four areas: a more integrated large-scale approach to conservation on land and at sea; putting people at the heart of biodiversity policy; reducing environmental pressures; and improvement of knowledge.

  • By the end of 2016, in excess of 25% of English waters will be contained in a well-managed Marine Protected Area network that helps deliver ecological coherence by conserving representative marine habitats;

  • By 2020, at least 17% of land and inland water, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, conserved through effective, integrated and joined up approaches to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem services including through management of our existing systems of protected areas and the establishment of nature improvement areas;

  • By 2020, we will be managing and harvesting fish sustainably;

The strategy aims to ensure that biodiversity values are considered in the decision-making processes of both the public and private sectors. The government also intends to develop a set of indicators and new and innovative financing mechanisms for achieving the 2020 outcomes.

European Union

At its meeting of 21 June 2011, the Environment Council of the European Union endorsed the new Strategy to halt the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services in the EU by 2020, and agreed to further discuss the actions in order to ensure the effective and coherent implementation of the Strategy. There are six main targets and 20 actions to help Europe reach its goal that cover the following:

  • Full implementation of EU nature legislation to protect biodiversity
  • Better protection for ecosystems, and more use of green infrastructure
  • More sustainable agriculture and forestry
  • Better management of fish stocks
  • Tighter controls on invasive alien species
  • A bigger EU contribution to averting global biodiversity loss


Brazil launched a national consultation to develop National Targets for Biodiversity on 8 April 2011. The initiative entitled "Dialogues on Biodiversity: building the Brazilian strategy for 2020" is meant to engage Brazilian society in a process to strengthen the implementation of the agreements reached at the 10th Conference of the Parties on Biological Diversity (CBD CoP-10) which took place in October 2010 in Nagoya, Japan. The Brazilian Ministry of the Environment, IUCN, WWF-Brazil and IPÊ are leading this initiative with the support of the United Kingdom's Department of the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.

National biodiversity targets (primarily quantitative), and other relevant targets, for 2010 and beyond 2010, based on the information provided in the fourth national reports and other related information published by countries, are available here. Although these targets have not been specifically established within the framework of the Aichi Targets adopted in 2010, certain national targets can nevertheless be linked to the Aichi Targets and the 2020 implementation framework.