Indigenous peoples and local communities have a cultural and holistic understanding of nature based on their traditional knowledge, practices and innovation. This information and understanding of biodiversity in turn play a crucial role in the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. The insights of indigenous and local communities on local ecosystems play a fundamental role in developing conservation initiatives that integrate cultural values and traditional governance systems, including sustainable use such as resource management techniques, traditional hunting and fishing, and elective harvesting. Further, their lands encompass diverse ecosystems, ranging from forests and wetlands to mountains and coastal areas with high concentrations of biodiversity and often promote sustainable land use, including agroforestry, rotational farming and community-based conservation management systems. Involving indigenous peoples and local communities in biodiversity conservation and the recognition of their perspectives and expertise can contribute to the development of context-specific and effective conservation strategies.
The target also recognizes the importance of meaningful participation of women and girls, as well as the inclusion of children, youth and persons with disabilities, in promoting social equity and empowering these groups to actively contribute to biodiversity conservation. It also highlights the need to protect environmental human rights defenders as they are at the forefront of protecting biodiversity by monitoring and exposing environmental violations, promoting sustainable practices and advocating for a human rights-based approach to conservation efforts.