Agriculture, aquaculture, fisheries and forestry are globally important production systems that have varying impacts on ecosystems and biodiversity. The variety and variability of animals, plants and microorganisms used in these systems is an important aspect of biodiversity. Further, in many countries, activities associated with these production systems are important elements of human well-being and economic activity. However, the increasing demand for food, fibre and fuel is leading to increasing losses of biodiversity and ecosystem services, making sustainable management in these systems an urgent requirement. On the other hand, sustainable management not only contributes to biodiversity conservation but can also deliver benefits to production systems in terms of ecosystem services such as soil fertility, erosion control, enhanced pollination and reduced pest outbreaks, as well as contributing to the well-being and sustainable livelihoods of people engaged in agriculture, aquaculture, fisheries and forestry activities.