The sharing of benefits that arise from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge is one of the three objectives of the Convention and a key pillar for the success of its implementation. It builds an equity dimension among countries providing and using biodiversity with the dual objective of providing incentives for conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and mobilizing new resources redirected towards biodiversity. Access and benefit-sharing is included in several international instruments. Under the Convention, the framework for the implementation of its third objective is provided in Article 15. In addition, Article 8(j) contains provision to encourage the equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous peoples and local communities embodying traditional lifestyles relevant for conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity. The adoption of the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS) created greater legal certainty, clarity and transparency for both users and providers of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge. At COP 15 in December 2022, Parties agreed to develop a solution for the sharing of benefits arising from the use of digital sequence information (DSI) on genetic resources and established a way forward to advance the consideration of this issue under the Convention.
The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, in force since June 2004, has established the Multilateral System of Access and Benefit-sharing, which facilitates exchanges of plant genetic resources for the purposes of agricultural research and breeding to contribute to sustainable agriculture and food security, by providing a transparent and reliable framework for the exchange of crop genetic resources.