This target has three distinct but related components:
(a) management actions need to be taken to halt human-induced extinctions by 2030 and to reduce extinction risk, in particular for threatened species.
(b) management actions need to be taken to maintain and restore genetic diversity, among all species.,
(c) action needs to be taken to manage human-wildlife interactions to minimize human-wildlife conflict.
To address these three components, this target identifies several elements that need to be taken into account:
- Management actions – Management actions focused on the recovery of threatened species could include species reintroductions, species recovery actions (such as vaccinations, supplementary feeding, provision of breeding sites, planting and protection of seedlings) and ex situ conservation where needed. Management actions for the conservation of genetic resources within species, including for crops and livestock and their wild relatives, include ex situ conservation and in situ conservation. For domesticated species the latter includes on-farm conservation.
- Halt human-induced extinction and reduce extinction risk – A fully recovered species is one that is viable and that fulfills its ecological roles in the ecosystems throughout its native range. Further, conservation refers to the protection, care, management and maintenance of ecosystems, habitats, wildlife species and populations, within or outside of their natural environments, in order to safeguard the natural conditions for their long-term permanence.
- Known threatened species – This target relates specifically to known threatened species. Different approaches are used to assess the threat status of species, and many countries have their own lists of threatened species. Globally, IUCN’s Red List of Threatened Species lists more than 42,100 species as being threatened.
- Maintain and restore genetic diversity – The genetic diversity of wild species provides the variation essential to maintain ecosystem stability and ensure benefits to people, and supports species survival and adaptation, linking explicitly to ecosystems and species.
- Wild and domestic species – Actions should be taken to maintain the genetic diversity of both wild and domestic species.
- Manage human-wildlife interactions and conflict – Some types of human-wildlife interactions can be positive or neutral for people and biodiversity. However, some interactions can lead to conflicts, including over resources and space, resulting in adverse effects on human life, health, well-being and/or livelihoods. As a result of those actions and threats, humans may damage or eliminate wildlife, either intentionally or unintentionally. Many types of human-wildlife conflicts can be mitigated or avoided through appropriate planning, management and compensation measures.