Asian Development Bank (ADB)
2017 Effectiveness of Regional Mechanisms for Multilateral and Regional Governance
. ADBI Working Paper 719, April 2017. Tokyo: Asian Development Bank Institute. The regional organizations reviewed contribute directly and indirectly to macroprudential schemes in the Asia and the Pacific region. But, due to the nature of their work objectives and/or relatively small sizes, they should be viewed as useful supplements to the existing international organizations rather than their replacements. Meeting Asia's Infrastructure Needs
. Manila. It estimates total infrastructure investment needs for developing Asia will reach $22.6 trillion over the next 15 years (from 2016 to 2030) in a baseline scenario. Factoring in climate change adaptation and mitigation raises the needed investments to $26.2 trillion, or 5.9% of projected gross domestic product. A large part of the $3.6 trillion in additional investments over baseline estimates (around 83%) is for climate mitigation-related needs in producing cleaner energy, and limiting global warming to 2 degrees Celsius between now and 2100—the optimal pathway to meet the Paris Agreement goals on climate change. Public financing will be only 39% of the $308 billion gap. This means 61% of the remaining gap will have to be financed by the private sector.
2016 Nature-based solutions for building resilience in towns and cities: Case studies from the Greater Mekong Subregion
. Mandaluyong City, Philippines: Asian Development Bank, 2016. Green infrastructure should be the foundation for town planning and development; supported by a green plan; applied through town zones and environmental impact assessment; Green infrastructure systems should form connected networks across the entire town area; implemented across different sectors and with communities; multipurpose; financed a primary budgetary item for continued maintenance and adaptation. Ten Strategies for Green Infrastructure and Nature-Based Solutions to Town Development: Creating a fabric of interconnected green corridors and spaces; Greening of core urban areas; Greening of industrial and business zones; Beautiful, healthy, and green residential areas; Green community centers; Greening of towns on rivers and coasts; Networks of connected urban parks; Expanding allotments, smallholdings, and orchards; Creating sustainable drainage systems; Greening and rehabilitating urban catchments and uplands.
2013 Projects on environment and climate change 2013 Environment Operational Directions 2013–2020
: Promoting transitions to green growth in Asia and the Pacific. Mandaluyong City, Philippines: Asian Development Bank, 2013. Four mutually supportive environment operational directions have been identified: Promoting a shift to sustainable infrastructure; Investing in natural capital; Strengthening environmental governance and management capacity; Responding to the climate change imperative. Investing in Natural Capital: Integrated landscape approaches (Integrated water resources management, Sustainable forest and land use management, Coastal and marine resources management, Sustainable supply chains), Valuation of ecosystem services, Biodiversity safeguards. The number of ADB projects with environmental sustainability as a theme has increased markedly (Figure A2). From 2001 to 2012, ADB supported more than 290 projects, with a total value of nearly $30 billion. Based on a 3-year rolling average during 2010–2012, environment-focused lending averaged 45%, a sharp increase from the 3-year rolling average of 22% during 2007–2009 and exceeding ADB’s target of 25% for that period. In 2012, environment-focused lending reached about $6.2 billion, when 53 loan and grant projects had environmental sustainability as a theme Environmental and Social Safeguards Strategy 2020: Working for an Asia and Pacific Free of Poverty Addressing Climate Change in Asia and the Pacific: Priorities for Action 2010 Safeguard Policy Statement 2009
2002 Environment Policy of the Asian Development Bank 2002
Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)
2017 Sustainability Report 2016
, March 2017. In 2016, the IDB approved a total of 86 sovereign-guaranteed loan operations for a total financing amount of $9.3 billion. Disbursements for sovereign-guaranteed loans totaled $8.7 billion in 2016, $190 million of which was under the Fund for Special Operations and $116 million under the IDB Grant Facility. In 2016, the IDB Group financed $2.66 billion in climate change related activities, including loans, grants, technical cooperations, guarantees, and equity investments (22 percent of total approvals). The IDB Group mobilized an additional $1.1 billion in co-financing from other public sources and $310 million from private sources toward climate change-related activities. Sustainable infrastructure and sustainable cities. IDB’s Biodiversity and Ecosystems Services Program (BIO) has financed over 30 technical cooperations and leveraged $59 million in multisectoral investment loans.
2013 Terms of Trade and Fiscal Sustainability when the Sovereign Exploits a Natural Resource (2013) Are Environmentally Related Taxes Effective? (2013)
2011 Inter-American Development Bank Sustainability Report 2011 Environmental and Social SafeguardsReview of Safeguards Financial instruments and mechanisms for climate change programs in Latin America and the Caribbean: A guide for Ministries of Finance Establishment of the BES Program and the Multidonor Fund Private Sector Development Strategy: Fostering Development through the Private Sector IDB Integrated Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation, and Sustainable and Renewable Energy Leveraging Opportunities for Sustaining Growth: IDB Biodiversity Platform for Latin America and the Caribbean Forest Financing in Latin America: The Role of the Inter-American Development Bank Natural Partners: How People in Latin America Are Forging a New Relationship with Their Natural Environment Profile of Markets for Certified Green Products, Derived Environmental Services, and Financing Mechanisms IDB Investments in Brazilian Protected Areas during the 1990s
2000 Financing Biodiversity Conservation (2000)
1997 Investing in Biodiversity Conservation: Proceedings of a Workshop (1997)
African Development Bank (AfDB)
2013 African Development Bank’s Integrated Safeguards System: Policy Statement and Operational Safeguards (2013) Environmental and Social Safeguards
2004 African Development Bank Group’s Policy on the Environment (2004)
2003 Integrated Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Guidelines (2003)
2001 Environmental and Social Assessment Procedures for African Development Bank's Public Sector Operations (2001)
2000 Procédures en matière d’étude environnementale relatives aux opérations du secteur privé de la Banque africaine de développement (2000)
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)
2016 Green Economy Transition
. It seeks to increase the volume of green financing from an average of 24 per cent of EBRD annual business investment over the previous 10 years to 40 percent by 2020.
2015 Green Economy Transition Approach
, as approved by the Board of Directors at its meeting on 30 September 2015. GET operations (drivers of incremental activity): Ramp up of existing activities; Enhanced innovation; Broadening of environmental dimension; Active use of private and public delivery channels; GET policy dialogue; incremental financing
2012 Annual Report 2012 Sustainability report 2012 History, Environmental and Social Safeguards
2010 Environmental and Social Procedures, April 2010
2008 Environmental and Social Policy 2008 20 years of investing in the green economy Guide to EBRD financing Agribusiness Sustainable Investment Facility 2013 Mandatory versus voluntary payment for green electricity
European Investment Bank (EIB)
2017 Natural Capital Financing Facility (NCFF)
: a financial instrument blending EIB funding with EC financing funded by the Programme for the Environment and Climate Action (LIFE programme). The pilot phase of the NCFF will last from 2015-2019 with a total amount of EU 100-125m made available for investments in 9-12 operations. Given the innovative features of the target areas and operations, the NCFF is a flexible mechanism, allowing for the provision of direct and/or intermediated debt financing and equity investment funds depending on project types and conditions. Given the limited experience in financing natural capital project though market-based mechanisms, a Support Facility in the amount of EUR 10m will be made available to eligible final recipients and/or financial intermediaries for project preparation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.
Project examples supported by the Natural Capital Financing Facility (NCFF) include: Green infrastructure (e.g. green roofs, green walls, ecosystem-based rainwater collection/water reuse systems, flood protection and erosion control); Payment for ecosystem services (e.g. programmes to protect and enhance forestry, biodiversity, to reduce water or soil pollution); Biodiversity offsets / compensation beyond legal requirements (e.g. compensation pools for on-site and off-site compensation projects); Pro-biodiversity and adaptation businesses (e.g. sustainable forestry, agriculture, aquaculture, eco-tourism); Nature-based solutions for adaptation to climate change. The first project supported by the NCFF, signed in April 2017, was a EUR 6 million loan to Rewilding Europe Capital. It will provide support for over 30 nature-focused businesses across Europe.
Nordic Development Fund
2017 NDF environmental & social policy and guidelines
, Adopted by the Board of Directors on 8 March 2017. It will not finance projects, directly or indirectly, illegal considered on biodiversity resources.
Islamic Development Bank (IDB)
IDB and UNDP: I for Impact: Blending Islamic Finance and Impact Investing for the Global Goals. Islamic Research and Training Institute (IRTI) of the IDB Group and UNDP’s Istanbul International Center for Private Sector in Development. IDB member countries account for 40 percent of the world’s poor. IDB Group and UNDP have established the Global Islamic Finance and Impact Investing Platform (GIFIIP) to position Islamic finance impact investing as one of the leading enablers of SDGs implementation worldwide through private sector engagement.
IDB and UNDP: Memorandum of Understanding
. UNDP and IDBG share 30 years of effective partnership and cooperation, following their first MOU in 1986. Since then, UNDP and the IDBG have collaborated on a variety of efforts including: IDBG funding more than US $240 million over the past 10 years for projects under UNDP’s Programme of Assistance to the Palestinian People related to agriculture, electricity and housing. Project development and implementation around shared priority areas and comparative advantages, Development of private sector partnerships, Strategy Development/SDG alignment, Promoting systematic institutional cooperation.