Asian Development Bank (ADB)
2017 Effectiveness of Regional Mechanisms for Multilateral and Regional Governance
. ADBI Working Paper 719, April 2017. Tokyo: Asian Development Bank Institute. The regional organizations reviewed contribute directly and indirectly to macroprudential schemes in the Asia and the Pacific region. But, due to the nature of their work objectives and/or relatively small sizes, they should be viewed as useful supplements to the existing international organizations rather than their replacements. Meeting Asia's Infrastructure Needs
. Manila. It estimates total infrastructure investment needs for developing Asia will reach $22.6 trillion over the next 15 years (from 2016 to 2030) in a baseline scenario. Factoring in climate change adaptation and mitigation raises the needed investments to $26.2 trillion, or 5.9% of projected gross domestic product. A large part of the $3.6 trillion in additional investments over baseline estimates (around 83%) is for climate mitigation-related needs in producing cleaner energy, and limiting global warming to 2 degrees Celsius between now and 2100—the optimal pathway to meet the Paris Agreement goals on climate change. Public financing will be only 39% of the $308 billion gap. This means 61% of the remaining gap will have to be financed by the private sector.
2016 Nature-based solutions for building resilience in towns and cities: Case studies from the Greater Mekong Subregion
. Mandaluyong City, Philippines: Asian Development Bank, 2016. Green infrastructure should be the foundation for town planning and development; supported by a green plan; applied through town zones and environmental impact assessment; Green infrastructure systems should form connected networks across the entire town area; implemented across different sectors and with communities; multipurpose; financed a primary budgetary item for continued maintenance and adaptation. Ten Strategies for Green Infrastructure and Nature-Based Solutions to Town Development: Creating a fabric of interconnected green corridors and spaces; Greening of core urban areas; Greening of industrial and business zones; Beautiful, healthy, and green residential areas; Green community centers; Greening of towns on rivers and coasts; Networks of connected urban parks; Expanding allotments, smallholdings, and orchards; Creating sustainable drainage systems; Greening and rehabilitating urban catchments and uplands.
2013 Projects on environment and climate change 2013 Environment Operational Directions 2013–2020
: Promoting transitions to green growth in Asia and the Pacific. Mandaluyong City, Philippines: Asian Development Bank, 2013. Four mutually supportive environment operational directions have been identified: Promoting a shift to sustainable infrastructure; Investing in natural capital; Strengthening environmental governance and management capacity; Responding to the climate change imperative. Investing in Natural Capital: Integrated landscape approaches (Integrated water resources management, Sustainable forest and land use management, Coastal and marine resources management, Sustainable supply chains), Valuation of ecosystem services, Biodiversity safeguards. The number of ADB projects with environmental sustainability as a theme has increased markedly (Figure A2). From 2001 to 2012, ADB supported more than 290 projects, with a total value of nearly $30 billion. Based on a 3-year rolling average during 2010–2012, environment-focused lending averaged 45%, a sharp increase from the 3-year rolling average of 22% during 2007–2009 and exceeding ADB’s target of 25% for that period. In 2012, environment-focused lending reached about $6.2 billion, when 53 loan and grant projects had environmental sustainability as a theme Environmental and Social Safeguards Strategy 2020: Working for an Asia and Pacific Free of Poverty Addressing Climate Change in Asia and the Pacific: Priorities for Action 2010 Safeguard Policy Statement 2009
2002 Environment Policy of the Asian Development Bank 2002
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