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Advancing More, Better and Faster Financing for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services

Financial Resources and Mechanism

Implementation of Article 20 and Article 21

Review of implementation of articles 20 and 21 of the Convention has been a standing item on the agenda of the Conference of the Parties. With continuing strategic planning for biodiversity at various levels, financing for biodiversity has become a theme of even more central importance in advancing the three objectives of the Convention. The Conference of the Parties succeeded in adopting several historic decisions, including Strategy for resource mobilization in support of the achievement of the three objectives of the Convention 2008 and Memorandum of understanding between the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Council of the Global Environment Facility 1996. Further deliberations on financial resources and the financial mechanism are organized around the conceptual frameworks outlined in the Strategy for Resource Mobilization and the Memorandum of Understanding, supported by Global Monitoring Report 2012: State of Financing for Biodiversity including indicators, status, trends and options and Global Monitoring Report 2010: Innovative Financing for Biodiversity.

WGRI-5 Panel Discussion: Success and Challenges in Tracking and Reporting on CBD-Related Resource Mobilization (Thursday, 19 June 2014)
Featuring:
Canada: Scott Wilson (Chair, Presentation)
India: Hem Pande
OECD: Christina van Winkle and Anna Drutschinin (Presentation)
Switzerland: Gabriela Blatter (Presentation)
Uganda: Sabino Meri Francis Ogwal

COP-12 and WGRI-5 on financial resources

Comprehensive Review of implementation of the Strategy for Resource Mobilization: In the Strategy for Resource Mobilization (decision IX/11), the Conference of the Parties decided to undertake a comprehensive review of the implementation of the strategy for resource mobilization. Recalling decision IX/11 on the Strategy for Resource Mobilization, the eleventh meeting of the Conference of the Parties decides to review the implementation of the strategy for resource mobilization at the fifth meeting of the Ad Hoc Open-ended Working Group on the Review of Implementation of the Convention and requests the Executive Secretary to prepare for this review, including by completing the review of implementation of Goals 2, 5, 6, 7 and 8 of the strategy for resource mobilization, based on the input provided by Parties and other relevant stakeholders as well as additional relevant sources of data for consideration by the fifth meeting of the Ad Hoc Open-ended Working Group on the Review of Implementation of the Convention (decision XI/4, paragraph 10).
Global Monitoring Report on the implementation of the Strategy for Resource Mobilization: In the Strategy for Resource Mobilization (decision IX/11), the Conference of the Parties decided that the Executive Secretary should prepare periodic global monitoring reports on the implementation of the strategy for resource mobilization, for consideration by the Conference of the Parties. The tenth Conference of the Parties decided that the global monitoring reports on the implementation of the strategy for resource mobilization should be prepared in time for consideration by the Conference of the Parties at its ordinary meetings, with national and regional participation, and should provide essential information on the status and trends in biodiversity financing and help to disseminate funding knowledge and know-how as related to biodiversity (decision X/3, paragraph 5). The eleventh meeting of the Conference of the Parties reiterated decision X/3, paragraph 5, that the global monitoring reports on the implementation of the strategy for resource mobilization should be prepared in time for consideration by the Conference of the Parties at its ordinary meetings, and requests the Executive Secretary to prepare periodic global monitoring reports on the implementation of the strategy for resource mobilization (decision XI/4, paragraph 11).
Full operationalization of Aichi target 3: Target 3 states that by 2020, at the latest, incentives, including subsidies, harmful to biodiversity are eliminated, phased out or reformed in order to minimize or avoid negative impacts, and positive incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity are developed and applied, consistent and in harmony with the Convention and other relevant international obligations, taking into account national socio economic conditions (decision X/2). In decision XI/4, paragraph 8, the Conference of the Parties was mindful of the potential of Aichi target 3 to mobilize resources for biodiversity, and decided to consider at COP 12 modalities and milestones for full operationalization of this target, with a view to their adoption.
Financial reporting: In decision XI/4, the Conference of the Parties decided to establish at COP 12 a transparent process that would encourage and facilitate the efforts of reporting by developing countries for achieving the objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Aichi Targets (paragraph 9). To this end, the Conference of the Parties welcomed and decided to use the preliminary reporting framework and methodological and implementation guidance (UNEP/CBD/COP/11/14/Add.1) as a flexible and preliminary framework to report on and monitor the resources mobilized for biodiversity at a national and global level, and invites Parties to build on this flexible framework at a national level as part of monitoring, including the implementation of national biodiversity strategies and action plans, as appropriate, and to report prior to the fifth meeting of the Ad Hoc Open-ended Working Group on Review of Implementation of the Convention on the success and the barriers encountered in reporting on and monitoring the resources mobilized for biodiversity, in view of the review foreseen in paragraph 23 (paragraph 5). It invited Parties and other Governments to submit their information through the preliminary reporting framework, as referred to in paragraph 5, and using the average of annual biodiversity funding for the years 2006-2010 as a preliminary baseline, and report as well as on their experiences with applying the preliminary reporting framework, prior to the fifth meeting of the Ad Hoc Open-ended Working Group on Review of Implementation of the Convention in a timely manner for their consideration by the Working Group (paragraph 6). It further requested the Ad Hoc Open-ended Working Group on the Review of Implementation of the Convention at its fifth meeting to further review the preliminary reporting framework as well as the baseline information for each of the targets, including the role of collective action including by indigenous and local communities and non-market based approaches for the achievement of the CBD objectives; and requested the Executive Secretary to prepare for that review, based on information received from Parties on its application, funding needs, gaps and priorities (paragraph 23).
Innovative Financial Mechanisms: In decision XI/4, the Conference of the Parties took note of the synthesis on innovative financial mechanisms based on the submissions in response to decision X/3, paragraph 8 (c), highlighting the activities related to innovative financial mechanisms that have taken place since the tenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties, and the discussion paper on safeguards for scaling-up biodiversity finance and possible guiding principles, recalled the Rio+20 outcome which encourages the further exploration and use of innovative sources of financing, alongside the traditional means of implementation, and noted the report of the Informal Seminar Dialogue on Scaling-up Biodiversity Finance held in Quito, Ecuador, from 6 to 9 March 2012, inter alia, the proposal on a net avoided emissions mechanism as well as the Workshop on Financing Mechanisms for Biodiversity: Examining Opportunities and Challenges held in Montreal, Canada on 12 May 2012; requests the Executive Secretary to further develop the discussion paper for submission to WGRI5 based on comments from Parties and other relevant stakeholders and requests the WGRI5 to prepare a recommendation for consideration by the Conference of the Parties at its twelfth meeting (paragraph 20). It invited Parties and other relevant stakeholders to submit views and lessons learnt on possible risks and benefits of country specific innovative financial mechanisms, including on possible principles and safeguards for their use, in time for consideration by WGRI-5, and requested the Executive Secretary to compile this information, taking into account discussion paper UNEP/CBD/COP/11/INF7 and building on previous submissions and initiatives, including the Quito seminar and the Montreal workshop referred to above; and requested the WGRI-5 to discuss this for consideration by the Conference of the Parties at its twelfth meeting (paragraph 21).
Final target for resource mobilization: In decision XI/4, COP-11 decided to review at COP-12 progress towards the achievement of Aichi Target 20 with the aim of adopting the final target for resource mobilization, building upon the financial resource flow responding to the preliminary target referred to in paragraph 7(a) and the information set out in 7 (c) and (d); and keep under review the achievement of these targets at subsequent COPs until 2020 (paragraph 22). In paragraph 7 of decision XI/4, COP-11 decides on an overall substantial increase of total biodiversity-related funding, for the implementation of the Strategic Plan 2011 – 2020, from a variety of sources, using the baseline information as referred to in paragraph 6 of decision XI/4 and, taking into account the limited information available regarding baselines for the indicators adopted in decision X/3, based on Parties’ reporting in line with paragraph 5 of decision XI/4, resolves to achieve the following preliminary targets, which are to be considered mutually supportive but independent: (a) Double total biodiversity-related international financial resource flows to developing countries, in particular least developed countries and Small Island Developing States, as well as countries with economies in transition, by 2015 and at least maintaining this level until 2020, in accordance with Article 20 of the Convention, to contribute to achieving the Convention’s three objectives, including through a country-driven prioritization of biodiversity within development plans in recipient countries, using the preliminary baseline referred to in paragraph 6 of decision XI/4; (b) Endeavour for 100% but at least 75% of Parties have included biodiversity in their national priorities or development plans by 2015 and therefore have made appropriate domestic financial provisions; (c) Endeavour for 100% but at least 75% of Parties provided with adequate financial resources, have reported domestic biodiversity expenditures as well as funding needs, gaps and priorities by 2015, in order to improve the robustness of the baseline to refine the preliminary targets, as appropriate; (d) Endeavour for 100% but at least 75% of Parties provided with adequate financial resources, have prepared national financial plans for biodiversity by 2015, and 30% of those Parties have assessed and/or evaluated the intrinsic, ecological, genetic, social economic, scientific, educational, cultural, recreational and aesthetic values of biological diversity and its components.
High level panel on global assessment of resources: In decision XI/4, COP-11 welcomed the initial findings of the high-level panel on global assessment of resources for implementing the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, and invites the High Level Panel, in collaboration with other relevant initiatives that could provide a more bottom-up approach, to continue its work with a broadened composition and to report back on the results of its work to COP12 (paragraph 24).

COP-12 and WGRI-5 on the financial mechanism
Four-year framework of programme priorities: In decision XI/5, the Conference of the Parties adopts the four-year outcome-oriented framework of programme priorities for the period 2014-2018 as contained in the annex to the present decision and requests the Global Environment Facility (GEF) to implement it and report back to the Conference of the Parties at its twelfth meeting on the GEF-6 strategy and its thirteenth meeting on its implementation and how it responds to the individual Elements and their components, and the Additional Strategic Considerations of the Framework, in accordance with the Memorandum of Understanding between the Conference of the Parties to the Convention and the Council of the Global Environment Facility (paragraph 2).
Fourth review of the effectiveness of the financial mechanism: Decision XI/5 requested the Executive Secretary to make available to Parties the report of the fourth review of the effectiveness of the financial mechanism prepared in response to decision X/27 for consideration by the Ad Hoc Open-ended Group on Review of Implementation of the Convention at its fifth meeting (paragraph 7).
Determination of funding requirements: By decision XI/5, the Conference of the Parties decided to transmit to the Global Environment Facility the report on the assessment of needs for GEF 6, for consideration by the Global Environment Facility, so that the Facility will in its regular report to the Conference of Parties indicate how it has responded during the replenishment cycle to the previous assessment by the Conference of the Parties (paragraph 15).
Nagoya Protocol Implementation Fund: In decision XI/5, appendix I, the Conference of the Parties requested the GEF to continue to administer the NPIF until the time the resources committed up to the end of GEF-5 are disbursed, and to report on the status of the fund to the twelfth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention, which shall decide on its future (paragraph 6).

  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme