United Nations Development System

United Nations
Enhanced cooperation between the United Nations and all relevant partners, in particular the private sector, Report of the Secretary-General, A/72/310, 10 August 2017

Compendium of National Institutional Arrangements for implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, Pilot version based on the 22 countries that reported on national implementation at the 2016 HLPF. This document takes stock of institutional arrangements adopted by 22 UN Member States to implement the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), including: the adoption and the adaptation of national strategies and plans; national institutional arrangements; local authorities; parliaments; engaging and equipping public institutions and administrations; civil society and the private sector; and monitoring and review. the institutions leading implementation should have sufficient clout, the ability to mobilize resources and the vision and capacities necessary to plan SDG implementation in the whole country, and warns against perceiving the SDGs as restricted to a specific sector such as the environment or as related only to foreign affairs or development cooperation. SDGs should not be the exclusive domain of the executive branch or a ministry-driven exercise, but parliaments and “the political world” should be mobilized around the Goals. If the SDGs are incorporated in national plans and budgets, it says, parliaments will be naturally able to review their implementation, thus enhancing accountability. There is little evidence that public servants are being mobilized and equipped to implement the SDGs. On civil society and the private sector, the compendium recommends fairly institutionalizing their engagement rather than only depending on an ad hoc participatory process.

Summary of the fifth biennial high-level meeting of the Development Cooperation Forum, Note by the Secretariat, E/2017/76, 28 June 2017.

Financing the UN Development System: Pathways to Reposition for Agenda 2030, September 2017. In 2015, the total revenue for the UN system as a whole was US$ 48 billion. Of this, US$ 9 billion was for peacekeeping and close to US$ 27 billion was for operational activities for development (OAD), with almost US$ 21 billion going to five entities (UNICEF, UNDP, WHO, WFP and UNHCR). Operational activities for development represent some 60% compared to peacekeeping at 20%, and norms, standards, policy and advocacy at 20%. Non-earmarked funding flows for the UN development system have stagnated, while the volume of humanitarian assistance increased.

State of South-South cooperation, Report of the Secretary-General, A/72/297, 7 August 2017. In recent years, the scope of South-South cooperation has expanded well beyond technical cooperation and exchange of knowledge to include trade, investment, infrastructure and connectivity as well as coordination of policies and development strategies among developing countries. South-South cooperation has also become more visible in regional and global development discourse and initiatives. The General Assembly has proposed the convening of a high-level conference on South-South cooperation, to be held in Buenos Aires in 2019.

Committee of Experts on International Cooperation in Tax Matters: Update on environmental taxation, Note by the Secretariat, E/C.18/2017/5, 8 August 2017. Most of the countries currently applying environmental taxes are members of the European Union. The Nordic countries are particularly active in this area and have had long experience with carbon taxes. Countries will diverge as to whether they apply the tax on an upstream (for example, the exploration and exploitation of fossil fuels for resource-rich countries, or the importation of fossil fuels for countries that do not hold mineral reserves), midstream (for example, the refining and transport of fossil fuels) or downstream (all activities related to the sale of the refined by-product to a final consumer) basis, and the effects of applying the tax at each of these stages should be further analysed by the Committee.

United Nations Office for Partnerships, Report of the Secretary-General, A/72/167, 18 July 2017. The United Nations Fund for International Partnerships (UNFIP) was established in 1998 to serve as the interface between the United Nations Foundation and the United Nations system. At the end of 2016, the cumulative allocations as approved by the Foundation for UNFIP projects to be implemented by the United Nations system had reached approximately $1.4 billion. Of this amount, it is estimated that $0.45 billion (about 31 per cent) represents core funds contributed by Ted Turner and $0.99 billion (about 69 per cent) was generated as co-financing from other partners. The total number of United Nations projects and programmes supported up to the end of 2016 by the Foundation through UNFIP stood at 618, implemented by 48 United Nations entities in 127 countries.
ECOSOC: Summary of the fifth biennial high-level meeting of the Development Cooperation Forum, E/2017/76, 28 June 2017, High-level political forum on sustainable development, convened under the auspices of the Economic and Social Council, 10-19 July 2017.
Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals, Report of the Secretary-General, High-level political forum on sustainable development, E/2017/66, 11 May 2017.
Beyond Gross Domestic Products: multidimensional poverty and the Sustainable Development Goals, report of the Secretary General for the high-level segment, E/2017/69, 8 May 2017.
SDG Commitment Report 100: Tracking companies’ efforts to contribute to the Sustainable Development Goals. 82% of 100 analyzed blue chips disclosed their commitment to the SDG in their 2016 annual reports.
Financing for Development: Progress and prospects, Note by the Secretary-General, 31 March 2017. Countries are taking actions on the AAAA policy commitments and have started to bring them together into coherent implementation frameworks. However, the challenging global environment in 2016 had significant impacts on national implementation efforts. National efforts supported by multilateral cooperation for sustainable development could help change the trajectory of the global economy and support countries toward achieving the SDGs, and increased investment should be complemented by measures to directly ameliorate the living conditions of the poor and vulnerable, such as social protection floors.
International financial flows and external debt, Development Issues No. 10, 24 March 2017. FDI fell to an estimated $209 billion in 2016, from $431 billion in 2015. ODA from the DAC member countries of OECD reached $146.5 billion in 2015, an increase of 6.6 per cent over 2014 (in constant prices). This increase, however, was largely owed to additional spending on the situation of refugees. Worldwide remittance flows in 2015 are estimated to be over $601 billion, from which developing countries received about $432 billion, only 0.4 per cent above 2014. The combined debt of Governments, households and non-financial firms reached an all-time high of $152 trillion in 2015, or 225 per cent of world gross product (WGP). Private sector debt accounts for approximately two thirds of the total debt stock.
Implementation of General Assembly resolution 67/226 on the quadrennial comprehensive policy review of operational activities for development of the United Nations system: funding analysis, Report of the Secretary-General. Financing had shifted from an early reliance on mandatory assessed contributions towards voluntary un-earmarked resources, and increasingly, to strictly earmarked funding.
UNHRC: Report of the Special Rapporteur on the issue of human rights obligations relating to the enjoyment of a safe, clean, healthy and sustainable environment, A/HRC/34/49, 19 January 2017
Implementation of the United Nations system-wide action plan on indigenous peoples, Note by the secretariat, 7 February 2017, E/C.19/2017/2
The UN development system and its operational activities for development: Updating the definitions, A report prepared for the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs for the 2016 Quadrennial Comprehensive Policy Review. John Burley and Douglas Lindores, Independent Experts, 5 February 2016
United Nations Evaluation Group: Norms and Standards for Evaluation, New York: UNEG. Evaluation Competency Framework, New York: UNEG.
External debt sustainability and development, Report of the Secretary-General, 2 August 2016, A/71/276. The total external debt stocks of developing countries and economies in transition reached approximately $6.8 trillion in 2015, compared with $2.1 trillion in 2000, while exports grew from $1.5 trillion in 2000 to $6.9 trillion in 2015. Total debt stocks in sub-Saharan Africa increased from $213 billion in 2000 to $413 billion in 2015.
Global Partnership for Effective Development Co-operation: Nairobi Outcome Document, second High-Level Meeting, Nairobi, Kenya, 28 November-1 December 2016
United Nations, OECD: Total official support for sustainable development, Committee for Development Policy, and TOSSD: a New Statistical Measure for the SDG Era, OECD/DAC
Implementation of General Assembly resolution 67/226 on the quadrennial comprehensive policy review of operational activities for development of the United Nations system: funding analysis, Report of the Secretary-General, A/72/61–E/2017/4, 28 December 2016. 34 funds, programmes and agencies of the United Nations system's funding for operational activities for development in 2015 accounted for almost 60 per cent ($26.7 billion) of total funding for United Nations system-wide activities ($44.6 billion), representing a decrease of 6.8 per cent in nominal terms compared with 2014. Peacekeeping operations accounted for 20 per cent ($8.8 billion), and the global norm and standard-setting, policy and advocacy functions of the United Nations system accounted for the remaining 20 per cent ($9.1 billion).
Development Policy Forum (DPF): Financing for Development: The challenge of implementing SDGs, Development Policy Forum (DPF) Roundtable, Spring 2015, Brussels
UN System Task Team's Working Group on "Financing for sustainable development" issues background papers: Chapter 1: Financing for sustainable development: Review of global investment requirement estimates; Chapter 2: The variety of national, regional and international public sources for development finance; Chapter 3: Challenges in raising private sector resources for financing sustainable development; Chapter 4: Public support to private investment for sustainable development: challenges and opportunities, with emphasis on the environmental pillar
State of South-South Cooperation in 2013: thematic developments, Group of 77 and China, United Nations system for South-South Cooperation, triangular cooperation, BRICS, least developed countries, Africa, South and Central America, ASEAN, South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum, and civil society organizations
Follow up Report (A/68/357)
General Assembly - External Debt: Report of the Secretary-General (A/68/203) on "External debt sustainability and development"
General Assembly - International Financial System and Development: Report of the Secretary-General (A/68/221) on "International financial system and development"
General Assembly - International Trade and Development: Report of the Secretary-General (A/68/205) on "International trade and development"
GA resolution 67/199, Report (A/67/339)
Framework of operational guidelines on United Nations support to South-South and triangular cooperation (2012)
Real-term decline in total contributions in 2011
GA resolution 66/191 , Report (A/66/329), Innovative mechanisms of financing for development
UN report 2011 on debt
Report of the Secretary-General's High-level Advisory Group on Climate Change Financing: Carbon market public revenues, International transport, Carbon-related revenues, Development bank instruments, Financial transaction tax, Direct budget contributions, Private finance, Carbon markets
UN report 2010,
Environmental Profile of the United Nations System Organizations: Review of their in-house environmental management policies and practices (2010)
UN report 2009
Progress report on innovative sources of development finance
Doha Declaration on Financing for Development: outcome document of the Follow-up International Conference on Financing for Development to Review the Implementation of the Monterrey Consensus, final text adopted in 2008
Trends in South-South and triangular development cooperation, Background Study for the Development Cooperation Forum, April 2008
Poverty, Health & Environment, June 2008
Triennial comprehensive policy review of operational activities of the United Nations development system
UN report on external debts 2006 UN report on external debts
UN report 2005 on external debts
World Economic and Social Survey 2005: Financing for Development
Rethinking the role of National Development Banks: a set of multi-stakeholder consultations during 2005-2007, in collaboration with NDBs, International Financial Institutions, Regional Development Banks, UN Regional Commissions and other interested parties from the official and private sectors, academia and civil society.
Triennial comprehensive policy review of operational activities for development of the United Nations system: conclusions and recommendations. resolution 59/250 adopted by the General Assembly
UN report 2004
2004 Background Paper on Innovative Approaches to Domestic Resource Mobilization in Selected LDCs, United Nations Committee for Development Policy, ST/ESA/2004/CDP/6
Innovative Approaches to Domestic Resource Mobilization in Selected LDCs (2004)
Innovative sources of financing for development
UN report 2003
UN report 2002 on debt
Monterrey Consensus of the International Conference on Financing for Development, final text adopted in 2002
Good Practice Paper: Towards Effective South-South and Triangular Cooperation
Report on the Secretary-General on finance and trade, E/CN.17/2001/PC/10, 2 March 2001
Finance and Trade (2001)
Report on the Secretary-General on financial resources and mechanisms, E/CN.17/2000/2, 26 January 2000
Financial Resources and Mechanisms, Eightth Session of Commission on Sustainable Development (2000)
Report on the Secretary-General on financial resources and mechanisms, E/CN.17/1997/2/Add.23, 22 January 1997
Financial Resources and Mechanisms, Fifth Session of Commission on Sustainable Development (1997)
Report on the Secretary-General on financial resources and mechanisms, E/CN.17/1996/4/Add.1, 22 February 1996
Financial Resources and Mechanisms, Fourth Session of Commission on Sustainable Development (1996)
1995 Second Expert Group Meeting on Financial Issues of Agenda 21 in Glen Cove, New York from 15 to 17 February 1995
Report of the Second Expert Group Meeting on Financial Issues of Agenda 21 (1995)

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA)
Memorandum of Understanding (UNFF, 15 December 2009)
2017 World Economic Situation and Prospects 2017. total net capital flows to developing countries and transition economies, which turned negative in 2014, are estimated to remain negative at least through 2017. This represents the longest multi-year reversal of flows since the United Nations began monitoring them in 1990. both concessional and non-concessional international public financial flows to developing countries rose in 2015, albeit modestly.
UN Statistics Division: The UN System of Environmental Economic Accounting and its implementation in pilot countries, by Ivo Havinga, UN Statistics Division: pilot countries include South Africa, Mauritius, Indonesia, Vietnam, Bhutan, Mexico, Chile
A guidebook to the Green Economy Issue 1: Green Economy, Green Growth, and Low-Carbon Development – history, definitions and a guide to recent publications, Division for Sustainable Development, UNDESA, August 2012
UNFF: Financing Flows and Needs to Implement the Non-Legally Binding Instrument on All Types of Forests: prepared for the Advisory Group on Finance of the Collaborative Partnership on Forests (2008)
UNFF. Innovative financial mechanisms: searching for viable alternatives to secure basis for the financial sustainability of forests, San José, Costa Rica, March 29 – April 1 2005
UNFF: Financing for sustainable forest management: current challenges in the changed financial environment (2003)
UNFF: Economic aspects of forests
Multisectoral Global Funds as instruments for financing spending on global priorities, Jeremy J. Heimans, September 2002, ST/ESA/2002/DP.24, DESA Discussion Paper No. 24. MGFs hold considerable promise as focal points for generating additional public and private resources to address urgent global problems and to finance global public goods. They are partnership-based and may be more operationally nimble than traditional mechanisms. However, MGFs may also result in a less coherent response to global problems, duplicate existing structures and lack democratic accountability.
UNFF. Financing Sustainable Forest Management: Report of the International Workshop of Experts, 22-25 January 2001, Oslo, Norway
International Workshop of Experts on Financing Sustainable Forest, Oslo, Norway, 22-25 January 2001: Record of Highlights of an International Workshop of Experts on Financing Sustainable Forest

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
Memorandum of Cooperation (21 March 2000);Memorandum of Cooperation (18 May 2000); Memorandum of Cooperation (14 January 2002); Memorandum of Cooperation (10 February 2004); Memorandum of Cooperation (27 March 2006); Letter of Intent (12 March 2007); Joint Work Programme (03 September 2009); Memorandum of Cooperation (20 September 2011); Joint Work Programme (20 February 2012); Internal Cooperation Agreement (13 March 2014)
Mainstreaming Biodiversity into Development Initiative: Guidance from African experience 2012-2017.

Green Finance Progress Report. The issuance of green bonds grew by around 100% to US$81 billion in 2016. Options: Provide strategic policy signals and frameworks; Promote voluntary principles for green finance; Expand learning networks for capacity-building; Support the development of local green bond markets; Promote international collaboration to facilitate cross-border investment in green bonds; Encourage and facilitate knowledge-sharing on environmental and financial risk; Improve the measurement of green finance activities and their impacts

Mobilizing Sustainable Finance for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises: Reviewing Experience and Identifying Options in the G7, UNEP: public financial institutions, banking, debt markets, impact investing, fintech.

Financial Centres for Sustainability: Reviewing G7 Financial Centres in Mobilizing Green and Sustainable Finance. UNEP: Green and Sustainable Finance Across Leading G7 Financial Centres.

Roadmap for a Sustainable Financial System, a UN Environment – World Bank Group Initiative, November 2017. Vision for a sustainable financial system, actions for a sustainable financial system: Governing policies, principles, mandates and instruments; National roadmaps for sustainable finance; Products, business models and technology; Information, capabilities and incentives; Public financing and related policy actions for sustainable development; Measuring progress.

2017: What Next for Green Finance, UNEP Inquiry into a Sustainable Financial System

The Principles for Positive Impact Finance: a common framework to finance the Sustainable Development Goals.

The Rise of Environ mental Crime – A Growing Threat To Natural Resources Peace, Development And Security. A UNEPINTERPOL Rapid Response Assessment. United Nations Environment Programme and RHIPTO Rapid Response–Norwegian Center for Global Analyses. Natural resources worth as much as USD 91 billion to USD 258 billion annually are being stolen by criminals, depriving countries of future revenues and development opportunities.
UNEP-WCMC and IUCN: Protected Planet Report 2016: How protected areas contribute to achieving global targets for biodiversity. UNEP-WCMC and IUCN. Just under 15% of the world's terrestrial and inland waters, just over 10% of the coastal and marine areas within national jurisdiction, and approximately 4% of the global ocean are covered by protected areas. Less than half of the world's 823 terrestrial ecoregions have at least 17% of their area in protected areas and only one third of the 232 marine ecoregions have at least 10% of their area protected. Less than 20% of Key Biodiversity Areas are completely protected.
The UNEP Environmental, Social and Economic Sustainability Framework employs two overarching Principles--the precautionary approach and human rights-based approach--plus nine Safeguard Standards, which are: biodiversity conservation; resource efficiency and pollution prevention; safety of dams; involuntary resettlement; indigenous peoples; labor and working conditions; protection of tangible cultural heritage; gender equality and economic sustainability. Implementation Guidelines
UNEP: Delivering the green economy through financial policy, including case studies on China Green Credit Policy, IFC Sustainable Banking Network, South Africa: Regulation 28, Stock Exchange Initiatives, Disclosure Initiatives, US: Insurance Regulation, United Kingdom: The Green Investment Bank, The Netherlands: Green Funds Scheme, South Korea: Green Growth Strategy.
Green Infrastructure Guide for Water Management: Ecosystem-based management approaches for water-related infrastructure projects.
Water supply regulation (incl. drought mitigation): (Grey: Dams and groundwater pumping, Water distribution systems) Re/afforestation and forest conservation, Reconnecting rivers to floodplains, Wetlands restoration/conservation, Constructing wetlands, Water harvesting, Green spaces (bioretention and infiltration), Permeable pavements.
Water quality regulation: Water purification (grey: Water treatment plant) - Re/afforestation and forest conservation, Riparian buffers, Reconnecting rivers to floodplains, Wetlands restoration/conservation, Constructing wetlands, Green spaces (bioretention and infiltration), Permeable pavements; Erosion control (grey: Reinforcement of slopes) - Re/afforestation and forest conservation, Riparian buffers, Reconnecting rivers to floodplains; Biological control (grey: Water treatment plant) - Re/afforestation and forest conservation, Riparian buffers, Reconnecting rivers to floodplains, Wetlands restoration/conservation, Constructing wetlands; Water temperature control (grey: Dams) - Re/afforestation and forest conservation, Riparian buffers, Reconnecting rivers to floodplains, Wetlands restoration/conservation, Constructing wetlands, Green spaces (shading of water ways).
Moderation of extreme events (floods): Riverine flood control (grey: Dams and levees) - Re/afforestation and forest conservation, Riparian buffers, Reconnecting rivers to floodplains, Wetlands restoration/conservation, Constructing wetlands, Establishing flood bypasses; Urban stormwater runoff (grey: Urban stormwater infrastructure) - Green roofs, Green spaces (bioretention and infiltration), Water harvesting, Permeable pavements; Coastal flood (storm) control (grey: Sea walls) - Protecting/restoring mangroves, coastal marshes and dunes, Protecting/restoring reefs (coral/oyster)
Sustainable Consumption and Production and the SDGs (2014)
REDD and beyond, TEEB
Environmental and Social Safeguards
The Environmental Crime Crisis – Threats to Sustainable Development from Illegal Exploitation and Trade in Wildlife and Forest Resources. A UNEP Rapid Response Assessment. United Nations Environment Programme and GRID-Arendal, Nairobi and Arendal.
Greening Business. Our Planet, the magazine of the United Nations Environment Programme, 2014.
Building Natural Capital: How REDD+ can Support a Green Economy, Report of the International Resource Panel, United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, Kenya, 2014. Summary for Policy Makers
Aligning the financial system with sustainable development: pathways to scale. Profiling financial innovations of 12 countries in four clusters related to particular financial asset pools — banks, bond markets, institutional investors and central bank balance sheets — and one cross - cutting policy tool: long-term environmental risk assessment.
Guidance Manual on Valuation and Accounting of Ecosystem Services for Small Island Developing States (SIDS). UNEP’s Ecosystem Services Economics Guidance Manual Series No. 2 under the Valuation and Accounting of Natural Capital for Green Economy (VANTAGE) programme and Regional Seas Reports and Studies No. 193.
Climate Finance for Cities and Buildings - A Handbook for Local Governments. UNEP Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (DTIE), Paris.
Building Inclusive Green Economies - Success Stories from South-South Cooperation, November 2013 2012
Why Value the Oceans (2012)
The Natural Capital Declaration Project: Policies to tackle deforestation risks linked to private finance, by Anders Nordheim, UNEP Finance Initiative
Principles for Sustainable Insurance
Keeping Track of Our Changing Environment: From Rio to Rio+20 (1992-2012)
Towards a Green Economy: Pathways to Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication - A Synthesis for Policy Makers, UNEP, 2011. It proposes a green investment scenario channelling capital amounting to 2% of global GDP (US$ 1,300 billion) to embark on a green economic transformation, one-quarter of this amount – 0.5% of GDP (US$ 325 billion) – is allocated to natural capital sectors: forestry, agriculture, freshwater, fisheries.
Towards a Green Economy: Pathways to Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication - full report. Investing in natural capital: agriculture, fisheries, water, forests. Investing in energy and resource efficiency: renewable energy, manufacturing, waste, buildings, transport, tourism, Tourism in the Green Economy, cities. Supporting the transition to a global green economy: modelling, enabling conditions, finance.
UNEP submission on GEF-6 programme priorities
Payments for ecosystem services (PES)
Fiduciary responsibility - institutional investment, July 2009
Fisheries Subsidies - Impacts and Options for Reform
Reforming Subsidies
Discussing the reform of irrigation subsidies
From Conflict to Peacebuilding: The Role of Natural Resources and the Environment. February 2009. Since 1990 at least eighteen violent conflicts have been fuelled by the exploitation of natural resources. Over the last sixty years at least forty percent of all intrastate conflicts have a link to natural resources. Civil wars such as those in Liberia, Angola and the Democratic Republic of Congo have centred on “high-value” resources like timber, diamonds, gold, minerals and oil. Other conflicts, including those in Darfur and the Middle East, have involved control of scarce resources such as fertile land and water.
The Economics of Biodiversity and Ecosystems: Scoping the Science. by Balmford, A., Rodrigues, A.S.L., Walpole, M., ten Brink, P., Kettunen, M., Braat, L. & de Groot, R. (2008). Cambridge, UK: European Commission (contract: ENV/070307/2007/486089/ETU/B2). Thematic issues: Wild crop pollination, biological control of crop pests, genetic diversity of crops and livestock, soil quality for crop production, livestock, marine fisheries, inland fisheries and aquaculture, wild animal products, fresh water provision, regulation, and purification, wild timber, plant fibres and fuel wood, wild medicinal plants, outdoors activities related to nature, regulation of natural hazards, one-time use benefits, non-use benefits, global climate regulation, unknown benefits or processes. Literature review, inventory of reserach organizations, programs and projects, key internet resources.
Reforming Energy Subsidies: Opportunities to Contribute to the Climate Change Agenda
A report of Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS) summarizes the main findings of a review of experiences, and identifies four main options for development assistance in support of pro-poor payments for ecosystem services
Sustainable Fisheries, International Payments for Ecosystem Services (IPES), Integrated Trade Assessment and Organic Agriculture
CEO Briefing: Finance for Carbon Solutions (2005)
Instruments in Biodiversity-related Multilateral Environmental Agreements
Analyzing the Resource Impact of Fisheries Subsidies: a Matrix Approach
Finance, Environment and Sustainable Development: An Expert Seminar on Corporate Responsibility and Capital Markets Managing Qualitative Risk Issues (2003)
Climate Change & The Financial Services Industry: Module 1 – Threats and Opportunities, Module 2 – A Blueprint For Action (2002)
The Valuation of Biological Diversity for National Biodiversity Action (2000).
WCMC: A Global Review of Protected Area Budgets and Staff (1999)
Opportunities and Challenges for Business and Industry: A Report of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
Developing markets for green goods and services
Investing in ecological infrastructure
Developing International Payments for Ecosystem Services: Towards a greener world economy
UNEP - Seeing REDD: The Opportunity for a Climate-Conservation Double Dividend Through Avoided Deforestation
Developing International Payments for Ecosystem Services (IPES) – Greening the World Economy, a joint IUCN-UNEP initiative
TEEB: The economics of Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS)
Biodiversity decline can increase the spread of infectious diseases
The economic value of world’s wetlands
The Valuation of Biological Diversity for National Biodiversity Action Plans and Strategies: A Guide for Trainers
An introduction to ecosystem accounting
Strengthening indicators and accounting systems for natural capital
The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity for Water and Wetlands
Recognising the value of protected areas
Towards the reform of environmentally harmful subsidies
Perverse and positive incentives: working insights from TEEB
Subsidies: Lessons Learned in Assessing their Impact and Designing Policy Reforms
Tax and compensation mechanisms to reward stewardship, Green Public Procurement (GPP)
Section on the Current Expenditures in UNEP Guidelines for Country Studies on Biological Diversity (October 1993)
The UNEP Statement of Commitment by Financial Institutions on Sustainable Development: it represents the backbone of the Initiative. By signing up to the Statement, financial institutions openly recognize the role of the financial services sector in making our economy and lifestyles sustainable and commit to the integration of environmental and social considerations into all aspects of their operations.

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP, UNCDF and UNV))
Memorandum of Cooperation (08 August 2003); Memorandum of Cooperation (27 March 2006); Memorandum of Understanding (27 May 2008); Memorandum of Understanding (26 October 2010); Memorandum of Cooperation (20 September 2011)
Guide to improving the budget and funding of national protected area systems. Lessons from Chile, Guatemala and Peru, July 2012 – April 2014. M. Flores and A. Bovarnick, UNDP
Getting to Zero: A Poverty, Environment and Climate Call to Action for the Sustainable Development Goals. Zero extreme poverty, zero net natural asset loss, zero net greenhouse gas emissions.
Environmental and Social Safeguards
Mainstreaming Environment and Climate for Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Development: A Handbook to Strengthen Planning and Budgeting Processes, Second edition, UNDP-UNEP Poverty-Environment Initiative. Mainstreaming into National Planning Processes: Integrating Poverty-Environment Objectives into National Development Planning Processes, Identifying Opportunities for Implementing Mainstreamed National Development Plans. Mainstreaming into Budgeting Processes: Mainstreaming into the Budget Formulation Process, Mainstreaming into the Budget Execution Process, Mainstreaming into Budget Monitoring and Oversight, Mainstreaming into Fiscal Policy: Environmental Fiscal Reforms and incentives for Private Investment, Bringing It All Together: Developing a Climate Fiscal Framework, Quick Reference Checklist: Mainstreaming into Budget Processes. Mainstreaming into Sector Strategies and Subnational Plans and Budgets: Integrating Poverty-Environment Objectives in Sector Strategies, Planning and Budgeting at the Subnational Level, Ecosystem-Based Approaches and Experience to Inform Subnational Planning and Budgeting. Mainstreaming into National Monitoring Processes: Integrating Poverty-Environment Objectives into National Monitoring Systems, Tracking Budgets and Expenditures, Going Beyond GDP: Towards More Holistic Measurement of Growth and Human Well-Being. Managing Private Investment in Natural Resources: Impact and Implications of FDI on Host Countries, Establishing an Economic and Institutional Environment and Implementing Policies to Attract and Manage FDI, Reviewing Investment Proposals, Negotiating Investment Contracts, Monitoring Investor Compliance with Relevant Laws and Contracts.
Breaking Down the Silos: Integrating environmental sustainability in the post-2015 agenda
Changing with the World: UNDP Strategic Plan: 2014–17
Tourism Concessions in Protected Natural Areas: Guidelines for Managers; Appendix
Targeted Scenario Analysis: A new approach to capturing and presenting ecosystem service values for decision making.
Stories of Change from the Joint UNDP-UNEP Poverty-Environment Initiative. Bangladesh pioneers new ‘climate change accounts’ to reveal the real cost of adaptation. Lao PDR new rulebook for foreign investment in natural resources boosts local benefits. Malawi changes course after analysing the real costs and benefits of policy choices. Tajikistan overhauls their whole planning process with the ‘triple bottom line’. Uruguay uses the law to catalyse the transition to an inclusive green economy.
Annual Report 2013: Support Global Progress
The Global Partnership for Development: The Challenge We Face, MDG Gap Task Force Report 2013
The Millennium Development Goals Report 2013
United Nations Development Programme Biodiversity and Ecosystems Global Framework 2012-2020
The Climate Public Expenditure and Institutional Review (CPEIR): a methodology to review climate policy, institutions and expenditure (2012)
Integrating Climate Change Risks and Opportunities into National Development Processes and UN Country Programming (2012)
Energy Subsidies in the Arab World)
The Biodiversity Finance Initiative (BIOFIN): global overview and first lessons, by Yves de Soye, UNDP
International Guidebook of Environmental Finance Tools: Executive Summary (2012), Chapter 1: Objectives, Tools and Definitions , Conclusions and Recommendations, Chapter 4: Protected Areas, Chapter 5: Sustainable Agriculture, Chapter 6 – Sustainable Forestry
Enabling Local Success: A Primer on Mainstreaming Local Ecosystem-Based Solutions to Poverty-Environment Challenges. Diagnostics for Local Ecosystem-Based Solutions: Resource Potential of the Site; Resource Ownership and Access Rights; Market Conditions and Regulatory Environment; Finance Needs, Sources and Services; Institutional Design and Governance; Local Capacity Needs; Support Services; Networks and Linkages
Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation into Development Planning: A Guide for Practitioners (2011). Finding the Entry Points and Making the Case: Entry points for adaptation mainstreaming agreed on and related roadmap taken into account in the workplan for the next stage of the effort, Key ministries (e.g. environment, finance, planning, sectors) and other non-governmental actors (e.g. representatives of communities and the private sector) relevant to the agreed entry points are members of the steering committee or task force of the adaptation mainstreaming effort, Adaptation mainstreaming champions liaising with in-country donor coordination mechanisms, Increased awareness that poor people are likely to be the most affected by climate change, that national development goals and key sector strategies (e.g. agriculture, health, energy, tourism) can be affected by climate change and that national development and sectors can in turn affect the vulnerability of the country and the poor, Activities to be implemented in collaboration with finance and planning or relevant sector ministries included in the workplan for the following stage of the effort. Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation into Policy Processes: Country-specific evidence collected on the costs and benefits of climate change and adaptation (e.g. impact, vulnerability and adaptation assessment, socio-economic analysis, demonstration projects), Adaptation and its links to development and poverty reduction included in the working documents produced during the targeted policy process (e.g. documents produced by the working groups of the relevant national, sector and subnational planning processes), Adaptation and its links to development and poverty reduction included as a priority in the completed policy documents of the targeted policy process (e.g. poverty reduction strategy paper, MDG strategy, relevant sector or subnational plan), Climate-proofed and specific adaptation policy measures for climate change adaptation costed by finance and planning or sector ministries and subnational bodies. Meeting the Implementation Challenge: Adaptation-related indicators linked to policy documents of national development planning, integrated in the national monitoring system, Increased budget allocations and public expenditures for adaptation policy measures of nonenvironment ministries and subnational bodies, Adaptation mainstreaming established as standard practice in government and administrative processes, procedures and systems (e.g. budget call circulars, systematic inclusion of adaptation in public expenditure reviews, coordination mechanisms, systematic climate-proofing, monitoring).
Catalyzing Climate Finance: A Guidebook on Policy and Financing Options to Support Green, Low-Emission and Climate-Resilient Development —Version 1.0. April 2011.
Managing Private Investment in Natural Resources: A Primer for Pro-Poor Growth and Environmental Sustainability. Investment Promotion and Preparedness, Investment Approval and Contract Negotiation, Law Enforcement and Monitoring of Investment Projects.
Financial Sustainability of Protected Areas in Latin America and the Caribbean: Investment Policy Guidance, by Andrew Bovarnick, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and The Nature Conservancy (TNC). Official data from 19 countries studied show that total available resources for PA systems in the region are nearly $402 million per year: 60 percent from central government, annual budgeted funds specific for PAs; 15 percent international cooperation; 14 percent from site-based revenues; 11 percent are noted as “Other”. Estimates on the basic management needs for national PA systems, aggregated for the region, show a financing gap (available funds minus financial needs) for PAs of $314 million/year (excluding Venezuela) to simply address basic management activities. The PA financing gap to achieve a more rigorous management (optimal needs) is approximately $700 million/year (excluding Venezuela).
Financial Sustainability Scorecard: for National Systems of Protected Areas, 2nd Edition, 2010
Financial Sustainability of Protected Areas in Latin America and the Caribbean: Investment Policy Guidance (2010)
Integrated Solutions: Water, Biodiversity, and the Clean Development Mechanism (2009)
Privatization and Renationalization: What Went Wrong in Bolivia's Water Sector? (2009)
Mainstreaming Poverty-Environment Linkages into Development Planning: A Handbook for Practitioners (2009). The programmatic approach: Finding the entry points and making the case; Mainstreaming poverty-environment linkages into policy processes; Meeting the implementation challenge.
Making the Economic Case: A Primer on the Economic Arguments for Mainstreaming Poverty-Environment Linkages into National Development Planning. Framing the argument: treating the environment base as an economic asset, emphasizing the economic returns from environmental investment, understanding human and economic well-being outcomes, addressing climate change and its economic impacts. Demonstrating the benefits: achieving national economic growth and upholding sector output, generating public revenues, reducing expenditures, alleviating and reducing poverty, meeting the millennium development goals. Preparing the evidence base: key points in data compilation, existing economic, environmental and poverty statistics, case studies on specific linkages between the environment, the economy and poverty. Making the case: converting data into arguments, packaging the data for relevance to the policy agenda, communicating the evidence, recognizing the limitations of economic arguments. Forestry accounts for more than 10 percent of GDP in many of the world’s poorest countries. .In all developing countries taken together, the forestry sector provides formal employment for 10 million people and informal employment for another 30 to 50 million people.
Scaling Up Support to the MDGs: Final draft approved by UNDP MDG Steering Committee, July 2008
Making REDD work for the Poor (2008)
Energy Subsidies in Developing Countries: Can we make it for those whom it is intended?
Can Privatization and Commercialization of Public Services Help Achieve the MDGs? An Assessment (2006)
Investing in Enviornmental Wealth for Poverty Reduction: Annotated Bibliography (2006). Environment and development (poverty and environment, mainstreaming environment in policies and strategies, millennium development goals (mdgs), sustainable development and the environment, health and education (and links to other mdgs), income, growth and poverty, governance, institutions and social capital), Natural resources and pollution (air pollution, climate change, coastal and marine, land use and land degradation, forests (timber and non-timber forest products), wetlands and water, wildlife and protected areas), Economic sector (agriculture (soil, pollination, crop/livestock diversity), built environment (housing, solid waste, transport), energy, fisheries/ aquaculture, mining and minerals), Economic incentives (discount rates and time preference, market-based instruments, including payments for ecosystem services, valuation of environmental resources, subsidies).
Making Progress on Environmental Sustainability: Lessons and recommendations from a review of over 150 MDG country experiences, UNDP, October 2006. Target setting: Of the 158 countries reviewed, 85 (54 percent) have set at least one country-specific environmental target for achieving MDG 7. Reporting: While all countries report on at least one global environmental indicator, MDG 7 reporting overall is weak. Only eight of the 158 countries report on all global indicators. Progress: Reporting on MDG 7 progress appears to be hampered by either an actual or a perceived lack of data. MDG linkages: Environmental issues are not highly integrated into the MDG country reports outside of MDG 7 specifically. Regional variation: The extent of tailoring and monitoring MDG 7 differs significantly by region and is often linked to varying national priorities and needs. Monitoring challenges: Countries face many challenges in monitoring the MDG 7 indicators. Obstacles to progress: Countries also face difficulties in attempting to make progress on MDG 7. Lack of political will, pressure on environmental resources from high use and natural disasters, insufficient governance and planning policies, social unrest and lack of financial resources are among the challenges contributing to lack of environmental sustainability.
Financial Sustainability of Protected Areas in Latin America and the Caribbean: Investment Policy Guidance
Assessing Environment's Contribution in Poverty Reduction
Investing in Environmental Wealth for Poverty Reduction. Estimating a global budget for investments in environmental assets needed to reach poverty reduction targets is subject to considerable uncertainty; however, the best available evidence suggests that US$60-90 billion per year will be needed to address poverty-environment goals over the next 10-15 years, and at least US$80 billion more per year will be needed to tackle global climate change over the next half century.
Ecotourism Development: A Manual for Conservation Planners and Managers (2004)
Biodiversity and the Millennium Development Goals
Global Public Goods Financing: New Tools for New Challenges
Investing in Development: the Millennium Development Goals, Aid and Sustainable Capital Accumulation
Domestic Resource Mobilization, Fiscal Space, and the Millennium Development Goals: Implications for Debt Sustainability
External Debt and the Millennium Development Goals: A New Sustainable Framework
Beyond carBon: ecosystem-based benefits of redd+
Blending Climate Finance Through National Climate Funds: A Guidebook for the Design and Establishment of National Funds to Achieve Climate Change Priorities
REDD+ Benefit Sharing: A Comparative Assessment of Three National Policy Approaches
The REDD Opportunities Scoping Exercise (ROSE): A Tool for Prioritizing Sub-National REDD Opportunities and Constraints
Generating carbon finance through avoided deforestation and its potential to create climatic, conservation and human development benefits
Enhancing South-South and Triangular Cooperation: Study of the Current Situation and Existing Good Practices in Policy, Institutions, and Operation of South-South and Triangular Cooperation, Study commissioned by the Special Unit for South-South Cooperation, UNDP
Enhancing Management Practices in South-South and Triangular Cooperation Study on Country-Led Practices
Leveraging South-South cooperation and triangular cooperation
Local Business for Global Biodiversity Conservation: Improving the Design of Small Business Development Strategies in Biodiversity Projects
Green Commodities Facility
Katoomba Ecosystem Services Incubator: Linking local producers and communities to ecosystem services markets
Fisheries sector
Workshop Report: Financing of Sustainable Forest Management (1999)

United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
Private Fundraising and Partnerships: financial report for the year ended 31 December 2016. E/ICEF/2017/AB/L.6, 14 July 2017. This document presents the financial and non-financial results achieved by the UNICEF Private Fundraising and Partnerships (PFP) Division, together with the National Committees for UNICEF and country offices. Total private sector revenue for the year met the Private Fundraising and Partnerships Plan target for 2016 of $1.33 billion, of which $623 million is Regular Resources and $709 million is Other Resources. 2014
The UNICEF Strategic Plan, 2014-2017: Realizing the rights of every child, especially the most disadvantaged
Annual Report 2012

United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)
Memorandum of Cooperation (15 October 2006); Memorandum of Cooperation (28 March 2007); Memorandum of Cooperation (20 September 2011)

United Nations World Food Programme (WFP)
WFP Strategic Plan (2014–2017)

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
UNHCR Global Appeal 2014-2015 - Identifying needs and funding requirements

World Health Organization (WHO)
Memorandum of Understanding (23 July 2015)
Financing Universal Water, Sanitation And Hygiene Under The Sustainable Development Goals. UN-Water Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking-Water (GLAAS) 2017 report. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017. Annual government WASH budgets are increasing at an annual average rate of 4.9% after adjusting for inflation. More than 80% of countries report insufficient financing to meet national WASH targets, let alone the higher levels of service that are the focus of the SDGs. Water and sanitation ODA disbursements (spending) increased from US$ 6.3 to US$ 7.4 billion from 2012 to 2015. However, aid commitments for water and sanitation have declined since 2012: global aid commitments decreased from US$ 10.4 to US$ 8.2 billion, and aid commitments to sub-Saharan Africa decreased from US$ 3.8 billion to US$ 1.7 billion from 2012 to 2015. The World Bank estimates that financing WASH will require US$114 billion annually until the year 2030.
Inheriting a sustainable world? Atlas on children’s health and the environment, and The Impact of the Environment on Children's Health. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017. In 2015, 5.9 million children under age five died. The major causes of child deaths globally are pneumonia, prematurity, intrapartum-related complications, neonatal sepsis, congenital anomalies, diarrhoea, injuries and malaria. Most of these diseases and conditions are at least partially caused by the environment. It was estimated in 2012 that 26% of childhood deaths and 25% of the total disease burden in children under five could be prevented through the reduction of environmental risks such as air pollution, unsafe water, sanitation and inadequate hygiene or chemicals.
Biodiversity and health

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Memorandum of Cooperation (22 February 2001); Memorandum of Cooperation (25 February 2004); Memorandum of Cooperation (26 May 2005); Memorandum of Cooperation (28 October 2010); and Memorandum of Cooperation (20 September 2011)
FAO Strategy on Climate Change, Rome, July 2017. The document presents its work on three fronts: First, to enhance institutional and technical capacities of Member States. Second, to improve integration of food security, agriculture, forestry and fisheries within the international climate agenda. And third, to strengthen internal coordination and delivery of FAO’s work. Out of the 189 countries that had submitted INDCs as at 29 July 2016, 89 percent of all countries include agriculture and/or land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF) as a sector in their mitigation and/or adaptation contributions. LULUCF is referenced in 83 percent of all countries’ INDCs, and as such is second only to the energy sector. An estimated 15 percent of the project portfolio of FAO in 2016 can be identified as being dedicated to, or significantly associated with climate change.
OECD and FAO: OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2017-2026, OECD Publishing, Paris. Over the ten-year Outlook period, agricultural markets are projected to remain weak, with growth in China weakening and biofuel policies having less impact on markets than in the past. Future growth in crop production will be attained mostly by increasing yields, and growth in meat and dairy production from both higher animal stocks and improved yields. Agricultural trade is expected to grow more slowly, but remain less sensitive to weak economic conditions than trade in other sectors. These demand, supply and trade pressures are all evident in Southeast Asia, where this report identifies scope to improve agricultural productivity sustainably. Real prices are expected to remain flat or decline for most commodities.
FAO & World Bank: Aquaculture zoning, site selection and area management under the ecosystem approach to aquaculture. A handbook. Aguilar-Manjarrez, J., Soto, D. & Brummett, R. 2017. Report ACS18071. Rome, FAO, and World Bank Group, Washington, DC. 62 pp. Includes a USB card containing the full document (395 pp.).
The Future of Food and Agriculture: Trends and Challenges. The world’s population is expected to grow to almost 10 billion by 2050, boosting agricultural demand – in a scenario of modest economic growth – by some 50 percent compared to 2013. Income growth in low- and middle-income countries would hasten a dietary transition towards higher consumption of meat, fruits and vegetables, relative to that of cereals, requiring commensurate shifts in output and adding pressure on natural resources. Around 700 million people, most of them living in rural areas, are still extremely poor today. Almost 800 million people are chronically hungry and 2 billion suffer micronutrient deficiencies. Needed is a transformative process towards ‘holistic’ approaches, such as agroecology, agro-forestry, climate-smart agriculture and conservation agriculture, which also build upon indigenous and traditional knowledge.
Forty years of community-based forestry, a review of its extent and effectiveness, Don Gilmour, FAO Forestry Paper 176. CBF regimes encompass about 732 million hectares, or about 28 percent of the forests in the 62 countries. The forest area in these countries represents 65 percent of the world’s 3,999 million hectares of global forest cover in 234 countries and territories.
State of Food and Agriculture: Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security. Sustainable productivity increase can be an effective means to remove pressure for land use change and encroachment into natural forests.
FAO Corporate Environmental Responsibility Policy.
World Agriculture towards 2015/2030
Coping with climate change - the roles of genetic resources for food and agriculture.
Voluntary Guidelines to Support the Integration of Genetic Diversity into National Climate Change Adaptation Planning.
The 2015 Evaluation of FAO’s contribution to climate change adaptation and mitigation noted that FAO has unique strengths with which to address CCAM, and advised that results could be optimized through strategic changes in the way FAO currently works on climate change. 2014
Building a common vision for Sustainable Food and Agriculture.
Medium Term Plan 2014-17 and Programme of Work and Budget 2014-15
Tackling climate change through livestock: a global assessment of emissions and mitigation opportunities.
Tackling climate change through livestock: a global assessment of emissions and mitigation opportunities. Livestock, including feed crops, contributes approximately a third of GHG emissions from the AFOLU sector. FAO estimates that a reduction of up to 30 percent can be achieved through improved feed and stock management.
International Requirements for Organic Certification Bodies
Organic Agriculture’s Contribution to Sustainability (2013)
The Organic Guarantee System: The need and strategy for harmonisation and equivalence (2003)
Organic Agriculture and Nature Conservation
Climate change guidelines for forest managers
FAO policy on gender equality.
Strategy for fisheries, aquaculture and climate change.
FAO Organization-wide Strategy on partnerships.
In 2011, FAO provided an extensive framework for climate change adaptation: FAO-Adapt.
Potential effects of climate change on crop pollination
In 2010, FAO launched the concept of climate-smart agriculture (CSA), an approach designed to help develop the technical, policy and investment conditions to achieve sustainable agricultural development for food security under climate change.
Reviewed Strategic Framework 2010-19
Corporate Strategy on capacity development.
FAO policy on indigenous and tribal peoples.
FAO, forests and climate change
TCP Manual: Managing the decentralized Technical Cooperation Programme, December 2009
Public-Private Partnership for Enhancing Organic Agriculture Trade – A Report of the Interdepartmental Working Group on Organic Agriculture (2009)
Comparative Analysis of Organic and Non-Organic Farming Systems: A Critical Assessment of Farm Profitability (2009)
Climate Change: Implications for Food Safety.
Food Import and Export Inspection and Certification Systems (2007)
Website or The State of Food and Agriculture 2007 – Paying Farmers for Environmental Services, featuring examples including Australia, Brazil, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, Nepal, Nicaragua, Philippines, South Africa, USA
Asia-Pacific Forestry Commission, Payment for Environmental Services, Secretariat Note APFC/2006/6, Twenty-First Session, Dehradun, India, 17-21 April 2006
Guide for identifying, assessing and reporting on subsidies in the fisheries sector
Payment schemes for environmental services in watersheds, land and water discussion paper 3. While in the JAPOE case in Honduras providers are paid by means of tools and knowledge to improve the productive practices, in other regions of relatively high income – such as the PROCUENCAS case in Costa Rica – up to US$735/ha/year are paid for reforestation. The latter figure differs from the US$12 paid to landowners for forest conservation in Pimampiro, Ecuador. On the other hand, the scale of the schemes varies considerably. For instance, while in the Achuapa case, Nicaragua, the PES scheme makes payments to 16 producers, Costa Rica has implemented a national programme for environmental service payments (FONAFIFO). Regional Forum for Payment Schemes for Environmental Services in Watersheds, June 2003, Arequipa, Peru, featuring experiences of Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama and Peru.
Product certification and ecolabelling for fisheries sustainability (2001)
Market Prospects for Organic Food and Beverages (1998)
Organization-wide Strategy on Partnerships; FAO Strategy for Partnerships with Civil Society; FAO Strategy for Partnerships with the Private Sector
Environmental and Social Safeguards
Preparation of the State of the World's Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture
FAO’s South-South Cooperation Strategy
BIOFUELS: prospects, risks and opportunities
International cooperation and resource mobilization for sustainable forestry development

United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA)

United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)
Population Dynamics in the Post-2015 Development Agenda: Report of the Global Thematic Consultation on Population Dynamics
Financial resource flows for population activities in 2011
The Demography of Adaptation to Climate Change
Population Matters for Sustainable Development

International Labour Organization (ILO)
Proposals for the statistical definition and measurement of green jobs
Introduction to policies and programmes for green jobs 2012
South-South Cooperation and Decent Work: Good Practices
Tripartite Declaration of Principles concerning Multinational Enterprises and Social Policy
Working towards sustainable development: Opportunities for decent work and social inclusion in a green economy
Mainstreaming environmental issues in sustainable enterprises: An exploration of issues, experiences and options
Assessing green jobs potential in developing countries
Skills for Green Jobs: A Global View
An enabling environment for sustainable enterprises

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
Memorandum of Cooperation (14 September 1997); Memorandum of Cooperation (11 May 1998) and Memorandum of Cooperation (20 September 2011)
Wastewater: The Untapped Resource. The United Nations World Water Development Report 2017. Paris, UNESCO. On average, high-income countries treat about 70% of the municipal and industrial wastewater they generate. That ratio drops to 38% in upper middle-income countries and to 28% in lower middle-income countries. In low-income countries, only 8% undergoes treatment of any kind. These estimates support the often-cited approximation that, globally, over 80% of all wastewater is discharged without treatment. The benefits to society of managing human waste are considerable, for public health as well as for the environment. For every US$1 spent on sanitation, the estimated return to society is US$5.5. Financing centralized wastewater infrastructure is dominated by capital costs. In most countries, new infrastructure has been financed through transfers of public money. Several low-income countries rely primarily on aid transfers to finance their water and sanitation sectors. By 2030, global demand for energy and water is expected to grow by 40% and 50%, respectively.
Shaping the Education of Tomorrow. 2012 Report on the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development
Biodiversity in UNESCO
Education for sustainable development: Sourcebook

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
IAEA Medium Term Strategy (2012-2017)
Guidelines for Remediation Strategies to Reduce the Radiological Consequences of Environmental Contamination, Technical Reports Series 475
Technical Cooperation Strategy (GOV/INF/824)
Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency (INFCIRC/267)

International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
Memorandum of Cooperation (20 September 2011)
Environment Report 2013 Sustainable Alternative Aviation Fuels Activity
Flightpath to a Sustainable Future (Rio+20 Review)
ICAO's Policies on Charges for Airports and Air Navigation Services, Doc 9082/6
ICAO's Policies on Taxation in the Field of International Air Transport, Doc 8632

International Maritime Organization (IMO)
IMO and the Environment
IMO’s contribution to sustainable maritime development: Capacity-building for safe, secure and efficient shipping on clean oceans through the Integrated Technical Co-operation Programme

Universal Postal Union (UPU)
Sustainable Development Project Group report on the activities 2008-2012

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
Memorandum of Understanding (17 June 2002)
WIPO Development Tools and Services (WIPO/PUB/1015)
A Stronger Voice: The WIPO Voluntary Fund (WIPO/PUB/936)
WIPO-UNEP Study on the Role of Intellectual Property Rights in the Sharing of Benefits Arising from the Use of Biological Resources and Associated Traditional Knowledge (WIPO/PUB/769)
Draft Intellectual Property Guidelines for Access to Genetic Resources and Equitable Sharing of the Benefits arising from their Utilization

World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
WMO Strategic Plan 2012-2015 (WMO-No. 1069)

The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)
Memorandum of Cooperation (04 September 2009), and Memorandum of Cooperation (20 September 2011) 2017
UNWTO, UNEP: Travellers need to start making sustainable choices, Bangkok Post, 24 January 2017. Tourist spending swelled from only US$2 billion (70.6 billion baht) in 1950 to $1.2 trillion in 2015. The number of international tourists has grown by orders of magnitude as well, from 25 million travelled in 1950 to 1.2 billion in 2015. Tourism generates an estimated 5% (to 12.5%) of global greenhouse gas emissions. By 2020 it is estimated that the number of global tourists will reach 1.6 billion. Domestic tourism is even bigger: it is estimated that between five and six billion people take holidays at home. Sustainable tourism still only represents 1% of the global industry. The potential in tourism going green is massive.
UNWTO Annual Report 2012
UNWTO Technical Product Portfolio 2011
Sustainable Tourism for Development Guidebook: Enhancing capacities for Sustainable Tourism for development in developing countries
World Trade Report 2006: Exploring the Links between Subsidies, Trade and the WTO

International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
Memorandum of Cooperation (20 September 2011)
South-south Cooperation in IFAD’s Operating Model, South-South cooperation in IFAD’s business model
IFAD Partnership Strategy 2012
IFAD Strategic Framework 2011-2015
Environmental and Social Safeguards
Agri-Environmental Measures in Europe and North America
Climate change strategy
Private-Sector Strategy: Deepening IFAD’s engagement with the private sector
Private Sector Policy: Development and Partnership Strategy
Environment and Natural Resource Management: IFAD’s Growing Commitment
Certification schemes, eco-tourism
Sharing the benefits from genetic resources

Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
Smart investments

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC, UNDCP)
Fundraising Strategy 2012-2015

United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
OCHA in 2012 & 2013: Plan and Budget

United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN-Women)
UN Women Fund for Gender Equality, UN Trust Fund to End Violence against Women

United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)
Memorandum of Cooperation (07 September 2001) and Memorandum of Cooperation (16 July 2007)
Annual Report 2012
Environmental and Social Safeguards

United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT)
Memorandum of Understanding (20 September 2011)
Guide to Financing Infrastructure and Basic Services; Working with Nature: Urban Patterns for a Green Economy; Guide to Municipal Finance

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)

United Nations University
Memorandum of Understanding (10 October 2011) and Memorandum of Understanding (11 January 2016)
A Development-focused Allocation of the Special Drawing Rights, DP2004/03
A Development-focused Allocation of the Special Drawing Rights (2004)
Inter-linkages in Financing Sustainable Development: Synergies and Coordination among Multilateral Environmental Agreements
The International Finance Facility: The UK HM Treasury–DFID Proposal to Increase External Finance to Developing Countries (2003), DP2003/79
A Global Lottery and a Global Premium Bond (2003), DP2003/80
Revenue Potential of the Currency Transaction Tax for Development Finance: A Critical Appraisal , DP2003/81
Private Donations for International Development , DP2003/82. Giving to the UN, tax incentives to donors, new forms of corporate giving, the Internet, donor education
The Revenue and Double Dividend Potential of Taxes on International Private Capital Flows and Securities Transactions, DP2003/83
Environmental Taxation and Revenue for Development (2003), DP2003/86
Innovative Sources for Development Finance: Over-Arching Issues , DP2003/88
Remittances by Emigrants: Issues and Evidence , DP2003/89
Innovative Sources of Development Finance: Global Cooperation in the Twenty-first Century (2002), DP2002/98
Financing the Provision of Global Public Goods (2002) , DP2002/110
UNU-IAS Report: Bioprospecting in Antarctica
UNU-IAS Report: Bioprospecting of Genetic Resources in the Deep Seabed: Scientific, Legal and Policy Aspects

Economic Commission for Africa (ECA
) Memorandum of Understanding (25 October 2007)

Economic Commission for Europe (ECE)
Memorandum of Understanding (26 October 2010)

Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)
Memorandum of Understanding (25 October 2007)

Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP)
Innovative Financing for Development in Asia and the Pacific: Government Policies on Impact Investment and Public Finance for Innovation. The UN estimates that achieving the SDGs will require additional US$2.5 trillion. The report offers six general recommendations: leverage national and transboundary knowledge networks to involve a wide range of actors, including civil society; develop an impact investing road map; promote problem-solving approaches to public funding for innovation, including through cross-ministry collaboration and communication between the scientific and civil society communities; review and adopt a regulatory framework that supports innovative financing for the SDGs, for example, through a CSR Law or policies that support social enterprises; align innovative financing with broad development strategies; and adopt an interative cycle of experimentation and evaluation to ascertain ‘what works’.

Sustainable Social Development in Asia and the Pacific: Towards a People-Centred Transformation, May 2017. An annual investment of 8% of the Asia-Pacific’s GDP will be needed to achieve the SDGs in the region by 2030, which is around US$800 billion a year.
ESCAP, ABD, UNDP: Asia-Pacific Sustainable Development Goals Outlook, March 2017. In 2014, almost half of the region (24 countries) had protected terrestrial areas, totalling almost 3.2 million square kilometres and accounting for 13.9 per cent of the land in these countries. Bhutan and Brunei Darussalam have protected areas that are more than 40 per cent of their surface area (Bhutan at 49.2 per cent and Brunei Darussalam at 36.4 per cent in 2014), while China and India have made progress in expanding forest and protected area coverage. Between 2000 and 2015, roughly 135,333 square kilometres of natural forest area (calculated as forest area minus planted forest) was lost in the region, roughly three times the size of Denmark, and accounting for 10.6 per cent of the world’s total natural forest loss. The largest loss was registered in South-East Asia, which lost around 158,862.
Sustainable Development Financing: Perspectives from Asia and the Pacific

Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA

International Trade Centre (ITC)
International Trade Centre (ITC) (2015). The Trade in Wildlife: A Framework to Improve Biodiversity and Livelihood Outcomes

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

International trade and development, Report of the Secretary-General, A/72/274, 2 August 2017. The period 2015-2016 defines an inflexion point in the recent history of world trade towards a “new normal” for the international economy, yet this new normal remains to be defined. After the hyper-globalization of the 1990s and early 2000s, in 2008 and 2009 the world economy suffered one of its harshest recessions in history. Despite quickly rebounding in 2010, the world economy started losing steam thereafter, and hopes for a return to pre-crisis trends were dashed. The price of commodities and, to a lesser extent, manufactured goods declined, causing the nominal value of trade to contract substantially. The volume of trade itself was affected and, for the first time in 15 years, real trade growth dipped below the growth of world gross domestic product (GDP). South-South trade rose from one fifth to approximately one fourth of world trade, making it approximately equal to North-North trade. Since 2008, developing countries as a whole have been exporting more to the South than to the North.
World commodity trends and prospects, Report of the Secretary-General, A/72/254, 31 July 2017. 2016 marked the end of a five-year downward trend in commodity prices, which increased significantly during that year. However, falling commodity prices in the first four months of 2017 make it seem questionable whether there has been a real trend reversal. While the price increases of 2016 were good news for commodity-dependent developing countries, commodity prices overall remain significantly below their peak values in 2011.
External debt sustainability and development, Report of the Secretary-General, A/72/253, 31 July 2017.
Memorandum of Understanding (24 October 1997); Memorandum of Cooperation (27 March 2006); Memorandum of Cooperation (20 September 2011)
State of South-South and Triangular Cooperation in the Production, Use and Trade of Sustainable Biofuels

World Trade Organization (WTO)
Global Value Chain Development Report 2017: Measuring and Analyzing the Impact of GVCs on Economic Development. Global value chains (GVCs) break up the production process so different steps can be carried out in different countries. Many smart phones and televisions, for example, are designed in the United States or Japan. They have sophisticated inputs, such as semiconductors and processors, which are produced in the Republic of Korea or Chinese Taipei. And they are assembled in China. They are then marketed and receive after-sale servicing in Europe and the United States. These complex global production arrangements have transformed the nature of trade. But their complexity has also created difficulties in understanding trade and in formulating policies that allow firms and governments to capitalize on GVCs and to mitigate negative side effects. Global value chains were expanding until the global financial crisis.
The WTO Environmental Database (EDB) for 2014 covers information on: (i) environment-related measures notified under WTO Agreements; (ii) environment-related provisions of notified preferential or Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs); and (iii) environment-related measures mentioned in Trade Policy Reviews (TPRs). In 2014, of the 3,773 notifications submitted by WTO Members,4 14.6% or 551 notifications were environment-related. Between 1997 and 2014, there has been a sustained increase in the number of environment-related notifications to the WTO. The share of environment-related notifications as a percentage of total notifications has also grown over the same time period albeit with year-on-year fluctuations. In the sectoral analysis, the sector that was most frequently associated with notified environment-related measures was agriculture with 33% of all the identified measures. Other sectors covered in the 2014 EDB include, inter alia, manufacturing (20%), energy (16.1%), chemicals (11.7%) and services (11.4%). Forestry (5.5%) and fisheries (4.5%) were also among the sectors covered. Around 2.5% of the environment-related measures applied to all products or economic activities. Database in excel

  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme